To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To identify levels and key correlates of happiness across Europe in 2018, prior to the Covid-19 pandemic.
We used data from the European Social Survey to determine levels of happiness in individuals (n = 49,419) from 29 European countries and identify associations between happiness and age, gender, satisfaction with income, employment status, community trust, satisfaction with health, satisfaction with democracy, religious belief and country of residence.
In 2018, self-rated happiness varied significantly across the 29 European countries, with individuals in Denmark reporting the highest levels of happiness (8.38 out of 10) and individuals in Bulgaria reporting the lowest (5.55). Ireland ranked 11th (7.7). Happiness had significant, independent associations with younger age, satisfaction with health, satisfaction with household income, community trust, satisfaction with democracy and religious belief. These factors accounted for 25.4% of the variance in happiness between individuals, and, once they were taken into account, country of residence was no longer significantly associated with happiness.
Self-rated happiness varied significantly across pre-pandemic. At individual level, happiness was more closely associated with certain variables than with country of residence. It is likely that the Covid-19 pandemic had significant impacts on some or all of these variables. This highlights the importance of further analysis of correlates of happiness in Europe over future years, when detailed happiness data from during and after the pandemic become available.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.