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Evidence from randomised controlled trials supports beneficial effects of total dairy products on body weight, fat and lean mass, but evidence on associations of dairy types with distributions of body fat and lean mass is limited. We aimed to investigate associations of total and different types of dairy products with markers of adiposity, and body fat and lean mass distribution. We evaluated cross-sectional data from 12,065 adults aged 30 to 65 years recruited to the Fenland study between 2005 and 2015 in Cambridgeshire UK. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We estimated regression coefficients (or % differences) and their 95% CI using multiple linear regression models. The median (interquartile range) of milk, yoghurt, and cheese consumption were 293 (146 – 439), 35.3 (8.8 – 71.8), and 14.6 (4.8 – 26.9) g/d, respectively. Low-fat dairy consumption was inversely associated with visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio estimated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [–2.58% (–3.91, –1.23%) per serving/day]. Habitual consumption per serving/day (200 g) of milk was associated with 0.33 (0.19, 0.46) kg higher lean mass. Other associations were not significant after false discovery correction. Our findings suggest that the influence of milk consumption on lean mass and of low-fat dairy consumption on fat mass distribution may be potential pathways for the link between dairy consumption and metabolic risk. Our cross-sectional findings warrant further research in prospective and experimental studies in diverse populations.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate could help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were: (1) control diet with no Yerba Mate or vitamin E; (2) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E; (3) diet containing 30 g/kg Yerba Mate; and (4) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E and 30 g/kg Yerba Mate. To increase unsaturated fatty acids in milk, cows were fed 172 g/kg soybean seeds (on a dry matter basis). There was no interaction between vitamin E and Yerba Mate supplementation for milk antioxidant-related (polyphenols, reducing power, conjugated dienes, and TBARS) analyses. Milk reducing power was increased when cows were supplemented with Yerba Mate. Our results suggest that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate does not help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk in UFA.
The current populational aging context requires that society reflect on the variables related with well-being and discuss ways of how to ensure them. The Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1989, 2002) posits that individuals who possess more material or social resources are more capable of resolving conflicts and dealing with stressful situations, thus maintaining good levels of well-being. However, there is a lack of instruments aimed at measuring the necessary resources for retirement well-being. The objective of this study was to translate and analyse the psychometric qualities of the Retirement Resources Inventory (RRI) (Leung & Earl, 2012) as applied to 1002 Brazilian retirees. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were undertaken using two independent subsamples consisting of 401 and 601 retirees respectively. Two viable models arose from the exploratory analysis: A five-factor model, χ2(gl) = 816.644 (271); CFI = 0.88; GFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.07; R2 = 0.55; and a six-factor model, χ2(gl) = 1028.291 (400); CFI = 0.88; GFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.03; R2= 0.53, with good fit indices, but similar to each other. Confirmatory analysis pointed towards an instrument consisting of 29 items and five factors with good fit indices, χ2(gl) = 1,274(364); CFI = 0.87; TLI: 0.86; RMSEA: 0.06, corroborating the model proposed by Wang and Shultz (2010). The analyses also highlighted the need for actions that take into account the gender, age and region of the country where the retiree lives. Future cross-cultural studies are recommended seeing that retirement planning is an emerging issue that affects the world as a whole.
In patients after atrioventricular septal defect correction, altered geometry leads to a changed position and subsequent flow over the left ventricular outflow tract. We hypothesised that this altered flow may influence haemodynamics in the ascending aorta.
In total, 30 patients after atrioventricular septal defect correction (age 27.6 ± 12.8 years) and 28 healthy volunteers (age 24.8 ± 13.7 years) underwent 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Left ventricular ejection fraction and mean and peak wall shear stress calculated at ascending aortic peak systole were obtained from cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Left ventricular outflow tract data including velocity and diameter were obtained from echocardiography.
Patients showed a higher mean (911 ± 173 versus 703 ± 154 mPa, p = 0.001) and peak ascending aortic wall shear stress (1264 ± 302 versus 1009 ± 240 mPa, p = 0.001) compared to healthy volunteers. Increased blood flow velocities over the left ventricular outflow tract (1.49 ± 0.30 m/s versus 1.22 ± 0.20 m/s, p < 0.001) correlated well with mean and peak ascending aortic wall shear stress (r = 0.67, p < 0.001 and r = 0.77, p < 0.001).
After atrioventricular septal defect correction, increased wall shear stress was observed, which correlated to velocities over the left ventricular outflow tract. These findings imply that altered outflow tract geometry contributes to changed aortic haemodynamics.
Since its rediscovery in 1998, two major threats have been mentioned for the enigmatic Austral Rail Rallus antarcticus: cattle management by burning grass and rushes and predation by American mink Neovison vison. Added to the lack of a protocol to monitor this secretive bird, ever-growing threats make it necessary to study its global situation in depth to take accurate and urgent management decisions. We firstly studied how threats to the Austral Rail currently impact their occupancy and relative density (RD) at a wetland scale and habitat features associated with its presence at survey site scale inside wetlands in Santa Cruz province, Argentina. We additionally developed a monitoring protocol to detect the rail effectively and promptly by studying responses to playback with two different vocalisations at different times of the day and season. Both threats evaluated were negatively related to occupancy and RD of the Austral Rail, especially mink presence appearing to have an additive effect. We propose American mink control as crucial for Austral Rail conservation, while it would also be necessary to conserve a portion of wetlands exempt from burning and cattle presence. At survey sites, its presence was positively related with c.1–1.5 m tall rushes, whilst rails avoided low- density rush areas that resulted after management of rushes with fire to create pasture. To detect rails, both vocalisations can be confidently used at any time of the day and season. The poor knowledge about species ecology, mismanagement of vegetation in wetlands, expansion of American mink in Patagonia, construction on two dams in the Santa Cruz river basin, added to the already modified humidity conditions due to global climate change, force us to suggest that the Austral Rail should be considered as globally ‘Endangered’ (EN), to ensure the consideration of the species in management decisions.
A previously undocumented type of wetland is described from the Atacama Desert in northern Chile (3000 m above sea level), sustained exclusively by direct precipitation and perched above the regional water table. Geomorphological mapping, pedostratigraphy, geochemistry, and analysis of contemporary vegetation is used to understand wetland formation and dynamics during historical and present time periods. The paleowetland deposits overlie a Miocene tuff that acts as an impermeable barrier to water transfer and creates conditions for local shallow ground water. These deposits include several paleosols that were formed during periods when precipitation increased regionally at 7755–7300, 1270, 545, and 400–300 cal yr BP. The similarity in timing with other palaeohydrological records for the Atacama implies that paleosols from this wetland are proxies for reconstructing past changes in local and regional hydrological cycle. Archaeological investigations have revealed the presence of two small farms from the Late Intermediate period, i.e., during the earliest wetter phase represented by the paleosols. Both farms are located near the paleowetland deposits, which suggests that local inhabitants exploited these water sources during late pre-Hispanic times. Results of this study improve knowledge of settlement patterns during this and earlier cultural periods.
The aim of this paper is to re-activate certain layers of normative meaning that have been obscured, forgotten or rendered inoperative by the predominant traditions that engaged, from Grotius onwards, with the concept of res communes omnium. The hope and the purpose is that of offering a novel perspective on matters such as the protection and preservation of ocean commons that are of great urgency and importance today. Re-activating or ‘remembering’ the full scope of the concept of res communes omnium may produce some effects on the broader discourse of ocean environmental protection. It may, perhaps, help carve novel space for re-imagining the terms of the problems, and the array of available solutions that can be entertained and discussed, having particularly in mind the debates currently ongoing in the context of the negotiations towards a new global treaty on marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.
In this introduction to the special section on globalization, regionalization, and multi-polarity, we review network analysis applications to the study of globalization as a complex and multi-dimensional phenomenon and we explore the frontiers of our knowledge about the network properties of global systems. We focus on the global economic (trade and investment), political, and migration systems.
Members of the genus Hepatozoon (Miller, 1908) are blood parasites found in a wide range of host species, including wild rodents; however, information about the life cycle, distribution and Hepatozoon species diversity infecting these mammals are lacking. We studied the parasite stages and DNA sequences of Hepatozoon sp. of 11 naturally infected Akodon montensis. Thin blood smears, tissue samples and whole blood were obtained for morphology, morphometry and molecular analyses. Seven of the 11 rodents had gamonts on the blood smears. Biological and morphological features of the parasite such as tissue tropism, gamonts and meronts size and morphology, as well as the DNA sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis, indicated that the Hepatozoon sp. detected in this study is distinct from those species previously reported in small rodents. Herein, we propose a new species, named Hepatozoon milleri sp. nov. This is the first description of a new Hepatozoon species from wild small rodents in Brazil, based on morphological and molecular characteristics.
The phenomenon of Iron Age vitrified ramparts has become increasingly recognisable in the last twenty years in the Iberian Peninsula. After the first walls with vitrified stones were discovered in southern Portugal, there have been several findings scattered throughout western Iberia. A chronological sequence from the Late Bronze Age to the Late Iron Age can be established on the basis of the archaeological remains, with reference to different historical and functional conditions. This article reviews the data obtained from the various sites, in order to understand the context in which the stone structures became vitrified. Furthermore, we have analysed samples of stones and mud bricks that have been altered by fire from these sites, which has allowed us to explain the variability in the archaeological record in relation to different historical processes. With all these data, we aim to contribute to our knowledge of a phenomenon that is widespread in Iron Age Europe.
In this paper, we study how the topology of the International Trade Network (ITN) changes in geographical space, and along time. We employ geographical distance between countries in the world to filter the links in the ITN, building a sequence of subnetworks, each one featuring trade links occurring at similar distance. We then test if the assortativity and clustering of ITN subnetworks changes as distance increases, and we find that this is indeed the case: distance strongly impacts, in a non-linear way, the topology of the ITN. We show that the ITN is disassortative at long distances, while it is assortative at short ones. Similarly, the main determinant of the overall high-ITN clustering level are triangular trade triples between geographically close countries. This means that trade partnership choices and trade patterns are highly differentiated over different distance ranges, even after controlling for the economic size and income per capita of trading partners, and it is persistent over time. This evidence has relevant implications for the non-linear evolution of globalization.
Coinfection with human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become an emerging public health problem in several parts of the world, with high morbidity and mortality rates. A systematic review was carried out in the literature available in PubMed, Scielo and Lilacs related to HVL associated with HIV coinfection, seeking to analyze epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects. Of the 265 articles found, 15 articles were included in the qualitative analysis, which referred to the results of HVL treatment in patients coinfected with HIV. In the published articles between 2007 and 2015, 1171 cases of HVL/HIV coinfection were identified, 86% males, average age 34 years, liposomal amphotericin B was the most commonly used drug, cure rates 68 and 20% relapses and 19% deaths, five different countries, bone marrow was used in 10/15 manuscripts. HVL/HIV coinfection is a major challenge for public health, mainly due to the difficulty in establishing an accurate diagnosis, low response to treatment with high relapse rates and evolution to death. In addition, these two pathogens act concomitantly for the depletion of the immune system, contributing to worsening the clinical picture of these diseases, which requires effective surveillance and epidemiological control measures.
Although serological assays have been widely used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), they present different performances depending on the clinical profile of the dogs. This study evaluated the accuracy of serological tests, immunochromatographic (Dual Path Platform: DPP®) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA EIE®), for CVL in relation to the detection of Leishmania DNA through real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) in samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs from a non-endemic area in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Serum from 140 dogs (39 symptomatic and 101 asymptomatic) was tested by DPP and ELISA followed by real-time PCR. From a total of 140 samples evaluated, Leishmania DNA was detected by real-time PCR in 41.4% (58/140). Moreover, 67.2% of samples positive in real-time PCR were positive in both DPP and ELISA (39/58), showing moderate agreement between methods. In the symptomatic group, one sample non-reactive in both serological assays was positive in real-time PCR, whereas in the asymptomatic group, 17.8% non-reactive or undetermined samples in serological assays were positive in the molecular method. Leishmania DNA was not detected in 17.9% reactive samples by serological assays from the symptomatic group, and in 3.9% from asymptomatic dogs. Real-time PCR demonstrated greater homogeneity between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups compared with DPP and ELISA. The molecular method can help to establish the correct CVL diagnosis, particularly in asymptomatic dogs, avoiding undesirable euthanasia.
This study assessed the effects of diet supplementation with industrial processing by-products of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.), cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit on the intestinal health and lipid metabolism of female Wistar rats with diet-induced dyslipidaemia. Female rats were randomly divided into five groups: healthy control, dyslipidaemic control and dyslipidaemic experimental receiving acerola, cashew or guava processing by-products. Fruit processing by-products were administered (400 mg/kg body weight) via orogastric administration for 28 consecutive days. Acerola, cashew and guava by-products caused body weight reduction (3·42, 3·08 and 5·20 %, respectively) in dyslipidaemic female rats. Dyslipidaemic female rats receiving fruit by-products, especially from acerola, presented decreased faecal pH, visceral fat, liver fat and serum lipid levels, as well as increased faecal moisture, faecal fat excretion, faecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. counts and amounts of organic acids in faeces. Administration of the tested fruit processing by-products protected colon and liver from tissue damage (e.g. destruction of liver and colon cells and increased fat deposition in hepatocytes) induced by dyslipidaemic diet. Dietary fibres and phenolic compounds in tested fruit by-products may be associated with these positive effects. The industrial fruit processing by-products studied, mainly from acerola, exert functional properties that could enable their use to protect the harmful effects on intestinal health and lipid metabolism caused by dyslipidaemic diet.
Formal thought disorder is a cardinal feature of psychosis. However, the extent to which formal thought disorder is evident in ultra-high-risk individuals and whether it is linked to the progression to psychosis remains unclear.
Examine the severity of formal thought disorder in ultra-high-risk participants and its association with future psychosis.
The Thought and Language Index (TLI) was used to assess 24 ultra-high-risk participants, 16 people with first-episode psychosis and 13 healthy controls. Ultra-high-risk individuals were followed up for a mean duration of 7 years (s.d.=1.5) to determine the relationship between formal thought disorder at baseline and transition to psychosis.
TLI scores were significantly greater in the ultra-high-risk group compared with the healthy control group (effect size (ES)=1.2), but lower than in people with first-episode psychosis (ES=0.8). Total and negative TLI scores were higher in ultra-high-risk individuals who developed psychosis, but this was not significant. Combining negative TLI scores with attenuated psychotic symptoms and basic symptoms predicted transition to psychosis (P=0.04; ES=1.04).
TLI is beneficial in evaluating formal thought disorder in ultra-high-risk participants, and complements existing instruments for the evaluation of psychopathology in this group.
Objectives: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients may show the Closing-in (CI), a tendency to reproduce figures close to or superimposed on the model. AD patients with CI might manifest reduced functional independence compared to AD patients without CI, but no study directly assessed if CI can hamper common daily living activities. To address this issue here we investigated whether AD patients with CI veer their walking trajectory toward irrelevant objects more often than AD patients without CI. Methods: Fifty AD individuals, and 20 age- and education-matched healthy adults, underwent a graphic copying task to detect CI and a newly developed walking task to assess the tendency to veer toward irrelevant objects and to bump into them. All participants also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess dementia severity; impairments in frontal/executive, visuo-spatial, visuo-constructional, and memory domains; and functional independence in daily living activities. Results: Graphic CI occurred in 34/50 (68%) AD patients (AD-CI group) who achieved significantly lower scores on frontal/executive abilities, and daily living functioning than AD individuals not showing CI. Most AD-CI patients (20/34; 58.8%) also showed at least one veering error in the walking task. Participants with CI and veering errors showed significantly poorer performance on Stroop test, and lower level of functional independence than AD individuals with CI in isolation. Conclusions: CI on graphic tasks can identify difficulties in walking and in complying with everyday activities in AD patients. These observations demonstrate the value of assessing CI in copying tasks. (JINS, 2018, 24, 437–444)
The problem of describing ice dynamics has been faced by many researchers; in this paper a fully three-dimensional model for ice dynamics is presented and tested. Using an approach followed by other researchers, ice is considered a non-linear incompressible viscous fluid so that a fluid-dynamic approach can be used. The model is based on the full three-dimensional Stokes equations for the description of pressure and velocity fields, on the Saint-Venant equation for the description of the free-surface time evolution and on a constitutive law derived from Glen’s law for the description of ice viscosity. The model computes the complete pressure field by considering both the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure components; it is time-evolutive and uses high-order numerical approximation for equations and boundary conditions. Moreover it can deal with both constant and variable viscosity. Three theoretical tests and two applications to Priestley Glacier, Antarctica, are presented in order to evaluate the performance of the model and to investigate important phenomena of ice dynamics such as the influence of viscosity on pressure and velocity fields, basal sliding and flow over perturbed bedrocks. All these applications demonstrate the importance of treating the complete pressure and stress fields.