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A decade ago, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights issued a landmark judgment in the case of González and Others (“Cotton Field”) v. Mexico, which addressed the abduction and subsequent sexual murder of three young women in the industrial border city of Ciudad Juárez—a place known for systematic gender violence and impunity. For the victims’ next of kin and the feminist and human rights activists involved in the litigation, the murders constituted feminicidios (feminicides). The resulting judgment has been celebrated not only for developing new standards for women's human rights internationally, but also for its domestic impact in the form of innovative feminist laws and policies in Mexico and other Latin American countries. With a focus on Cotton Field’s impact on Mexico, this essay explores the potential rise of the “formally feminist state”—a state that adopts domestic feminist legislation and policies but then resists their implementation—as a new player on the stage of the inter-American human rights system (IAS). Drawing on insights from American sociolegal analyses on judicial deference to the presence of policies and institutional mechanisms as indicators of compliance with antidiscrimination laws, I suggest that this new player may create a different set of challenges for courts in assessing states’ lack of compliance with norms on women's human rights.
The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification.
To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions.
We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition.
Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses.
Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions.
Perceived and anticipated stigma are relevant issues in patients with schizophrenia. Stigma has negative consequences both in quality of life and in the course of illness.
To analyze differences in perceived and anticipated discrimination in two groups of patients with schizophrenia: one with a recent diagnosis of illness and another with a long course of disease.
A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 100 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia, 18 or more years old, clinically stabilized, without axis I DSM-IV comorbidity. Patients received treatment in the outpatient services of a catchment area in Madrid. Perceived and anticipated discrimination was evaluated trough the DISC-12 (Discrimination and Stigma scale). Other study variables were: socio-demographic status, length of disease, symptoms of depression (Calgary Scale) and functionality degree measured by Global Assessment of Function (GAF). Two sub-groups of patients were compared: one with a length of illness below 5 years and a second one with a length of illness over 5 years.
Patients with a length of illness longer than 5 years showed elevated degree of perceived and anticipated discrimination compared with patients with less than 5 years of illness course. In the same way, patients with a recent diagnosis of illness showed increased scores in the measure of face the stigma.
Preventive strategies to avoid the stigma in schizophrenia should consider some differences in patients in relationship with the length of evolution of illness in order to be more accurate. Early intervention programs about stigma are necessary.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Shared decision-making denotes a structured process that encourages full participation by patient and provider in making complex medical decisions. There has been extensive and growing interest in its application to long-term illnesses but surprisingly not in severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. However, the great majority of schizophrenics are capable of understanding treatment choices and making rational decisions. Although the main justification for shared decision-making is ethical, several randomized controlled trials support its effectiveness in improving the quality of decisions, but robust evidence in objective health outcomes is needed.
Aims and objectives
Of the study: to demonstrate the effectiveness, measured as treatment adherence and readmissions at 3, 6 and 12 months, of shared decision making in the choice of antipsychotic treatment at discharge.
Of the oral presentation: to present the study design; to make an interim report of the data obtained at the moment of the congress.
Randomized controlled trial, prospective, two parallel groups, not masked, comparing two interventions (shared decision making and treatment as usual). Study population: Inpatients diagnosed of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders (ICD-10/DSM-IV-R: F20 y F25) at Adult Acute Hospitalization Unit at Jerez General Hospital.
Currently in the recruiting phase with 55 patients included in the study. An interim analysis of at least half of the target sample size.
We will show the study design and decision tools employed. Conclusions in relation to the effectiveness (adherence and readmissions) and subjective perception.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Feminicidio is a Mexican adaptation of the radical feminist concept of femicide, usually defined as the misogynous murder of women by men because they are women. In this essay based on original fieldwork, I seek to contribute to Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) scholarship by providing a brief analysis of the engagement of Mexican grassroots feminist activists with international human rights law in their struggle against the systematic abduction, murder, and sexual abuse of hundreds of women and girls in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, and the widespread impunity enveloping these crimes. As a result of this grassroots activism, these murders became known as feminicidios. Feminicidio expanded the existing concept of femicide by exposing the complicity of the state in the killing of women by sustaining the institutionalization of gender inequality. Indeed, activists consistently claimed that the state’s tolerance for impunity perpetuates the notion that women are disposable, and violence against them is not serious. Moreover, they linked this notion to the patriarchal regime of neoliberal capitalism that supports the maquiladora industry in Ciudad Juárez. Activists further drew on international human rights law. They invoked the due diligence obligation to conceptualize the responsibility of the Mexican state for failing to effectively prevent, investigate, and punish the murder of women—despite evidence of a systematic pattern of gendered violence that could only be understood by taking into consideration the intersecting structural gender and class inequalities that feminicidio revealed.
Polymer-clay nanocomposites are compounds in which nanoclay particles are distributed in a polymer matrix. Epoxy-clay nanocomposites have become a very interesting topic among researchers in the past two decades because nanoclays have a positive effect on the mechanical, thermal and especially barrier anticorrosive performance of the polymers. In this study, epoxy-montmorillonite organoclay (OMMT) nanocomposite coatings were prepared and deposited on carbon steel substrates. The coatings were prepared through in situ polymerization and by UV-curing technique. The OMMT was added to epoxy resin at loadings between 0 wt.% and 5 wt.%, the particles of OMMT were dispersed using forced agitation-sonication and deposited on carbon steel coupons. The nanocomposite coatings obtained have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectroscopy Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and evaluated their corrosion protection effect on cold rolled carbon steel coupons by performing visual analysis. The X-ray analysis showed that exfoliation occurred for the OMMT in the polymer matrix, the SEM analysis showed that OMMT was homogenous dispersed in the polymer matrix and the coatings were uniform. The FTIR analysis showed the characteristic bands of epoxy resin and OMMT in the composite. The results showed that 1 wt.% OMMT coating exhibit better anticorrosive properties than pure epoxy.
Both state-centrism and Eurocentrism are under challenge in international law today. This article argues that this double challenge is mirrored back into the study of the history of international law. It examines the effects of the rise of positivism as a method of norm-identification and the role of methodological nationalism upon the study of the history of international law in the modern foundational period of international law. It extends this by examining how this bequeathed a double exclusionary bias regarding time and space to the study of the history of international law as well as a reiterative focus on a series of canonical events and authors to the exclusion of others such as those related to the Islamic history of international law. It then analyses why this state of historiographical affairs is changing, highlighting intra-disciplinary developments within the field of the history of international law and the effects that the ‘international turn in the writing of history’ is having on the writing of a new history of international law for a global age. It concludes with a reflection on some of the tasks ahead, providing a series of historiographical signposts for the history of international law as a field of new research.
Psychomotor agitation is characterized by a significant increase in or inappropriate motor activity, from minimal anxiety to uncoordinated movement without purpose, accompanied by alterations in the emotional sphere.
Psychiatric causes includes schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder
47-year-old patient with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia with 25 years of evolution. Compensated during the last 5 years. She comes to the hospital with her husband.
She presents psychomotor agitation characterized by a megalomaniac delusion ('I'm a virgin', 'this is not my husband, my husband is someone else and he is dead, this is a double') delusional interpretations of the environment ('I won´t sit down, because you´re going to steal my movement'), irritability, dysphoria, vocal and behavioral disturbances such as insults or increased motor gestures like bumps against the furniture.
T 0 (00 min) PEC score scale: 18
Inhaled administration of Adasuve (Staccato loxapine)
The use of a catalyst is required to synthesize poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) and tin (II) 2-ethylhexanoate could be highlighted among them. However, this kind of catalysts can produce bio-dangerous compounds limiting the PLA in medical applications, therefore there is a need to investigate novel bio-safe catalysts. Taking into account this problem, this communication reports the use of micro- and nano-ZnO particles as catalysts for the microwave-assisted polymerization of D,L-lactide. By microwave heating a high monomer conversion (higher than 95%) was achieved in a relatively short reaction time (3 hours). Morphology/size and concentration of ZnO particles presented a strong effect on the production of PLA, star-like microparticles leaded to conversion ca. 25%, well below to the values achieved with the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the formation of a ZnO-PLA hybrid was evidenced by spectroscopic and thermal characterization techniques. The methodology herein developed represents a new pathway for the green synthesis of PLA.
Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), an analogue of carbon nanotube (CNT) is one of the most used non-metallic materials in high technology applications related to thin film fabrications. Taking advantage of their unique properties such as electrically non-conductive, thermally conductive, and high hardness, it has been used in high-temperature electronic devices, multifunctional aerospace materials, and structures and electric and aerospace systems. The main goal of this project was to use BNNTs in the fabrication of nano epoxycomposites to enhance their thermal and mechanical properties to use it for applications in aerospace constituents. In order to accomplish this goal, BNNTs were functionalized with isopherone diisocyante (IPDC). Surface analysis techniques were employed to ensure the modification BNNTs and study the interface of the reinforced composites before and after the modification. Mechanical and thermal conductivity testing was performed in order to understand the quality of the composites. Three different nanocomposites were accomplished with hBN and BNNTs using two different epoxy polymers and three curing agents. The systems EPON 862/Curing Agent W/ (hBN or BNNTs) have Tgs and tan deltas higher compared with those fabricated at the same conditions without nanoparticles. The fabricated BN composites showed improved physical properties due to their particle dispersion and boron nitrite intermolecular interactions with the epoxy polymer.
Psychotherapy Focused on Psychic Representation (PFPR) is a new time limited dynamic psychotherapy for the treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. It is a manualized psychodynamic technique based on brief psychoanalytic psychotherapies principles and designed to be applied in the framework of public care services. A randomized and controlled study with a sample of 53 patients was conducted to assess PFPR's efficacy. We are reporting the final results at the end of treatment and at the 6 and 12 months of follow up.
Both groups, the experimental (n=25) and control group (n=28) received treatment as usual. The experimental group received 20 additional PFPR sessions performed by four therapists with homogenous characteristics, specifically trained in this technique. The main outcome variables measures were: Severity global index of SCL-90-R, Barrat Impulsivity Scale scores and Social Adaptation (SASS score). Baseline and conditions at the end of treatment and at the 6 and 12 months of follow up period were compared.
Results and Conclusions:
Results showed significantly better outcomes for the experimental group in all main variables and in most of the secondary ones at the end of treatment. At 6 months follow up, the significant differences remain in level of impulsivity and some other secondary variables. At 12 months follow up the experimental group shows better results in all variables but only depressive symptoms measurement remains significant.
A discrete time stochastic model for a multiagent system given in terms of a large collection of interacting Markov chains is studied. The evolution of the interacting particles is described through a time inhomogeneous transition probability kernel that depends on the ‘gradient’ of the potential field. The particles, in turn, dynamically modify the potential field through their cumulative input. Interacting Markov processes of the above form have been suggested as models for active biological transport in response to external stimulus such as a chemical gradient. One of the basic mathematical challenges is to develop a general theory of stability for such interacting Markovian systems and for the corresponding nonlinear Markov processes that arise in the large agent limit. Such a theory would be key to a mathematical understanding of the interactive structure formation that results from the complex feedback between the agents and the potential field. It will also be a crucial ingredient in developing simulation schemes that are faithful to the underlying model over long periods of time. The goal of this work is to study qualitative properties of the above stochastic system as the number of particles (N) and the time parameter (n) approach infinity. In this regard asymptotic properties of a deterministic nonlinear dynamical system, that arises in the propagation of chaos limit of the stochastic model, play a key role. We show that under suitable conditions this dynamical system has a unique fixed point. This result allows us to study stability properties of the underlying stochastic model. We show that as N → ∞, the stochastic system is well approximated by the dynamical system, uniformly over time. As a consequence, for an arbitrarily initialized system, as N → ∞ and n → ∞, the potential field and the empirical measure of the interacting particles are shown to converge to the unique fixed point of the dynamical system. In general, simulation of such interacting Markovian systems is a computationally daunting task. We propose a particle based approximation for the dynamic potential field which allows for a numerically tractable simulation scheme. It is shown that this simulation scheme well approximates the true physical system, uniformly over an infinite time horizon.
The papers gathered under this special issue draw on presentations from the International Legal Theory Workshop under the auspices of the 4th Conference of the European Society of International Law, which was held at Cambridge University in September 2010. The essays cover some key developments in international law since the fall of the Berlin Wall. In the pages that follow, you will find an examination of the rise of the notion of ‘harmonious society’ in China as well as an insightful analysis of how this concept can influence international law; a detailed study of the regime of responsibility of international organizations that has gained momentum in the wake of the proliferation of international organization since 1989; a proposal for a fiduciary theory of international human rights, conceived as an alternative model to post-9/11, interest-balancing approaches in the field of national security law; and a reflection on the endurance of the notion of rogue states and state-criminalizing approaches to international relations, beyond the confines of the Bush doctrine. These essays are started off by two papers that address, from different angles, the current state of theorizing of international law.