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To what extent meditation techniques (which incorporate practices to regulate attention, construct individual values, or deconstruct self-related assumptions), are more or less effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety, is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of meditation compared to relaxation in reducing anxiety. A systematic review from PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo and the Cochrane Central was conducted. A meta-analysis of 14 RCTs (n = 862 participants suffering from anxiety disorders or high trait anxiety) was performed. Effect sizes (ESs) were determined by Hedges’ g. Heterogeneity, risk of publication bias, quality of studies/interventions, and researcher allegiance, were evaluated. Meditation techniques incorporated attentional elements, and five of them also added constructive practices. No studies were found using deconstructive exercises. The overall ES was g = −0.23 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.40 to −0.07], favouring meditation (number needed to treat = 7.74). Heterogeneity was low (I2 = 2; 95% CI 0 to 56). There was no evidence of publication bias, but few studies and interventions were of high quality, and allegiance might be moderating results. Meditation seems to be a bit more effective than relaxation in the treatment of anxiety, and it might also remain more effective at 12-month follow-up. However, more research using the full spectrum of meditation practices to treat different anxiety disorders, including independent studies to avoid researcher allegiance, is needed if we are to have a precise idea of the potential of these techniques compared to relaxation therapy.
It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, and whether they have comparable efficacy across disorders.
We conducted a meta-analysis of 50 studies (2801 patients) comparing relaxation training with cognitive and behavioural treatments of anxiety.
The overall effect size (ES) across all anxiety outcomes, with only one combined ES in each study, was g = −0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = −0.41 to −0.13], favouring cognitive and behavioural therapies (number needed to treat = 6.61). However, no significant difference between relaxation and cognitive and behavioural therapies was found for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and specific phobias (considering social anxiety and specific phobias separately). Heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 52; 95% CI = 33–65). The ES was significantly associated with age (p < 0.001), hours of cognitive and/or behavioural therapy (p = 0.015), quality of intervention (p = 0.007), relaxation treatment format (p < 0.001) and type of disorder (p = 0.008), explaining an 82% of variance.
Relaxation seems to be less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder and it might also be less effective at 1-year follow-up for panic, but there is no evidence that it is less effective for other anxiety disorders.
N-body models were run in order to test the mass estimators considered by Heisler, Tremaine and Bahcall (1985, HTB), when systems with a large number of mass-points with a non-flat mass-spectrum are considered. The initial conditions of the models were a analytic King profile for the number density, a Gaussian velocity distribution function and a Schechter-type mass spectrum. The models were left to evolve from a far from virial initial configuration, so a violent collapse occurs before the system reachs equilibrium. The code we use was NBODY2 code kindly provided to us by Dr. S. Aarseth.
From the saprotrophs that decay plant material to the pathogens and mutualists that shape plant demography at local and regional scales, fungi are major drivers of tropical forest dynamics. Although endophytic fungi are abundant and diverse in many biomes, they reach their greatest diversity in tropical forests, where they can influence plant physiology, performance and survival. The number of quantitative studies regarding endophytes has increased dramatically in the past two decades, but general rules have not yet emerged regarding the biogeography, host affiliations, local or regional distributions, or phylogenetic diversity of endophytes in most tropical settings. Here, endophytic fungal communities associated with 18 species of eupolypod fern were compared among forest reserves in Panama, Costa Rica and Mexico. Molecular sequence data for >2000 isolates were used to determine the relationships of host taxonomy, forest (site), and environmental dissimilarity to endophyte community composition. Communities in related ferns differed significantly among forests, reflecting the interplay of geographic distance and environmental dissimilarity. Although the same phyla and classes of fungi were prevalent at each site, they differed in relative abundance. All sites were dominated by the same order (Xylariales), but sites differed in the phylogenetic clustering vs. evenness of their endophyte communities. By addressing the relationship of endophyte communities to host taxonomy, geographic distance and environmental factors, this study complements previous work on angiosperms and contributes to a growing perspective on the factors shaping communities of ecologically important fungi in tropical forests.
Highly accreting quasars are possible cosmological probes, as their Eddington ratio is expected to saturate toward values of order unity. We present preliminary estimates of redshift- independent source luminosities and the Hubble diagram for quasars in the redshift range 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 2.6.
We analyzed the light curves (LCs) of several radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars belonging to the same parameter space volume in the 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) quasar sequence, using data from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS). We report preliminary results on detected variability pattern, and discuss possible cases of periodic variability.
The Caribbean island of Mona, on a key Atlantic route from Europe to the Americas, was at the heart of sixteenth-century Spanish colonial projects. Communities on the island were exposed to the earliest waves of European impact during a critical period of transformation and the forging of new identities. One of many caves within an extensive subterranean world on the island was marked both by indigenous people and by the first generations of Europeans to arrive in the New World. This account of spiritual encounters provides a rare, personalised insight into intercultural religious dynamics in the early Americas.
New redshift surveys of galaxies in the field of compact groups have discovered a population of faint galaxies which act as satellites orbiting in the potential well of the bright group. Here we analyze the mass distribution of the groups by comparing the mass derived from the bright members and the mass obtained from the satellite galaxies. Our analysis indicates the presence of a dark halo around the main group with a mass roughly four times that measured for the dominant galaxies of the compact group.
We found that heavier halos are ruled out by the observations when comparing the distribution of positions and redshifts of the satellite galaxies with the distribution of satellites of isolated spiral galaxies. The results agree with a picture where compact groups may form a stable system with galaxies moving in a common dark halo.
We have observed Hɪ emission and radio continuum emission from the compact group of galaxies HCG 95 with the Very Large Array (VLA)1. Two continuum sources coincide in with galaxies in this group: HCG 95 B (3.9 mJy) and HCG95C (6 mJy). Hɪ emission and absorption was detected in galaxy HCG 95 C. In addition we detected two so far unknown dwarf galaxies by their Hɪ emission within 3.5 arcmin of the group center. We did not detect galaxy b (with ç = 8000 kms−1 it is obviously a foreground object) and galaxy d — an edge-on Sc galaxy. This group definitely is Hɪ deficient compared with the average Hɪ content expected for spiral galaxies of the same luminosity and type. The first-ranked elliptical galaxy HCG 95 A might be responsible for the observed Hɪ deficiency in this group.
We present a global study of Hɪ spectral line mapping for 16 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) combining new and unpublished VLA data, plus the analysis of the Hɪ content of individual galaxies. Sixty percent of the groups show morphological and kinematical signs of perturbations (from multiple tidal features to concentration of the Hɪ in a single enveloping cloud) and sixty five of the resolved galaxies are found to be Hɪ deficient with respect to a sample of isolated galaxies. In total, 77% of the groups suffer interactions among all its members which provides strong evidence of their reality. We find that dynamical evolution does not always produce Hɪ deficiency, but when this deficiency is observed, it appears to correlate with a high group velocity dispersion and in some cases with the presence of a first-ranked elliptical. The X-ray data available for our sample are not sensitive enough for a comparison with the Hɪ mass; however this study does suggest a correlation between Hɪ deficiency and hot gas since velocity dispersions are known from the literature to correlate with X-ray luminosity.
The redistribution of globular clusters within compact groups of galaxies is followed through N-body simulations. Particular emphasis is given to the globular clusters released in the Intra-Group Medium (IGM) and to the final configuration of the evolution.
As an extreme kind of environment, Hickson Compact groups (HCGs) have shown to be very complex systems. HI-VLA observations revealed an intrincated network of HI tails and bridges, tracing pre-processing through extreme tidal interactions. We found HCGs to show a large HI deficiency supporting an evolutionary sequence where gas-rich groups transform via tidal interactions and ISM (interstellar medium) stripping into gas-poor systems. We detected as well a diffuse HI component in the groups, increasing with evolutionary phase, although with uncertain distribution. The complex net of detected HI as observed with the VLA seems hence so puzzling as the missing one. In this talk we revisit the existing VLA information on the HI distribution and kinematics of HCGs by means of X3D visualization. X3D constitutes a powerful tool to extract the most from HI data cubes and a mean of simplifying and easing the access to data visualization and publication via three-dimensional (3-D) diagrams.
Compact groups of galaxies (CGG) have revealed some interesting problems from their origin and lifetime to the evolution of their members in such dense configurations. Some authors suppose that CGG probably are the best location for AGNs in the local Universe. According to our preliminary data about 7–10% of member galaxies in Shahbazian compact groups (SHCGs) are emission-line galaxies including the broad-line AGN and the narrow emission-line galaxies. Shahbazian 355/4 is a classical Seyfert 1 galaxy at the same redshift as host group. Moreover Shahbazian 278/4 is also a broad-line AGN in an early-type galaxy. This is the first emission-line object in SHCGs. Meanwhile there is no Seyfert 1 galaxy among the spectroscopically investigated galaxies in the South compact groups, although more than 70% of the member galaxies in these groups probably have an active nucleus. The UZC- compact groups have an excess of Seyfert 2s (but not Seyfert 1s!). Further observational studies are necessary to understand such and many other questions related to the puzzle of CGG.
This paper aims to investigate the potential interest of using a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) based on GPRS/GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) technology to obtain a better estimation of fishing activity and distribution of a small-scale artisanal fleet, for which the European satellite-based system is not available. Since the early 1980s, the artisanal fishery targeting blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo), commonly known as “voraz”, has been developing along the Strait of Gibraltar area. Up to now the fishing effort was estimated using the number of sales, a proxy for the number of fishing days. This measure does not, however, capture the “missing effort”, i.e., fishing days resulting in no catch or not enough catch to be sold at public auction. The European satellite-based VMS provides information about the dynamics of different fishing fleets, but is not installed on small vessels (<15 m), such as those used by the artisanal “voracera” fleet targeting blackspot seabream in the Strait of Gibraltar. The Andalucía Regional Government installed its own vessel monitoring system on several artisanal fleets using GPRS/GSM cellular network technology that sends data on vessel positions and speed every three minutes. Data collected from 2009 to 2011 using this system were filtered and analysed to estimate fishing effort, catch rates and the spatial distribution of the blackspot seabream fishery. The estimates obtained seem to provide a good representation of fishery reality. As expected, the missing effort increases as the resource levels decrease. Additionally, expert knowledge of the fishery allowed application of an algorithm for splitting these daily trips into estimated fishing hauls. Afterwards the spatial distribution of catches and Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) could be obtained linking VMS locations with landings information. This study provides a considerably finer spatial scale view of the fishery than data available in the past.
The metapopulation framework stemming from Levins’s (1969, 1970) seminal concept and which evolved into a modern ecological theory (Hanski & Gilpin, 1997; Hanski, 1999a, 1999b; Hanski & Gaggiotti, 2004; Kritzer & Sale, 2006) is based on the development of ideas from, and applications to, terrestrial systems. However, key environmental differences exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, such as the larger scale of chemical, material and organism transport resulting in the greater “openness” of local marine environments (Carr et al., 2003; Sale et al., 2006) and higher marine population connectivity. There are relatively few barriers that might delineate dispersal and migration in the ocean compared with those in terrestrial or freshwater environments that are physically fragmented into discrete patches of habitat supporting discrete local populations (Waples, 1998). Further terrestrial-marine differences with relevance for the application of metapopulation theory in marine systems are the high per capita fecundity and dispersal potential of many marine species, leading to a more open spatial structure of the populations (via decoupling of local offspring production from recruitment to a parental population; see, e.g., Roughgarden et al., 1988; Carr et al., 2003; Kinlan & Gaines, 2003; Sale et al., 2006).
This study was designed to develop a computerized test to assess gender roles. This test is presented as a decision-making task to mask its purpose. Each item displays a picture representing an activity and a brief sentence that describes it. Participants have to choose the most suitable sex to perform each activity: man or woman. The test (Gender Roles Test, GRT-36) consists of 36 items/activities. The program registers both the choices made and their response times (RTs). Responses are considered as stereotyped when the chosen sex fits stereotyped roles and non-stereotyped when the chosen sex does not fit stereotyped roles. Individual means (RTs) were computed for stereotyped and non-stereotyped responses, differentiating between domestic and work spheres. A “D” score, reflecting the strength of association between activities and sex, was calculated for each sphere and sex. The study incorporated 78 participants (69% women and 31% men) ranging from 19 to 59 years old. The results show that: (a) reading speed does not explain the variability in the RTs; (b) RTs show good internal consistency; (c) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for neutral stimuli; (d) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for non-stereotyped responses. Intended goals are supported by obtained results. Scores provided by the task facilitate both group and individual detailed analysis of gender role, differentiating the gender role assigned to men from that assigned to women, at the domestic and work spheres. Obtained data fall within the scope of the genderology and their implications are discussed.
On a étudié, par des techniques d'analyses en composantes principales, les relations biocénotiques entre les différentes populations de Coléoptères aquatiques et 8 facteurs physico-chimiques du milieu. Dû à l'énorme quantité de conditions espace-temps considérées, une première analyse, portant sur 58 échantillons et 31 espèces, à montré une structure multidimensionnelle, dans laquelle il n'a pas été possible de détecter des affinités de type écologique, faunistique ou géographique. Deux analyses contenant des échantillons de milieux plus homogènes (19 échantillons et 25 espèces de marais; 15 échantillons et 23 espèces de rizière) ont permis la détermination de groupes d'espèces de distribution semblable. Les corrélations significatives entre les composantes de ces analyses et les facteurs température, pH, chlorure, sulfate, magnésium, calcium et profondeur de l'eau, déterminent des groupes écologiques, indicateurs de certains niveaux de conditions du milieu. En plus, on observe que les variations journalières de la communauté sont plus importantes que les saisonnières.
We address the effect of spatial scale and temporal variation on model generality when forming predictive models for fish assignment using a new data mining approach, Random Forests (RF), to variable biological markers (parasite community data). Models were implemented for a fish host-parasite system sampled along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Spain and were validated using independent datasets. We considered 2 basic classification problems in evaluating the importance of variations in parasite infracommunities for assignment of individual fish to their populations of origin: multiclass (2–5 population models, using 2 seasonal replicates from each of the populations) and 2-class task (using 4 seasonal replicates from 1 Atlantic and 1 Mediterranean population each). The main results are that (i) RF are well suited for multiclass population assignment using parasite communities in non-migratory fish; (ii) RF provide an efficient means for model cross-validation on the baseline data and this allows sample size limitations in parasite tag studies to be tackled effectively; (iii) the performance of RF is dependent on the complexity and spatial extent/configuration of the problem; and (iv) the development of predictive models is strongly influenced by seasonal change and this stresses the importance of both temporal replication and model validation in parasite tagging studies.