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The article analyzes how Brazil has become an increasingly active voice for liberalization within global spheres of agricultural governance. With the focus on domestic institutional developments, we identify the gradual materialization of an agro-export policy network consisting of public and private actors. We conduct a periodization of the overarching phases of the policy network's development, from its incipient formation during the Uruguay Round to a high degree of organizational refinement in the new millennium. Through analysis of its external linkages, internal structure, and the distribution of resources, we examine how this network became an absolutely central factor in spurring the offensive orientation and assertive engagement of Brazil within the global agricultural policy arena. We thereby provide a domestically rooted explanation for the rise of Brazil as a central agricultural ‘player’, with the focus on the collective agency capacity of public and private stakeholders.
Tetraspanins, such as CD81, can form lateral associations with each other and with other transmembrane proteins. These interactions may underlie CD81 functions in multiple cellular processes, such as adhesion, morphology, migration, and differentiation. Since CD81's role in neuronal cells’ migration has not been established, we here evaluated effects of CD81 on the migratory phenotype of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. CD81 was found enriched at SH-SY5Y cell's membrane, co-localizing with its interactor filamentous-actin (F-actin) in migratory relevant structures of the leading edge (filopodia, stress fibers, and adhesion sites). CD81 overexpression increased the number of cells with a migratory phenotype, in a potentially phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)–Ak strain transforming (AKT) mediated manner. Indeed, CD81 also co-localized with AKT, a CD81-interactor and actin remodeling agent, at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K, the canonical AKT activator, led both to a decrease in the acquisition of a migratory phenotype and to a redistribution of intracellular CD81 and F-actin into cytoplasmic agglomerates. These findings suggest that in neuronal-like cells CD81 bridges active AKT and actin, promoting the actin remodeling that leads to a motile cell morphology. Further studies on this CD81-mediated mechanism will improve our knowledge on important physiological and pathological processes such as cell migration and differentiation, and tumor metastasis.
Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis is one species that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. The incidence of infections with this parasite is probably underestimated and few studies exist on this species, despite its epidemiological importance. In particular, there are no studies concerning L. guyanensis metacyclogenesis and no technique for obtaining metacyclic promastigotes for this species is presently available. Here, we have studied L. guyanensis metacyclogenesis in axenic culture, describing the main changes that occur during this process, namely, in morphology and size, sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis, surface carbohydrates and infectivity to macrophages. We have shown that metacyclogenesis in L. guyanensis promastigotes is basically complete on the 4th day of culture, as determined by decreased body size, increased flagellum length, resistance to complement-mediated lysis and infectivity. We have also found that only a fraction of the parasites is agglutinated by Bauhinia purpurea lectin. The non-agglutinated parasites, which also peaked on the 4th day of culture, had all morphological traits typical of the metacyclic stage. This is the first report describing metacyclogenesis in L. guyanensis axenic promastigotes and a simple and efficient method for the purification of metacyclic forms. Furthermore, a model of human macrophage infection with L. guyanensis was established.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the food intake of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) according to two methods of dietary guidance. A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted by appointment with a nutritionist and by using data from hospital records (2011–2014). The study population comprised adult women diagnosed with GDM treated in a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The control group (CG) received nutritional advice by the traditional method and the intervention group (IG) were instructed on carbohydrate counting. The analysis of food intake and the consumption of processed foods (PF) and ultra-processed foods (UPF) were evaluated in the second and third trimester. A total of 286 pregnant women were initially assessed (145 in the CG and 141 in the IG). It was observed that 89/120 (74·2 %) and 183/229 (79·9 %) consumed PF daily in the second and third trimesters, respectively, whereas 117/120 (97·5 %) and 225/231 (97·4 %) consumed UPF daily in the second and third trimesters, respectively. When analysing the intake of macronutrients (%) by quartiles, women who had fat intake in the third quartile had the highest average postprandial blood glucose compared with those who consumed fat in the second quartile (P=0·02). The consumption of PF and UPF was high and dietary intake was similar in both groups, regardless of dietary guidance method deployed, suggesting that both methods tested in the study can be used for monitoring the nutritional status of pregnant women with GDM.
To compare cognitive function among frail and prefrail older adults.
Cross-sectional clinical study.
Fifty-one non-institutionalized older individuals participated in this study.
Cognitive functions were evaluated through Mini-Mental State Examination (Global Cognition), Digit Span Forward (short-term memory), Digit Span Backward (working memory), Verbal Fluency Test (semantic memory/executive function). Data were compared using parametric and non-parametric bivariate tests. Binary logistic regression was used to test a frailty prediction model. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.01 to compare groups. In the regression model, the p value was set to be ≤0.05.
Statistically significant differences were observed in global cognition, and short-term memory between frail and prefrail individuals (p ≤ 0.01). Global cognition explained 14–19% of frailty's model.
According to our findings, the evaluation of cognitive functions among older persons with frailty and prefrailty provides important complementary information to better manage frailty and its progression.
This study assessed the anthelmintic activity of plant-derived compounds against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats using the egg hatch and larval motility assays. The compounds tested were saponins (digitonin and aescin) and their respective sapogenins (aglycones), hecogenin acetate and flavonoids (catechin, hesperidin, isocordoin and a mixture of isocordoin and cordoin). Additionally, cytotoxicity of active substances was analysed on Vero cell through 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl,2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) tests. Significant reduction on the egg hatching (P < 0.05) was seen only in the treatments with aescin (99%/EC50 = 0.67 mg mL−1) and digitonin (45%). The compounds that reduced the larval motility (P < 0.05) were digitonin (EC50 = 0.03 mg mL−1 and EC90 = 0.49 mg mL−1) and the hecogenin acetate (75%). The other sapogenins showed low anthelmintic activity. All the flavonoids showed low ovicidal (4–12%) and larvicidal (10–19%) effects. The aescin and digitonin showed low toxicity in PI test (viable cells >90%). Nevertheless, higher cytotoxicity was observed in the MTT assay, with IC50 of 0.20 mg mL−1 (aescin) and 0.0074 mg mL−1 (digitonin). Aescin and digitonin have a pronounced in vitro anthelmintic effect and the glycone portion of these saponins plays an important role in this activity.
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of alkanes for estimating diet composition of goats and sheep offered three different dietary treatments. Twelve animals as two groups of 4 crossbred goats (G1, 24 kg live weight; G2, 22 kg) and 4 crossbred sheep (S, 26 kg live weight), were housed in metabolism pens. Animals were offered daily a total of 1 kg DM/100 kg live weight. G1 received 70% ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and 30% gorse (Ulex gallii), G2 received 70% ryegrass and 30% heather (Erica sp.) and S group ate 100% ryegrass. Diet composition was estimated from the alkane concentrations (using all alkanes from C23 to C36 or only odd-chain alkanes C27, C29, C31 and C33) in diet and faeces (with or without correction for incomplete faecal recoveries) using least-squares procedures.
Dietary treatment and animal species significantly affected alkane faecal recoveries, except for C24 and C36. When applying the faecal recovery corrections, there were no significant differences between measured proportions of dietary components and those estimated using all alkanes or odd-chain alkanes. In contrast, the proportions calculated without faecal recovery correction differed significantly (P<0.05) from the actual proportions and over-estimated the amount in the diet of those plant components with higher concentrations of long-chain alkanes (Erica sp. and Lolium perenne). The results indicate that alkanes are useful markers to estimate diet composition, however, it was observed that animal species and diet composition influenced the faecal recovery of alkanes. This suggests that the use of the alkane methodology for estimating the diet selection of grazing animals should be preceded by a calculation of the actual alkane faecal recoveries for each experimental condition.
Eight new species of Pyrenulaceae are described as new to science from Brazil, Guyana and Puerto Rico. Pyrenula sanguineomeandrata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with red, KOH+ purple pigmentation of lines or a reticulum, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, a deep red inspersed, KOH+ orange hamathecium, and dark brown 3-septate ascospores 25–29×10–12 μm) and P. sanguineostiolata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with deeply immersed simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, which are superficial and bright red, and 3-septate ascospores 25–28×9–12 μm) are described from submontane evergreen forests in Puerto Rico. Pyrenula biseptata Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, an inspersed hamathecium and 2-septate ascospores 11–12×4·5–5·0 μm) and P. xanthinspersa Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with an ecorticate thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, not inspersed hamathecium and 3-septate ascospores 14–17×6·0–7·5 μm) are described from rainforest in Amazonian Brazil. Pyrenula subvariabilis Aptroot & Sipman (with fused ascomata with lateral ostioles and submuriform ascospores 17–20(–25)×6–9 μm) and Sulcopyrenula biseriata Aptroot & Sipman (with a thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with lateral ostioles and lozenge-shaped ascospores with 8 locules, (13–)15–17(–20)×8–10 (width)×6–7 (thickness) μm) are described from savannahs in Guyana. Special attention is paid to the genus Pyrgillus: two new species from the 3-septate core group of this small genus are described from Brazil, viz. P. aurantiacus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with orange, KOH+ violet, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 13–16×6·0–7·5 μm) and P. rufus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with dark red, KOH+ orange, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 15·0–17·5×5·0–6·5 μm). An updated key to the 3-septate species of Pyrgillus is provided.
In ruminant feeding, the prediction of metabolizable protein requires accurate estimates of feed protein degradation in the rumen. Some common feed protein sources have a high concentration of neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (N-NDF) whose degradation may be dependent on neutral detergent fibre (NDF) degradation and, consequently, on rumen cellulolytic activity. This may lead to an underestimation of the undegraded protein that reaches the small intestine, particularly when animals are fed high starch diets. The objective of this study was to verify if there is a relationship between the ruminal degradability of the NDF and N-NDF of eight feed supplements currently used in ruminant feeding with the in sacco technique.
Information on starch degradation is required to promote a more efficient use of energy and protein in dairy cow diets. Several in vitro and in situ methods have been proposed to estimate starch degradability. However, they are not suitable for application in routine analysis as they often require the use of cannulated animals. The objective of this study was to determine starch degradation of cereal grains using a method based on boiling extraction for 30 minutes with αamylase solution. The starch degradation after incubation in sacco for 6 and 24 h was used to evaluate the new method proposed.
In Northeast of Portugal sheep is reared under extensive systems. These systems frequently involve expressive body composition changes due to the storing and mobilization of body reserves, mainly fat. Body condition score (BCS) is the most common way to assess these reserves and the nutritional status of ewes. However due to the subjective nature of BCS, their quality has been questioned and other alternatives has been studied. For cattle there are some studies that use the real time ultrasonography (RTU) to evaluate the BCS (Schwager-Suter et al., 2000; Broring et al., 2003), but this approach was not tested in ewes. Therefore the aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between the BCS and ultrasound subcutaneous fat (SF) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (LM) measurements.
It is a general believe that the local sheep breed Churra da Terra Quente (CTQ), reared in the Northeast of Portugal is well adapted to the conditions of its production system. However, there are large gaps on our knowledge to allow understanding of such claimed adaptation. Several researchers have found differences in digestibility between sheep breeds (e.g. Givens and Moss, 1994; López et al., 2001), suggesting that those fed natural resources can have an improved ability to digest fibre. This experiment was designed to compare digestibility coefficients of a high– and a low–roughage diet measured on sheep from CTQ and Ile-de-France (IF) breeds at the same degree of maturity.
Cysticercosis, a leading cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries, has been controlled or eradicated in industrialized countries. This paradigm has recently been challenged, with human neurocysticercosis (NCC) being increasingly diagnosed in these countries. In order to assess the NCC burden in Portugal, a retrospective study on NCC hospitalizations (2006–2013) was conducted based on the national database on hospital morbidity: 357 hospitalized cases were detected. NCC was most frequent in the following age groups: 20–64 years (n = 197, 55·2%) >64 years (n = 111, 31·1%), and <20 years (n = 49, 13·7%). In the Norte and Centro regions cases tended to be older than in the Lisboa and Vale do Tejo Region. The results raise concerns for imported and autochthonous disease, suggesting the Lisboa and Vale do Tejo Region, due to its higher frequency of cases at younger ages, as a priority for research and intervention, and further suggest that NCC should be under surveillance (notifiable). The National Observatory of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis has been established and will define NCC cases as well as monitoring and surveillance.
The mechanical behavior of superconductor lamellar-like BaFe2As2 single crystals was investigated at nanoscale by instrumented indentation. The unique responses of the ab- and a(b)c-crystallographic planes were discussed based on their influence in hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E). The results allowed two main conclusions. (i) The choice of testing parameters strongly affected the scaling of mechanical properties on the lamellar surfaces. Lamellar cracking was the leading mechanism of deformation, featuring a brittle-like behavior and affecting considerably H and E. However, the plastic deformation history allowed different elastic–plastic responses on the ab-plane owing to the compaction of the material. Threshold loads for cracking depended on both loading rate and penetration velocity, pointing out to time-dependent plastic deformation mechanisms. (ii) Proper estimates were achieved for H in multiple loading tests [3.4 GPa for ab- and ∼1 GPa for a(b)c-planes], and for E under loads less than 3 mN (∼55 GPa for both planes).
To describe the process adopted to identify, classify, and evaluate legacy of health care planning in the host city of Porto Alegre for the Football World Cup 2014.
There is an emerging interest in the need to demonstrate a sustainable health legacy from mass gatherings investments. Leaving a public health legacy for future host cities and countries is now an important part of planning for these events.
The Ministry of Sports initiated and coordinated the development of projects in the host cities to identify actions, projects, and constructions to be developed to prepare for the World Cup. In Porto Alegre, a common structure was developed by the coordinating team to instruct legacy identification, classification, and evaluation. This structure was based on international documentary analysis (including official reports, policy documents, and web-based resources) and direct communication with recognized experts in the field.
Findings and Interpretation
Sixteen total legacies were identified for health surveillance (5) and health services (11). They were classified according to the strategic area, organizations involved, dimension, typology, planned or unplanned, tangible or intangible, territorial coverage, and situation prior to the World Cup. Possible impacts were then assessed as positive, negative, and potentiating, and mitigating actions were indicated.
The project allowed the identification, classification, and development of health legacy, including risk analysis, surveillance, mitigation measures, and provision of emergency medical care. Although the project intended the development of indicators to measure the identified legacies, evaluation was not possible at the time of publication due to time.
WittRR, KotlharMK, MesquitaMO, LimaMADS, MarinSM, DayCB, BandeiraAG, HuttonA. Developing Legacy: Health Planning in the Host City of Porto Alegre for the 2014 Football World Cup. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(6):613–617.
Assessing changes in adolescents’ BMI over brief periods could contribute to detection of acute changes in weight status and prevention of overweight. The objective of this study was to analyse the BMI trajectory and the excessive weight gain of Brazilian adolescents over 3 years and the association with demographic and socio-economic factors. Data regarding the BMI of 1026 students aged between 13 and 19 years were analysed over 3 consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012) from the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess the BMI trajectory according to the type of school attended (public or private), skin colour, socio-economic status and level of maternal schooling by sex. Associations between excessive weight gain and socio-economic variables were identified by calculation of OR. Boys attending private schools (β coefficient: 0·008; P=0·01), those with white skin (β coefficient: 0·007; P=0·04) and those whose mothers had >8 years of schooling (β coefficient: 0·009; P=0·02) experienced greater BMI increase than boys and girls in other groups. Boys in private schools also presented higher excessive weight gain compared with boys attending public schools (P=0·03). Boys attending private schools experienced greater BMI increase and excessive weight gain, indicating the need to develop specific policies for the prevention and reduction of overweight in this population.
A single umbilical artery (SUA) was identified in 1.5% of twin pregnancies. The presence of a SUA in a twin pregnancy was associated with a 50% incidence of fetal anomalies, many of them complex and severe. The embryology and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with a SUA are reviewed. Aneuploidy is relatively common and should be considered, particularly in the presence of associated anomalies. Fetal growth restriction is frequent and preterm delivery is common.
Age and growth of Agassiz's parrotfish Sparisoma frondosum captured off Brazil (Pernambuco) were estimated using sagittal otoliths from 251 specimens. Sex of each specimen was determined and showed that 130 specimens were females (13.1 to 36.8 cm TL) and 121 were males (17.5 to 36.6 cm TL). The otolith marginal increment analysis indicated a single translucent ring formed every year. Parameters of growth curves were derived for the von Bertalanffy (VBGF) and Gompertz models. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), both models were suitable for describing the growth of this species. VBGF parameters were estimated for males L∞ = 39.74 cm TL, K = 0.22, t0 = −1.63 years, females L∞ = 32.38 cm TL, K = 0.44; t0 = −0.23 years; and for the sexes combined L∞ = 33.66 cm TL, K = 0.41, t0 = −0.27 years. The study showed that 55% of individuals were 3 and 4 years of age, with maximal age of 9 years. Mature females (>17.6 cm TL) accounted for 45% of the sample. The age at first maturity for females was 1.6 years. For males the size at first maturity was not determined as immature individuals were not present in the overall sample. Also, primary males (PM) and specimens with gonads undergoing sexual transition were not found. The age structure and growth parameters for S. frondosum are an important contribution to the assessment of the state of exploitation of this species.