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The fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering that mimic the extracellular matrix with bioactive and bactericidal properties could provide adequate conditions for regeneration of damaged bone. Electrospun ultrathin fiber covered with nano-hydroxyapatite is a favorable fibrous scaffold design. We developed a fast and reproducible strategy to produce polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) nanofibrous scaffolds with bactericidal and bioactive properties. Fibrous PVDF scaffolds were obtained first by the electrospinning method. Then, their surfaces were modified using oxygen plasma treatment followed by electrodeposition of nHAp. This process formed nanofibrous and superhydrophilic PVDF fibers (133.6 nm, fiber average diameter) covered with homogeneous nHAp (202.6 nm, average particle diameter) crystals. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry demonstrated the presence of calcium phosphate, indicating a Ca/P molar ratio of approximately 1.64. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy spectra identified β-phase of nHAp. Thermal analysis indicated a slight reduction in stability after nHAp electrodeposition. Bactericidal assays showed that nHAp exhibited 99.8% efficiency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The PVDF/Plasma and PVDF/nHAp groups had the highest cell viability, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase activity by 7 days after exposure of the scaffolds to MG63 cell culture. Therefore, the developed scaffolds are an exciting alternative for application in bone regeneration.
Oral nutritional supplements are widely recommended to head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing anti-cancer treatment; however, their effects on the outcomes of most importance to patients are unclear. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence of effect of oral nutritional supplements on mortality, treatment tolerance, quality of life, functional status, body weight and adverse effects. We searched PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, LILACS, Web of Science, CINAHL, two trial registry platforms, three sources of grey literature and reference lists of included studies. We assessed the risk of bias using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool (RoB 2), and certainty of evidence using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. We used random-effects models with Hartung–Knapp correction for the meta-analyses. We included fifteen trials, of which five were ongoing or unpublished, providing evidence in four comparisons. We found very low to low certainty evidence for the effect of oral nutritional supplements on mortality, treatment tolerance, quality of life, functional status and adverse effects. When compared with nutritional counselling alone, nutritional counselling plus oral nutritional supplements probably increased body weight slightly. We also found adverse events relating to supplements use such as nausea, vomiting and feeling of fullness. Possible increases in mortality, treatment tolerance and quality of life besides a possible decrease in functional status are worthy of further investigation. Future research could attempt to address the clinical importance of a probable increase in body weight. Possible adverse effects of the use of oral nutritional supplements should not be overlooked.
Nutritional disorders during the perinatal period cause cardiometabolic dysfunction, which is observable in the early overfeeding (EO) experimental model. Therefore, severe caloric restriction has the potential of affecting homeostasis through the same epigenetic mechanisms, and its effects need elucidation. This work aims to determine the impact of food restriction (FR) during puberty in early overfed obese and non-obese animals in adult life. Three days after delivery (PN3), Wistar rats were separated into two groups: normal litter (NL; 9 pups) and small litter (SL; 3 pups). At PN30, some offspring were subjected to FR (50%) until PN60, or maintained with free access to standard chow. NL and SL animals submitted to food restriction (NLFR and SLFR groups) were kept in recovery with free access to standard chow from PN60 until PN120. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. At PN120 cardiovascular parameters were analyzed and the animals were euthanized for sample collection. SLNF and SLFR offspring were overweight and had increased adiposity. Differences in blood pressure were observed only between obese and non-obese animals. Obese and FR animals have cardiac remodeling showing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the presence of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. FR animals also show increased expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors and of total ERK and p-ERK. The present study showed that EO leads to the obese phenotype and cardiovascular disruptions. Interestingly, we demonstrated that severe FR during puberty leads to cardiac remodeling.
Constitutive heterochromatin typically exhibits low gene density and is commonly found adjacent or close to the nuclear periphery, in contrast to transcriptionally active genes concentrated in the innermost nuclear region. In Triatoma infestans cells, conspicuous constitutive heterochromatin forms deeply stained structures named chromocenters. However, to the best of our knowledge, no information exists regarding whether these chromocenters acquire a precise topology in the cell nuclei or whether their 18S rDNA, which is important for ribosome function, faces the nuclear center preferentially. In this work, the spatial distribution of fluorescent Feulgen-stained chromocenters and the distribution of their 18S rDNA was analyzed in Malpighian tubule cells of T. infestans using confocal microscopy. The chromocenters were shown to be spatially positioned relatively close to the nuclear periphery, though not adjacent to it. The variable distance between the chromocenters and the nuclear periphery suggests mobility of these bodies within the cell nuclei. The distribution of 18S rDNA at the edge of the chromocenters was not found to face the nuclear interior exclusively. Because the genome regions containing 18S rDNA in the chromocenters also face the nuclear periphery, the proximity of the chromocenters to this nuclear region is not assumed to be associated with overall gene silencing.
Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder. The lack of concordance on disease manifestation in monozygotic twins provides clear evidence that environmental factors are key determinants in disease aetiology. In accordance, various environmental modulators such as hormones and vitamins may well contribute to the altered expression pattern of several genes identified in post-mortem brain tissue of patients. We constructed a microarray platform containing 1,808 human genes, where 142 belong to vitamin A, thyroid hormone and estrogens’ metabolic pathways, to specifically address whether these could contribute to a molecular signature of schizophrenia in peripheral lymphocytes. We found that the genes encoding for PLP1, UGT1A6, NTRK1, THRAP1, ESR2, TRIP13, MAPK8, TGFB2, IGFBP4 are differentially expressed in lymphocytes of patients under treatment with clozapine, risperdal or haloperidol. Some of these genes have been previously reported by others to be altered in brain regions of schizophrenic patients, and all are implicated in pathways suggested to be involved in the disease. These observations further support that:
1. studies in peripheral blood lymphocytes may contribute to reveal candidate genes in schizophrenia;
2. transcription modulation of several genes may occur through the mediation of vitamin and hormones, therefore linking genes and environment in schizophrenia.
In order to understand the involvement of these genes in schizophrenia, future studies should investigate whether some of the observed changes are replicated in animal models of the disease, and how antipsychotic treatment interferes with their expression.
Current policies aim to promote and develop community-based support of disabled elderly persons, yet knowledge of the cost implications is insufficient. Thus, we aimed to estimate, for three disability profiles and three presence levels of the main informal carer (none, non-cohabitant, cohabitant), the cost of formal and informal support currently provided at home in Belgium. In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 5,642 disabled elderly persons living at home was established between 2010 and 2016. The administrative database of the Belgian public healthcare insurance was merged with other prospective data on social care service utilisation, informal care and disability. The total cost of formal support ranged from €725 to €1,344 (on average, per person, per month), depending on the three disability profiles identified. Twenty-five per cent of persons with the highest level of disability (important functional limitations and cognitive impairment) and helped by a cohabitant carer, had a low total cost of formal support: below €382 per month. Informal care represented the main cost component of total support costs in the three disability profiles (between 64 and 76%). To prevent the worsening of situations of disabled older persons and their informal carers, better detection of seriously disabled persons with low levels of formal support is crucial.
Depression is a major mental illness affecting the elderly. About 15% of the elderly have some depressive symptoms and about 2% have severe depression. This study was conducted in an Extension Program of the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO) and the aims are: to identify the prevalence of depression in the elderly attended by the community center “Project Rebirth” in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, and discuss strategies developed in consultation to care the depression.
The elderly are registered in the program and accompanied by a multidisciplinary team. In nursing consultations, whose base is in the realization of Nursing Process, there is the application of the Geriatric Depression Scale named Yesavage – reduced version (GDS-15) held by students under the supervision of the teacher. After classification of the patient on the scale, they develop the care plan based in the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), and the nursing diagnoses that have among their factors related to depression and its symptoms.
Results and conclusions
In addition to interventions carried out in consultation, involving recovery of self-esteem, encouragement of leisure and recreational activities, and supported self-care, the program staff (psychologists, doctors, nurses and occupational therapists) works in partnership in support group health education, encouraging the integration of the elderly. The well-being and self-esteem of the elderly, thus, reduce the triggers of depression, with the integration of participants, students and professionals.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Anxiety in elderly can be diagnosed based on a detailed history and cognitive examination using various instruments. These instruments aim to obtain information that supports both the syndromic and etiological diagnosis and the planning and execution of therapeutic and rehabilitation measures to be used in each case. During the nursing consultation with elderly people in the Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), many patients with cognitive impairment showed anxious behavior. The study objectives to describe the factors related to the nursing diagnose anxiety in elderly patients attended in the nursing consultation. The consultations are based in the application of the nursing process. After the symptoms analysis, the nursing diagnosis anxiety is complemented with the related factors. The principals are death threat (64%), stressors (19%) and not needs met (17%). The data found are associated with cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment in the elderly can lead to anxiety, depression and hopelessness, according to many studies.
Working the cognitive needs, and reducing stressors are appropriate strategies to reduce the anxiety. The care with the health professionals is important to notice the related factors early and improve the strategies.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Soybean has undergone the greatest expansion of any global crop, fuelled by the emergence of herbicide-resistant crops. In Uruguay, soybean croplands have increased from virtually zero to more than 1 million ha in 20 years. Uruguay is also implementing its system of protected areas. Here, we assess the presence of pesticides within a Ramsar site and protected area, in a basin dominated by croplands. We consider pesticides as surrogates of the subtle impacts of agribusiness on conservation initiatives and other productions. Pesticides were found in soils, fishes and beehives, both within and around the protected area. Endosulfan was found in all matrices analysed (23 of 80 samples), while glyphosate (0–2.31 mg/kg) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA; 0–0.61 mg/kg) were found in all soil classes. The study also allowed for a retrospective evaluation of a recent policy banning endosulfan in Uruguay, suggesting that while the protected area has not been immune to the impacts of agribusiness on human health or biodiversity, limiting the use of pesticides reduces or avoids some of them. This has implications for the design of multifunctional landscapes and for the debate on land sharing versus land sparing.
Scedosporium and Lomentospora species are ubiquitous saprophytic filamentous fungi that emerged as human pathogens with impressive multidrug-resistance profile. The ability to form biofilm over several biotic and abiotic surfaces is one of the characteristics that contributes to their resistance patterns against almost all currently available antifungals. Herein, we have demonstrated that Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium minutisporum, Scedosporium aurantiacum and Lomentospora prolificans were able to form biofilm, in similar amounts, when conidial cells were incubated in a polystyrene substrate containing Sabouraud medium supplemented or not with different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of glucose, fructose, sucrose and lactose. Likewise, the glucose supplementation of culture media primarily composed of amino acids (SCFM, synthetic cystic fibrosis medium) and salts (YNB, yeast nitrogen base) did not modulate the biofilm formation of Scedosporium/Lomentospora species. Collectively, the present data reinforce the ability of these opportunistic fungi to colonize and to build biofilm structures under different environmental conditions.
The mojarras (Eucinostomus) are a widespread group of coastal fishes of controversial taxonomy because of similarities in their external morphology. In the present study, we assessed the genetic diversity of species and populations of Eucinostomus using DNA barcodes using a systematic and phylogeographic context. In total, 416 COI sequences of all valid Eucinostomus representatives were analysed based on public databases and collected specimens from the north-eastern coast of Brazil (Western South Atlantic). Several cases of misidentification were detected in the barcode dataset (E. argenteus, E. harengulus, E. gula, E. dowii and E. jonesii) that could account for the taxonomic issues in this genus. In contrast, we identified four molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), with divergence above 2% in the Western Atlantic, that correspond to cryptic forms within E. argenteus, E. harengulus, E. gula and E. melanopterus. These data suggest that Plio-Pleistocene events (rise of the Panama isthmus, Amazonas outflow and sea-level fluctuations) played a major role in the diversification of mojarras. While subtle morphological differences have been used as proxies to discriminate Eucinostomus species, the genetic data proved to be efficient in differentiating them and revealing potentially undescribed taxa. Therefore, we recommend that further taxonomic studies in mojarras should incorporate DNA-based evidence.
Although evidence shows some decrease in energy intake, consumption of added sugars, solid fat acids (SFA), and sodium are still high among Latin Americans. This study evaluated top food sources contributing to the percentage of energy and nutrients-to-limit among Latin Americans.
Materials and Methods
Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) cross-sectional included 9,218 adults from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. 24h-recalls were used and foods were identified via adaptation of “What We Eat in America” system. Food sources of energy and nutrient-to-limit were ranked based on the percentage of intake contribution.
Argentina energy food sources were pizza (11.8%), and meats (5.7%); added sugars were sweetened beverages (14.3%), and quick breads (12.4%); SFA was pizza (22.2%) and meats (7.8%); and sodium was pizza (15.5%), and soup (7.6%). Brazil energy sources were alcoholic beverages (9.3%), and pizza (6.9%); added sugars were sweetened beverages (14.7%) and desserts (14.3%); SFA and sodium were pizza (9.0% and 9.9%) and sandwiches (9.4%). Chile energy sources were pizza (11.9%) and grain-based dishes (5.6%); added sugars were sweet bakeries (16.6%) and sweetened beverages (13.8%); SFA and sodium were pizza (19.6% and 21.2%) and sandwiches (7.4% and 7.7%). Colombia energy sources were pizza (6.6%) and alcoholic beverages (5.6%); added sugars were snacks (15.2%) and desserts (12.9%); SFA were desserts (9.7%) and pizza (7.6%); and sodium were soups (11.8%) and pizza (10.5%). Costa Rica energy sources were pizza (8.7%) and alcoholic beverages (6.9%), added sugars were sweetened beverages (13.0%) and candy (10.5%); SFA was pizza (12.0%) and Mexican dishes (8.9%); and sodium was pizza (13.5%) and sandwiches (8.8%). Ecuador energy sources were grain dishes (7.7%) and alcoholic beverages (6.8%), added sugars were sweetened beverages (14.6%) and desserts (12.6%), SFA was pizza (8.8%) and grain-based dishes (7.5%), and sodium were Asian dishes (10.4%) and grain-based dishes (9.2%). Peru energy sources were grain-based dishes (8.9%) and alcoholic beverages (8.2%), added sugars were yogurts (18.6%) and sweetened beverages (14.3%), SFA was pizza (8.6%) and sandwiches (8.1%), and sodium were grain-based dishes (17.2%) and cooked grains (14.9%). Venezuela energy sources were grain-based dishes (6.9%) and alcoholic beverages (6.1%), added sugars were sweetened beverages (13.5%) and desserts (11.3%), SFA were grain-based dishes (11.3%) and meats (7.7%), and sodium were sandwiches (9.0%) and grain-based dishes (7.9%).
Awareness of food sources is critical for designing strategies to help Latin Americans meet nutrient recommendations within energy needs.
To investigate the association among social determinants, lifestyle variables and diet quality in São Paulo, Brazil.
Cross-sectional study, 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo (Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo (2015 ISA-Capital)) with Focus on Nutrition Study (2015 ISA-Nutrition).
Population-based study, with a representative sample of adults living in São Paulo, Brazil.
Adults (aged 20–59 years, n 643) and older adults (aged ≥60 years, n 545).
We observed differences in the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) by education, income, occupation, sex and race. Whole grains (0·63 points, 12·6 % of the maximum score), sodium (2·50 points, 25·0 %) and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars (9·28 points, 46·4 %) components had the lowest BHEI-R scores. Factors positively associated with diet quality included the presence of one disease or more (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, hypercholesterolaemia: β = 0·636, P < 0·001), income (middle income: β = 0·478, P < 0·001; high income: β = 0·966, P < 0·001) and occupation (other: β = 1·418, P < 0·001). Energy (β = –0·001, P < 0·001), alcohol consumption (β = –0·207, P = 0·027), education level (middle education: β = –0·975, P < 0·001; high education: β = –1·376, P < 0·001), races other than white (β = –0·366, P < 0·001) and being unemployed (β = –0·369, P < 0·046) were negatively associated with diet quality.
Groups affected by socio-economic inequalities need better diet quality. Governmental actions should be implemented to reduce the consumption of energy-dense and sodium-rich foods, facilitate access and information on healthy eating, and conduct nutritional education.
Asthma-obesity is a multifactorial disease with specific asthma phenotypes that aggravate due to overweight and an unbalanced diet. Furthermore, obese asthmatic patients are corticotherapy-resistant. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on food consumption, body composition, lung function and adipokines in asthmatic and non-asthmatic obese adolescents and to investigate the influence of nutrients on lung function. Obese non-asthmatic (n 42) and obese asthmatic (n 21) adolescents of both sexes were enrolled in the present study. Food intake, adipokine levels, body composition, asthma symptoms and lung function were assessed across the study. After the intervention of 1 year, there was a reduction (P ≤ 0·01) in BMI, body fat percentage, visceral and subcutaneous fat and an increase (P ≤ 0·01) in lean mass and all lung function variables in both groups, except the relation between forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) in non-asthmatic patients. Moreover, both groups decreased lipid and cholesterol consumption (P ≤ 0·01). The highest energy consumption (β = −0·021) was associated with lower values of FVC. Similarly, carbohydrate consumption (β = −0·06) and cholesterol were negative predictors (β = −0·05) in FEV1:FVC. However, the consumption of Ca (β = 0·01), fibres (β = 1·34) and vitamin A (β = 0·01) were positive predictors of FEV1:FVC. Asthma-obesity interdisciplinary treatment promoted an improvement on food consumption and lung function in adolescents and demonstrated that the consumption of nutrients influenced an increase in lung function.
Environmental conditions have changed in the past of our planet but were not hostile enough to extinguish life. In the future, an aged Earth and a more luminous Sun may lead to harsh or even uninhabitable conditions for life. In order to estimate the life span of the biosphere we built a minimal model of the co-evolution of the geosphere, atmosphere and biosphere of our planet, taking into account temperature boundaries, CO2 partial pressure lower limits for C3 and C4 plants, and the presence of enough surface water. Our results indicate that the end of the biosphere will happen long before the Sun becomes a red giant, as the biosphere faces increasingly more difficult conditions in the future until its collapse due to high temperatures. The lower limit for CO2 partial pressure for C3 plants will be reached in 170(+ 320, − 110) Myr, followed by the C4 plants limit in 840(+ 270, − 100) Myr. The mean surface temperature will reach 373 K in 1.63(+ 0.14, − 0.05) Gyr, a point that would mark the extinction of the biosphere. Water loss due to internal geophysical processes will not be dramatic, implying almost no variation in the surface ocean mass and ocean depth for the next 1.5 billion years. Our predictions show qualitative convergence and some quantitative agreement with results found in the literature, but there is considerable scattering in the scale of hundreds of millions of years for all the criteria devised. Even considering these uncertainties, the end of the biosphere will hardly happen sooner than 1.5 Gyr.
Despite recent advancements on cloud-enabled and human-in-the-loop cyber-physical systems, there is still a lack of understanding of how infrastructure-related quality of service (QoS) issues affect user-perceived quality of experience (QoE). This work presents a pilot experiment over a cloud-enabled mobility assistive device providing a guidance service and investigates the relationship between QoS and QoE in such a system. In our pilot experiment, we employed the CloudWalker, a system linking smart walkers and cloud platforms, to physically interact with users. Different QoS conditions were emulated to represent an architecture in which control algorithms are performed remotely. Results point out that users report satisfactory interaction with the system even under unfavorable QoS conditions. We also found statistically significant data linking QoE degradation to poor QoS conditions. We finalize discussing the interplay between QoS requirements, the human-in-the-loop effect, and the perceived QoE in healthcare applications.
Professionals dealing with children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs) need to be constantly trained because of the numerous challenges posed by the particularities arising from the multiple conditions that pervade child development. The aim of this study is to describe the training processes of education, health and social care professionals who care for children aged 0 to 12 years with neurodevelopmental disorders.
The revision overview was registered in the PROSPERO platform CRD42018100715 that followed the parameters of the PRISMA protocol and aimed to identify the existing multi-professional training processes, aimed at health professionals, education and social assistance aimed at promoting skills for care with children and families with TND. The research question was structured according to the acronym PICO. The search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CRD, Web of Science, Campbell Library, Health System Evidence, Epistemonikos and Joanna Briggs databases in May 2018.
We selected 23 articles. Of these, 21 (91 percent) were health professionals, 22 (96 percent) referred to intellectual disability, 16 (71 percent) were in the American continent and 15 (65 percent) used in-service training as educational resource. The outcomes showed that the structuring of teaching-learning in the practice of health, education and social care professionals determines a more inclusive proposal in the treatment of children with NDD.
The health professional is the most trained to attend children with NDD, however, training and development policies are lacking for professionals from other areas who act as a gateway to diagnostic services. Establishing in-service training initiatives strengthens the support and structuring of intersectoral programs that would facilitate multi-professional participation in the prognosis and treatment directed at children with NDD. Therefore, associating the use of assistive technologies allows new opportunities to access tools and electronic devices that allow the formation of professionals.
The increase of sheep meat competitiveness in international markets can be attributed to the rise of the quantity and the improvement of the quality of the edible portion of sheep carcasses. Usually, carcass yield is established after the slaughter of the animals. Yet, when carcass yield is determined in vivo, it can be both a costly and subjective method. This study proposes models for predicting the physical characteristics of lamb carcass using bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in live animals. Thirty-one Texel × Ile de France crossbreed ram lambs were slaughtered at 20, 26, 32 or 38 kg of BW. Before the slaughter, values of resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) were collected using a single-frequency BIA equipment (Model RJL Quantum II Bioelectrical Body Composition Analyzer). Then, BIA main variables such as body bioelectrical volume (V), phase angle (PA), resistive density (RsD) and reactive density (XcD) were calculated. After slaughter, cold carcass weight (CCW), cold carcass yield (CCY), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), soft tissue weight (STW) and soft tissue yield (STY) were also measured. Multiple regression analyses were carried out using the physical characteristics as dependent variables and the bioimpedance values as independent variables. Predictive performance of the models was assessed using leave-one-out cross-validation. The prediction model of CCW was obtained using the V, PA and RsD (R2 = 0.97), STW through the V, RsD and XcD (R2 = 0.97), CCY by Rs, Z and XcD (R2 = 0.69), STY by V and XcD (R2 = 0.67), and SFT only for XcD (R2 = 0.84). The results indicated that BIA has the potential to predict carcass characteristics of lambs at different body masses.
Inclusion of legume in grass pastures optimizes protein values of the forage and promotes improved digestibility. Therefore, we hypothesized that finishing steers on a novel combination of legumes and grass pasture would produce carcasses with acceptable traits when compared to carcasses from steers finished in feedlot systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of finishing steers on three systems including: grazing legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover (PAST), grazing PAST plus supplementation with whole corn grain (14 g/kg BW (SUPP)), and on a feedlot-confined system with concentrate only (28 g/kg BW, consisting of 850 g/kg of whole corn grain and 150 g/kg of protein–mineral–vitamin supplement (GRAIN)) on growth performance of steers, carcass traits and digestive disorders. Eighteen steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments and finished for 91 days. Data regarding pasture and growth performance were collected during three different periods (0 to 28, 29 to 56 and 57 to 91 days). Subsequently, steers were harvested to evaluate carcass traits, presence of rumenitis, abomasitis and liver abscesses. The legume–grass pasture provided more than 19% dry matter of protein. In addition, pasture of paddocks where steers were assigned to SUPP and PAST treatments showed similar nutritional quality. When compared to PAST, finishing on SUPP increased total weight gain per hectare, stocking rate, daily and total weight gains. The increase of weight gain was high to GRAIN than SUPP and PAST. Steers finished on GRAIN had high hot carcass weight, fat thickness and marbling score when compared to PAST. However, these attributes did not differ between GRAIN and SUPP. Abomasum lesions were more prevalent in steers finished on GRAIN when compared to PAST. Results of this research showed that it is possible to produce carcasses with desirable market weight and fat thickness by finishing steers on legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover. Moreover, supplementing steers with corn when grazing on legume–grass pasture produced similar carcass traits when compared to beef fed corn only.
Chagas disease is a public health problem, affecting about 7 million people worldwide. Benznidazole (BZN) is the main treatment option, but it has limited effectiveness and can cause severe adverse effects. Drug delivery through nanoparticles has attracted the interest of the scientific community aiming to improve therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of benznidazole-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticles (BZN@CaCO3) on Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y. It was observed that BZN@CaCO3 was able to reduce the viability of epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote forms of T. cruzi with greater potency when compared with BZN. The amount of BZN necessary to obtain the same effect was up to 25 times smaller when loaded with CaCO3 nanoparticles. Also, it was observed that BZN@CaCO3 enhanced the selectivity index. Furthermore, the cell-death mechanism induced by both BZN and BZN@CaCO3 was evaluated, indicating that both substances caused necrosis and changed mitochondrial membrane potential.