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Radiative transfer is essential for obtaining information from the spectra of astrophysical objects. This volume provides an overview of the physical and mathematical background of radiative transfer, and its applications to stellar and planetary atmospheres. It covers the phenomenology and physics of early-type and late-type stars, as well as ultra-cool dwarf stars and extrasolar planets. Importantly, it provides a bridge between classical radiative transfer and stellar atmosphere modelling and novel approaches, from both theoretical and computational standpoints. With new fields of application and a dramatic improvement in both observational and computational facilities, it also discusses the future outlook for the field. Chapters are written by eminent researchers from across the astronomical disciplines where radiative transfer is employed. Using the most recent observations, this is a go-to resource for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.
One-lung ventilation in children undergoing non-cardiac surgery presents unique challenges that frequently require specialized equipment and creative solutions to achieve success. At the time of writing, the infrequency of these cases at any one institution limits our ability to perform prospective trials to compare different devices and approaches. As a result, most of the primary literature on this topic is based on individual experience and cases series. Despite this issue, this area of practice still continues to brim with innovation and creativity with multiple approaches leading to success.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
Options with extendable features have many applications in finance and these provide the motivation for this study. The pricing of extendable options when the underlying asset follows a geometric Brownian motion with constant volatility has appeared in the literature. In this paper, we consider holder-extendable call options when the underlying asset follows a mean-reverting stochastic volatility. The option price is expressed in integral forms which have known closed-form characteristic functions. We price these options using a fast Fourier transform, a finite difference method and Monte Carlo simulation, and we determine the efficiency and accuracy of the Fourier method in pricing holder-extendable call options for Heston parameters calibrated from the subprime crisis. We show that the fast Fourier transform reduces the computational time required to produce a range of holder-extendable call option prices by at least an order of magnitude. Numerical results also demonstrate that when the Heston correlation is negative, the Black–Scholes model under-prices in-the-money and over-prices out-of-the-money holder-extendable call options compared with the Heston model, which is analogous to the behaviour for vanilla calls.
A orillas de los ríos Guadalquivir (Baetis) y Genil (Singilis), en el triángulo formado por las capitales de tres conventus de la Bética, Hispalis, Corduba y Astigi, se extienden los restos arqueológicos de casi un centenar de alfarerías productoras de ánforas del tipo Dressel 20 (fig. 1). Durante los tres primeros siglos d.C., el aceite de oliva producido en el interior de la Bética se comercializaba con estas ánforas globulares que fueron exportadas masivamente a todo el Imperio romano, siendo particularmente abundantes en Roma y en el limes germano/británico.
Although both obesity and ageing are risk factors for cognitive impairment, there is no evidence in Chile on how obesity levels are associated with cognitive function. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adiposity levels and cognitive impairment in older Chilean adults. This cross-sectional study includes 1384 participants, over 60 years of age, from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as measures of adiposity. Compared with people with a normal BMI, the odds of cognitive impairment were higher in participants who were underweight (OR 4·44; 95 % CI 2·43, 6·45; P < 0·0001), overweight (OR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·06, 2·66; P = 0·031) and obese (OR 2·26; 95 % CI 1·31, 3·21; P = 0·003). The associations were robust after adjustment for confounding variables. Similar results were observed for WC. Low and high levels of adiposity are associated with an increased likelihood of cognitive impairment in older adults in Chile.
We describe Hedruris dratini n. sp. (Nematoda, Hedruridae) from Hydromedusa tectifera and Phrynops hilarii in Argentina based on morphological and molecular characters. Also, we provide information about its life cycle. The new species differs from other species of the genus by possessing the excretory pore, nerve ring and deirids at equal distance from the anterior end. Additionally, H. dratini n. sp. has mammilated eggs and males possess nine pairs of caudal papillae. The subadults and adults of H. dratini n. sp and H. orestiae were characterized by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S). We present for the first time a life cycle of a species of Hedruris that includes an amphipod as intermediate host and a reptile as definitive host. Furthermore, we analysed the host and geographic distribution of all Hedruris species. Although the genus has a cosmopolitan distribution and parasitizes a great host diversity, the majority of species have a Gondwanian distribution, with amphibians being the preferred hosts.
This article develops an integrative mixed methods framework grounded in stancetaking as the originary act through which qualitative interview and quantitative survey data are generated. The article examines how the basics of ‘everyday’ social stance—evaluation, positioning, and alignment within a sociocultural field—are strategically manipulated by social scientists in the twinned conditions of the interview and the survey. Relative to interview data, we demonstrate how participants link their stancetaking to wider sociocultural frames via the discursive devices of indexicality, accounting practices, and appeal to norms. Relative to survey data, we show how participants construct a ‘public’ via their engagement in the survey task, and how their stancetaking on survey items is virtually equivalent to ‘votes’ that are later aggregated to create second-order group-level stances. Mixed methods researchers then transform both qualitative and quantitative first-order stances into second-order stances that serve to describe and model social life. (Mixed methods, discourse devices, indexicality, normativity, interview, survey)
We report a case of a 13-year-old male with trisomy 21 in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, who presented with bilateral pneumonia, pericardial effusion, and peripheral oedema. The pericardial effusion did not respond to standard treatment options. Evaluation revealed severe dietary restriction, consistent with kwashiorkor. Hospital course was complicated by severe hypoalbuminaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, and hypophosphataemia. The pericardial effusion and other findings resolved gradually upon slow introduction of a well-balanced diet and adequate caloric and protein intake. Kwashiorkor is an unusual cause of pericardial effusion and can be overlooked especially in developed countries. It is a type of protein–calorie malnutrition often seen in children of impoverished countries and famine. It is a result of insufficient protein intake in the context of adequate caloric intake. Pericardial effusion not responding to usual treatment is a challenge, and other aetiologies must be considered. Malnutrition is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in developed countries with devastating outcomes if unrecognised. This makes it imperative to consider this diagnosis, recognise potential risk factors, and be prepared to accurately assess overall nutritional status.
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) can sometimes cause severe symptoms and lead to hospitalisation, but they often go unnoticed in the Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to describe the profile of patients hospitalised by TBDs; and (ii) to evaluate the data collected in the medical records from the ED in order to analyse their potential clinical consequences. A total of 84 cases that included all TBD diagnoses registered in the ED records were identified and analysed. These corresponded to all the hospitalisations by TBDs in the last 10 years (2009–2019) in two tertiary hospitals in Granada, Spain. Statistical analyses were made using RStudio. Coinciding with the absence of patient's report of exposure to ticks, 64.3% of TBDs were not suspected in the ED. Intensive care unit admission was required in 8.3% of cases, and the mortality rate was 2.4%. Non-suspected cases showed longer hospital stay (P < 0.001), treatment duration (P = 0.02) and delay in the initiation of antibiotic treatment (P < 0.001). Our findings indicate that symptoms associated with TBDs are highly non-specific. In the absence of explicit information related to potential tick exposure, TBDs are not initially suspected. As a consequence, elective treatment administration is delayed and hospitalisation time is prolonged. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance of addressing potential exposure to ticks during the ED contact with patients presenting with febrile syndrome.
This paper explores the Danish East India Company's slave trade practice in Tranquebar in the first half of the seventeenth century. In particular it focuses on a practice of acquiring black Morianer (Moors) as prestigious servants for aristocratic homes. The court of the Danish king Christian IV was familiar with the exotic inlay of Morians as represented in pictures, theatre, carrousels, and other artistic manifestations of the upper classes of that time. In this sense, I suggest that Hans Hansson Skonning's Geographia historica Orientalis (1641) provides seminal clues about ideology justifying slavery and representations of Africa and Asia in Scandinavian countries before they entered the slave trade.
We study C1-robustly transitive and nonhyperbolic diffeomorphisms having a partially hyperbolic splitting with one-dimensional central bundle whose strong un-/stable foliations are both minimal. In dimension 3, an important class of examples of such systems is given by those with a simple closed periodic curve tangent to the central bundle. We prove that there is a C1-open and dense subset of such diffeomorphisms such that every nonhyperbolic ergodic measure (i.e. with zero central exponent) can be approximated in the weak* topology and in entropy by measures supported in basic sets with positive (negative) central Lyapunov exponent. Our method also allows to show how entropy changes across measures with central Lyapunov exponent close to zero. We also prove that any nonhyperbolic ergodic measure is in the intersection of the convex hulls of the measures with positive central exponent and with negative central exponent.
The image-based discourse on clay figurines that treated them as merely artistic representations, the meaning of which needs to be deciphered through various iconological methods, has been severely critiqued and challenged in the past decade. This discourse, however, has largely shaped the way that figurines are depicted in archaeological iterations and publications, and it is this corpus of images that has in turn shaped further thinking and discussion on figurines, especially since very few people are able to handle the original, three-dimensional, physical objects. Building on the changing intellectual climate in figurine studies, we propose here a framework that treats figurines as multi-sensorial, affective and dynamic objects, acting within distinctive, relational fields of sensoriality. Furthermore, we situate a range of digital, computational methods within this framework in an attempt to deprive them of their latent Cartesianism and mentalism, and we demonstrate how we have applied them to the study of Neolithic figurines from the site of Koutroulou Magoula in Greece. We argue that such methodologies, situated within an experiential framework, not only provide new means of understanding, interpretation and dissemination, but, most importantly, enable researchers and the public to explore the sensorial affordances and affective potential of things, in the past as well as in the present.
Facial transplantation is emerging as a therapeutic option for self-inflicted gunshot wounds. The self-inflicted nature of this injury raises questions about the appropriate role of self-harm in determining patient eligibility. Potential candidates for facial transplantation undergo extensive psychosocial screening. The presence of a self-inflicted gunshot wound warrants special attention to ensure that a patient is prepared to undergo a demanding procedure that poses significant risk, as well as stringent lifelong management. Herein, we explore the ethics of considering mechanism of injury in the patient selection process, referring to the precedent set forth in solid organ transplantation. We also consider the available evidence regarding outcomes of individuals transplanted for self-inflicted mechanisms of injury in both solid organ and facial transplantation. We conclude that while the presence of a self-inflicted gunshot wound is significant in the overall evaluation of the candidate, it does not on its own warrant exclusion from consideration for a facial transplantation.
More and more attention is paid nowadays to the human health concerns, associated with environmental problems arising from the fossil fuel use. The world scientific community offers new alternatives that, despite being more environmentally friendly, require an analysis of their potential environmental impacts. For example, biorefineries are becoming increasingly widespread nowadays offering a large gamma of bio-based products. However, it is necessary to take into account what potential effects such facility may have on the human health, depending on its geographical location since different territories may be more or less sensitive to its installation. Our study describes a new bioprocess implementation in terms of impact on human health through three countries: France, Belgium or China. In order to understand what territory can be more appropriate to the industrial process installation in terms of its effects on the human health, we propose to use the spatialized life-cycle analysis methodology.
The bottom of the pyramid (BoP) consists of 1.4 billion people living less than 1.25 USD per day. Fulfilling unmet needs of BoP people involves the design of products as a main activity. Designing products for the BoP faces two main problems. First, there is a general lack of understanding of the needs of users and second, traditional design methods may be limited in addressing the BoP context. Frugal innovation is positioned as a very interesting approach with the potential to adequately respond to the design challenges of the products for the BoP. However, studies in engineering design based on frugal innovation are still limited. In response to these issues, through an analysis and review of the literature, an exploratory mapping of the proposals in frugal innovation and the characteristics of the BoP was conducted. On the basis of the results, this paper defines a set of eight frugal criteria design and an identification of three dimensions that characterize a BoP context and two roles of BoP people. Finally, an association of BoP dimensions and roles with the key criteria of frugal design is proposed.