To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Il saggio analizza in dettaglio, con immagini inedite e di alta qualità (frutto di apposita campagna fotografica), le trecentesche Storie della Passione di Cristo della cappella «degli Illustrissimi», posta all'estremità del braccio settentrionale del transetto del duomo di Napoli. L'opera, realizzata a monocromo, si compone di quattro scene maggiori, leggibili da sinistra a destra, Cristo schernito e spogliato delle vesti, Flagellazione, Andata al Calvario e Deposizione, e di una scena minore, un'Annunciazione con probabile offerente. A dispetto dell'alta qualità esecutiva e del raffinato livello d'invenzione, l'opera è scarsamente conosciuta, e spesso ignorata, da parte della critica moderna. Scopo del contributo è di presentare in dettaglio le Storie della Passione per fornire una corretta e approfondita lettura iconografica dei singoli episodi e per individuare le fonti visive alla base della rappresentazione.
Sunlight is the most environmental friendly energy source available on Earth; many efforts devoted to design artificial photoconversion systems are ongoing, nevertheless they are still expensive and poorly efficient. Photoconversion devices made with organic-biological hybrids, or biohybrids, based on the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) have been introduced. In these systems, the photoenzyme is garnished with artificial antennas to enhance the photoactivity of the RC. Here we present a newly synthesized heptamethine cyanine dye that fulfills requisites to act as efficient RC light harvesting antenna.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
7-Hydroxymatairesinol (7-HMR) is a plant lignan abundant in various concentrations in plant foods. The objective of this study was to test HMRLignan™, a purified form of 7-HMR, and the corresponding Picea abies extract (total extract P. abies; TEP) as dietary supplements on a background of a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome in mice and in the 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model. Mice, 3 weeks old, were fed a HFD for 60 d. Subgroups were treated with 3 mg/kg body weight 7-HMR (HMRLignan™) or 10 mg/kg body weight TEP by oral administration. 7-HMR and TEP limited the increase in body weight (−11 and −13 %) and fat mass (−11 and −18 %) in the HFD-fed mice. Epididymal adipocytes were 19 and −12 % smaller and the liver was less steatotic (−62 and −65 %). Serum lipids decreased in TEP-treated mice (−11 % cholesterol, −23 % LDL and −15 % TAG) and sugar metabolism was ameliorated by both lignan preparations, as shown by a more than 70 % decrease in insulin secretion and insulin resistance. The expression of several metabolic genes was modulated by the HFD with an effect that was reversed by lignan. In 3T3-L1 cells, the 7-HMR metabolites enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol (END) showed a 40 % inhibition of cell differentiation accompanied by the inhibited expression of the adipogenic genes PPARγ, C/EBPα and aP2. Furthermore, END and ENL caused a 10 % reduction in TAG uptake in HEPA 1–6 hepatoma cells. In conclusion, 7-HMR and TEP reduce metabolic imbalances typical of the metabolic syndrome and obesity in male mice, whereas their metabolites inhibit adipogenesis and lipid uptake in vitro.
In this paper, we study how the topology of the International Trade Network (ITN) changes in geographical space, and along time. We employ geographical distance between countries in the world to filter the links in the ITN, building a sequence of subnetworks, each one featuring trade links occurring at similar distance. We then test if the assortativity and clustering of ITN subnetworks changes as distance increases, and we find that this is indeed the case: distance strongly impacts, in a non-linear way, the topology of the ITN. We show that the ITN is disassortative at long distances, while it is assortative at short ones. Similarly, the main determinant of the overall high-ITN clustering level are triangular trade triples between geographically close countries. This means that trade partnership choices and trade patterns are highly differentiated over different distance ranges, even after controlling for the economic size and income per capita of trading partners, and it is persistent over time. This evidence has relevant implications for the non-linear evolution of globalization.
In this paper we establish a new connection between a class of two-player nonzero-sum games of optimal stopping and certain two-player nonzero-sum games of singular control. We show that whenever a Nash equilibrium in the game of stopping is attained by hitting times at two separate boundaries, then such boundaries also trigger a Nash equilibrium in the game of singular control. Moreover, a differential link between the players' value functions holds across the two games.
The generalized theory of terawatt laser pulse interaction with a low-dense porous substance of light chemical elements including laser light absorption and energy transfer in a wide region of parameter variation is developed on the base of the model of laser-supported hydrothermal wave in a partially homogenized plasma. Laser light absorption, hydrodynamic motion, and electron thermal conductivity are implemented in the hydrodynamic code, according to the degree of laser-driven homogenization of the laser-produced plasma. The results of numerical simulations obtained by using the hydrodynamic code are presented. The features of laser-supported hydrothermal wave in both possible cases of a porous substance with a density smaller and larger than critical plasma density are discussed along with the comparison with the experiments. The results are addressed to the development of design of laser thermonuclear target as well as and powerful neutron and X-ray sources.
This Research Communication investigated the potential of mid-infrared spectroscopy to predict detailed mineral composition of bovine milk. A total of 153 bulk milk samples were analysed for contents of Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P and Zn. Also, soluble and colloidal fractions of Ca, Mg and P were quantified. For each milk sample the mid-infrared spectrum was captured and stored. Prediction models were developed using partial least squares regression and the accuracy of prediction was evaluated using both cross- and external validation. The proportion of variance explained by the prediction models in cross-validation ranged from 34% (Na) to 77% (total P), and it ranged from 13% (soluble Mg) to 54% (Cl−) in external validation. The ratio of the standard deviation of each trait to the standard error of prediction in external validation, which is an indicator of the practical utility of the prediction model, was low and never greater than 2. Results from the current study supported the limited usefulness of mid-infrared spectroscopy to predict minerals present in low concentration in bulk milk. For major mineral components, results from the present research did not match previous findings demonstrating the need for further studies using larger reference datasets.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
This paper reports a survey on the weed flora and seed bank in an almond orchard sited in Apulia region (Southern Italy), where the following soil management practices have been compared for over 30 yrs: no-tillage, keeping the soil totally weed-free throughout the year by using pre-emergence herbicides to prevent plant emergence or post-emergence herbicides in case of weeds already emerged; no-tillage, with post-emergence herbicides; no-tillage, with mowing of natural weed flora in spring; cover cropping, with faba bean sown in November and green manured in springtime; conventional soil tillage. The different management techniques influenced significantly the weed flora in experimental plots, both in terms of quantity and quality. The seed bank was clearly impoverished after the long-term applications of pre-emergence herbicides, both in terms of richness and of diversity. During the fall period, the plots of conventional tillage or pre-emergence herbicides had less natural ground-flora than the others. During springtime, prior to the sward control practices, the plots treated by foliar herbicides or mowing had the highest total weed cover. We conclude that post-emergence weed control by mowing or using chemical herbicides or the green manure of the cover crop may be proposed to reduce impact to the soil and to promote the growth of abundant and sufficiently diversified and balanced flora. If appropriately managed, this flora can provide potential ecological services, without competing with the orchard, as suggested by the literature. During the autumn, natural flora can uptake soil nitrogen thus preventing leaching in the rainy season. In springtime, after the sward has been destroyed, natural flora can supply a substantial amount of biomass to the soil. Indicator species analysis was also used to find the species characterizing each treatment and some of their combinations. Weeds belonging to the Poaceae botanical family were significantly associated with post-emergence herbicides and mowing treatments. These species produce a substantial amount of biomass and have bunched roots; consequently, they supply beneficial effects by improving porosity and structure of the soil and reducing erosion hazard.