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We investigate the growth of gas bubbles in a water solution at rest with a supersaturation level that is generally associated with diffusive mass transfer. For
bubbles, it has been previously observed that, after some time of growing in a diffusive regime, a density-driven convective flow enhances the mass transfer rate into the bubble. This is due to the lower density of the gas-depleted liquid which surrounds the bubble. In this work, we report on experiments with different supersaturation values, measuring the time
it takes for convection to dominate over the diffusion-driven growth. We demonstrate that by considering buoyancy and drag forces on the depleted liquid around the bubble, we can satisfactorily predict the transition time. In fact, our analysis shows that this onset does not only depend on the supersaturation, but also on the absolute pressure, which we corroborate in experiments. Subsequently, we study how the depletion caused by the growth of successive single bubbles influences the onset of convection. Finally, we study the convection onset around diffusively growing nitrogen
is much less soluble in water, the growth takes much longer. However, after waiting long enough and consistent with our theory, convection still occurs as for any gas–liquid combination, provided that the density of the solution sufficiently changes with the gas concentration.
Under slightly supersaturated conditions, bubbles need many minutes to grow due to the low gas diffusivity in liquids. When coalescence occurs, the fact that the bubbles have diffusively grown on top of a surface allows for control with precision of the location and the timing at which the coalescence takes place. Numerous coalescences of two
microbubbles in water are recorded at a frame rate of
. The evolution of the coalescing process is analysed in detail, differentiating among three phases: neck formation, wave propagation along the bubble surface and bubble detachment. First of all, the formation of the collapsing neck between both bubbles is compared to a capillary–inertial theoretical model. Afterwards, the propagating deformation along the surface is characterised measuring its evolution, velocity and dominant wavelength. Once bubbles coalesce, the perturbing waves and the final shape of the new bubble breaks the equilibrium between buoyancy and capillary forces. Consequently, the coalesced bubble detaches and rises due to buoyancy, oscillating with its natural Minnaert frequency. In addition to the experiments, a boundary integral code has been used to obtain numerical results of the coalescence under similar conditions, showing excellent agreement with the experimental data.
When a gas bubble grows by diffusion in a gas–liquid solution, it affects the distribution of gas in its surroundings. If the density of the solution is sensitive to the local amount of dissolved gas, there is the potential for the onset of natural convection, which will affect the bubble growth rate. The experimental study of the successive quasi-static growth of many bubbles from the same nucleation site described in this paper illustrates some consequences of this effect. The enhanced growth due to convection causes a local depletion of dissolved gas in the neighbourhood of each bubble beyond that due to pure diffusion. The quantitative data of sequential bubble growth provided in the paper show that the radius-versus-time curves of subsequent bubbles differ from each other due to this phenomenon. A simplified model accounting for the local depletion is able to collapse the experimental curves and to predict the progressively increasing bubble detachment times.
The semiconductor industry has seen tremendous progress over the last few decades with continuous reduction in transistor size to improve device performance. Miniaturization of devices has led to changes in the dopants and dielectric layers incorporated. As the gradual shift from two-dimensional metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor to three-dimensional (3D) field-effect transistors (finFETs) occurred, it has become imperative to understand compositional variability with nanoscale spatial resolution. Compositional changes can affect device performance primarily through fluctuations in threshold voltage and channel current density. Traditional techniques such as scanning electron microscope and focused ion beam no longer provide the required resolution to probe the physical structure and chemical composition of individual fins. Hence advanced multimodal characterization approaches are required to better understand electronic devices. Herein, we report the study of 14 nm commercial finFETs using atom probe tomography (APT) and scanning transmission electron microscopy–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). Complimentary compositional maps were obtained using both techniques with analysis of the gate dielectrics and silicon fin. APT additionally provided 3D information and allowed analysis of the distribution of low atomic number dopant elements (e.g., boron), which are elusive when using STEM-EDS.
The accurate description of the growth or dissolution dynamics of a soluble gas bubble in a super- or undersaturated solution requires taking into account a number of physical effects that contribute to the instantaneous mass transfer rate. One of these effects is the so-called history effect. It refers to the contribution of the local concentration boundary layer around the bubble that has developed from past mass transfer events between the bubble and liquid surroundings. In Part 1 of this work (Peñas-López et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 800, 2016b, pp. 180–212), a theoretical treatment of this effect was given for a spherical, isolated bubble. Here, Part 2 provides an experimental and numerical study of the history effect regarding a spherical bubble attached to a horizontal flat plate and in the presence of gravity. The simulation technique developed in this paper is based on a streamfunction–vorticity formulation that may be applied to other flows where bubbles or drops exchange mass in the presence of a gravity field. Using this numerical tool, simulations are performed for the same conditions used in the experiments, in which the bubble is exposed to subsequent growth and dissolution stages, using stepwise variations in the ambient pressure. Besides proving the relevance of the history effect, the simulations highlight the importance that boundary-induced advection has to accurately describe bubble growth and shrinkage, i.e. the bubble radius evolution. In addition, natural convection has a significant influence that shows up in the velocity field even at short times, although given the supersaturation conditions studied here, the bubble evolution is expected to be mainly diffusive.
Magnetic nanocomposites, annealed under stress, are investigated for application in inductive devices. Stress annealed Co-based metal/amorphous nanocomposites (MANCs) previously demonstrated induced magnetic anisotropies greater than an order of magnitude larger than field annealed Co-based MANCs and response to applied stress twice that of Fe-based MANCs. Transverse magnetic anisotropies and switching by rotational processes impact anomalous eddy current losses at high frequencies. Here we review induced anisotropies in soft magnetic materials and show new Co-based MANCs having seven times the response to stress annealing as compared to Fe-based MANC systems. This response correlates with the alloying of early transition metal elements (TE) that affect both induced anisotropies and resistivities. At optimal alloy compositions, these alloys exhibit a nearly linear B–H loop, with tunable permeabilities. The electrical resistivity is not a function of processing stress but trends in electrical resistivity and induced anisotropy with choice and concentration of TE content are clearly resolved. Previously reported and record-level induced anisotropies, Ku, ∼20 kJ/m3 (anisotropy fields, HK ∼ 500 Oe), in stress annealed Co-rich MANCs are increased to Ku ∼ 70 kJ/m3 (HK > 1800 Oe) in new systems.
The interaction of a hypersonic boundary layer on a flat plate with an impinging shock – an order of magnitude stronger than that required for incipient separation of the boundary layer – near sharp and blunt leading edges (with different bluntness radii from 2 to 6 mm) is investigated experimentally, complemented by numerical computations. The resultant separation bubble is of length comparable to the distance of shock impingement from the leading edge, rather than the boundary layer thickness at separation; it is termed large separation bubble. Experiments are performed in the IISc hypersonic shock tunnel HST-2 at nominal Mach numbers 5.88 and 8.54, with total enthalpies 1.26 and
respectively. Schlieren flow visualization using a high-speed camera and surface pressure measurements using fast response sensors are the diagnostics. For the sharp leading edge case, the separation length was found to follow an inviscid scaling law according to which the scaled separation length
is found to be linearly related to the reattachment pressure ratio
is the measured separation length,
the distance of reattachment from the leading edge,
the Mach number,
the static pressure and the subscripts
denote the conditions at the reattachment location and at the edge of the boundary layer at the shock impingement location respectively. However, for all the blunt leading edges
was found to be a constant irrespective of Mach number and much smaller than the sharp leading edge cases. The possible contributions of viscous and non-viscous mechanisms towards the observed phenomena are explored.
A novel approach to potentially improve pig growth and welfare is to supplement environments with biologically meaningful odors that are deficient. The post-weaning environment lacks maternal odors that may contribute to the often-observed post-weaning lag in growth and health challenges. A recently reported rabbit maternal pheromone (2-methyl-2-butenal (2M2B)) may act as an interomone in the pig. The objective of this study was to determine if providing a maternal pheromone/interomone during transport and the post-weaning environment may enhance pig performance. A total of 40 replicated pens were used in a factorial arrangement of two transport olfactory experiences (Control v. 2M2B), two nursery olfactory experiences (Control v. 2M2B) and two sexes (barrow v. gilt). Pig body weight, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain : feed ratio (G : F) were measured and calculated over a 28-day post-weaning period. Pig sex and application of 2M2B during transport had no effect on pig performance. However, pigs that had 2M2B applied to their feeder at weaning had 15% greater feed intake (0.74 v. 0.64±0.03 kg/day, P<0.01) and 12% greater ADG (0.27 v. 0.24 kg/day, P<0.05) than control pigs. G : F ratio was not different between treatments. The interomone 2M2B is a novel, safe molecule that can improve pig post-weaning performance. This report highlights a new area of study and a natural class of compounds that can improve pig performance and potentially improve pig welfare.
The term ‘history effect’ refers to the contribution of any past mass transfer events between a gas bubble and its liquid surroundings towards the current diffusion-driven growth or dissolution dynamics of that same bubble. The history effect arises from the (non-instantaneous) development of the dissolved gas concentration boundary layer in the liquid in response to changes in the concentration at the bubble interface caused, for instance, by variations of the ambient pressure in time. Essentially, the history effect amounts to the acknowledgement that at any given time the mass flux across the bubble is conditioned by the preceding time history of the concentration at the bubble boundary. Considering the canonical problem of an isolated spherical bubble at rest, we show that the contribution of the history effect in the current interfacial concentration gradient is fully contained within a memory integral of the interface concentration. Retaining this integral term, we formulate a governing differential equation for the bubble dynamics, analogous to the well-known Epstein–Plesset solution. Our equation does not make use of the quasi-static radius approximation. An analytical solution is presented for the case of multiple step-like jumps in pressure. The nature and relevance of the history effect is then assessed through illustrative examples. Finally, we investigate the role of the history effect in rectified diffusion for a bubble that pulsates under harmonic pressure forcing in the non-inertial, isothermal regime.
Few fluid phenomena are as beautiful, fragile and ephemeral as the crown splash that is created by the impact of an object on a liquid. The crown-shaped phenomenon and the physics behind it have mesmerised and intrigued scientists for over a century, and still the scientific world has not yet uncovered all of the secrets of the splash. This is exemplified in a particularly striking manner in Marston et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 794, 2016, pp. 506–529) where a 6 m tall vacuum chamber is employed to study the splash formed upon impact of a sphere onto a deep liquid pool, at both atmospheric and reduced ambient pressures. They shed light into the classical problem of the surface seal and study the buckling of the splash. With an almost magical touch they devise a method to create a splash without the liquid and the sphere ever coming into contact. The images that accompany the paper – taken with state-of-the-art high-speed cameras – are as stunning as the physics that is uncovered in them.
A train of high-speed microdrops impacting on a liquid pool can create a very deep and narrow cavity, reaching depths more than 1000 times the size of the individual drops. The impact of such a droplet train is studied numerically using boundary integral simulations. In these simulations, we solve the potential flow in the pool and in the impacting drops, taking into account the influence of liquid inertia, gravity and surface tension. We show that for microdrops the cavity shape and maximum depth primarily depend on the balance of inertia and surface tension and discuss how these are influenced by the spacing between the drops in the train. Finally, we derive simple scaling laws for the cavity depth and width.