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Do you need to understand feedback? Perhaps you're a little rusty on theory basics? Dig in to this self-contained guide for an accessible and concise explanation of the fundamentals. Distils the relevant essence of linear system theory, calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, basic physics, numerical methods, and complex analysis, and links them back to an explanation of feedback theory. Provides a tight synthesis of analytical and conceptual understanding. Maintains a focus on common use cases. Whether you are a struggling undergraduate, a doctoral student preparing for your qualifying exams, or an industry practitioner, this easy-to-understand book invites you to relax, enjoy the material, and follow your curiosity.
Shakespeare’s works continually interrogate shame’s capacity both to repress the individual by reinforcing conservative social norms and to engender an enriched understanding of the self and the world. This chapter engages with critical interventions on shame by Leo Bersani, Gail Kern Paster, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and Dan Zahavi to examine its function in a wide range of Shakespearean texts, focusing in particular on Coriolanus (1608) and the anonymously-published A Lover’s Complaint (1609). For Coriolanus, shame sparks a moment of insight in which he accepts an externalised version of himself; it provides a phenomenological experience that runs counter to his usual sense of self and to broader Roman values. In contrast, the shame of the abandoned woman in A Lover's Complaint highlights the gap between early modern ethical discourses and her own sexual and emotional experiences. In both works, however, it is the movement outside of the self that follows shame which offers the most radical and illuminating reorientation of subjectivity; this shift in perspective – inspired by love, desire and sympathy – enables characters to experience an othering of the self that is expansive rather than narcissistic.
To evaluate the hypothesis that a perinatal educational dietary intervention focused on ‘eating for the gut microbiota’ improves diet quality of pregnant women pre- and postnatally.
The Healthy Parents, Healthy Kids study is a prospectively registered randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of a dietary intervention in altering the maternal and infant gut microbiota and improving perinatal diet quality. Eligible pregnant women were randomised to receive dietary advice from their healthcare provider or to additionally receive a three session dietary intervention. Dietary data were collected at gestation weeks 26, 31, 36 and postnatal week 4. Outcome measures were diet quality, dietary variety, prebiotic and probiotic food intakes, energy, fibre, saturated fat and discretionary food intakes. Between-group differential changes from baseline before and after birth in these dietary measures were assessed using generalised estimating equations.
Healthy pregnant women from gestation week 26.
Forty-five women were randomised (twenty-two control, twenty-three intervention). Compared with the control group, the intervention group improved diet quality prior to birth (5·66 (95 % CI 1·65, 9·67), Cohen’s d: 0·82 (se 0·33)). The intervention improved dietary variety (1·05 (95 % CI 0·17, 1·94), d: 0·66 (se 0·32)) and increased intakes of prebiotic (0·8 (95 % CI 0·27, 1·33), d: 0·91 (se 0·33)) and probiotic foods (1·05 (95 % CI 0·57, 1·53), d: 1·3(se 0·35)) over the whole study period compared with the control group.
A dietary intervention focused on ‘eating for the gut microbiota’ can improve aspects of perinatal diet quality during and after pregnancy.
To examine changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among youth who participated in Flint Kids Cook, a six-week healthy cooking program for children, and assess whether changes in HRQoL were associated with changes in cooking self-efficacy, attitude towards cooking (ATC), and diet.
Pre-post survey (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Block Kids Food Screener, 8-item cooking self-efficacy, 6-item ATC) using child self-report at baseline and program exit. Analysis involved paired sample t-tests and Pearson correlations.
Farmers’ market in Flint, Michigan, USA.
Children (n=186; 55.9% female, 72.6% African American) participated in Flint Kids Cook October 2017–February 2020 (mean age 10.55 ± 1.83 years; range 8-15).
Mean HRQoL summary score improved (p<0.001) from baseline (77.22 ± 14.27) to program exit (81.62 ± 14.43), as did mean psychosocial health summary score (74.68 ± 15.68 vs 79.04 ± 16.46, p=0.001). Similarly, physical (p=0.016), emotional (p=0.002), social (p=0.037), and school functioning (p=0.002) improved. There was a correlation between change in HRQoL summary score and change in ATC (r= -0.194, p=0.025) as well as change in cooking self-efficacy (r= -0.234, p=0.008). Changes in HRQoL and psychosocial health summary scores were not correlated with dietary changes, which included decreased added sugar (p=0.019) and fruit juice (p=0.004) intake.
This study is the first to report modest yet significant improvements in HRQoL among children and adolescents who participated in a healthy cooking program. Results suggest that cooking programs for youth may provide important psychosocial health benefits that are unrelated to dietary changes.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The history of immune suppression, especially CD4 nadir, has been shown to be a strong predictor of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, the potential mechanism of this association is not well understood. This study examined the relationship between CD4 nadir and brain atrophy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Fifty-nine people with HIV participated in the cross-sectional study (mean age, 56.5 ± 5.8; age range, 41-69; 15 females; 46 African-Americans). High resolution structural MRI images were obtained using a 3T Siemens scanner. From a comprehensive 7-domain neuropsychological test battery, a global deficit score (GDS) and HAND diagnoses were determined for each participant. The correlation between CD4 nadir (the lowest ever lymphocyte CD4 count) and cortical thickness was investigated using a vertex-wise non-parametric approach with a conservative statistical threshold of p < 0.05 (FWE-corrected). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Out of the 59 participants, 12 met standard Frascati criteria for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and two met the criteria for mild neurocognitive disorder (MND). Across all participants, low CD4 nadir was associated with widespread cortical thinning, especially in the frontal and temporal regions. Higher GDS (indicating worse global neurocognitive function) was associated with bilateral frontal cortical thinning, and the association largely persisted in the subset of participants who did not meet HAND criteria. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results suggest that the low CD4 nadir may be associated with widespread neural injury in the brain, especially in the frontal and temporal regions. This spatial profile might contribute to the prevalence/phenotypes of HAND in the cART era, such as the frequently observed deficits in the executive domain.
A detailed assessment of the inter-scale energy budget of the turbulent flow in a von Kármán mixing tank has been performed based on two extensive experimental data sets. Measurements were performed at a Taylor microscale Reynolds number of
in the central region of the tank, using scanning particle image velocimetry (PIV) to fully resolve the velocity gradient tensor (VGT), and stereoscopic PIV for an expanded field of view. Following a basic flow characterisation, the Kármán–Howarth–Monin–Hill equation was used to investigate the inter-scale energy transfer. Access to the full VGT enabled the contribution of the different terms of the energy budget to be evaluated without any assumptions or approximations. The scale-space distribution of the dominant terms was also reported to assess the isotropy of the energy transfer. The results show a highly anisotropic distribution of energy transfer in scale space. Energy transfer was shown in a spherically averaged sense to be dominated at the small scales by the nonlinear inter-scale transfer term. However, in contrast to flows considered in previous studies, the local energy transfer is found to depend heavily on the linear contribution associated with the mean flow. Analysis of the scale-to-scale transfer of energy also allowed direct assessment of the classical picture of the energy cascade. It was found that while the inter-scale energy cascade driven by the turbulent fluctuations always proceeds in the forward direction, the total energy cascade driven by both the turbulent fluctuations and the mean flow exhibits significant inverse cascade regions, where energy is transferred from smaller to larger scales.
IN EARLY SUMMER OF 1764, Catherine II, the reigning czarina of the Russian empire, began to seek the companionship and literary assistance of a middle-class German woman who lived nearby. The empress wanted knowledgeable feedback on a handful of texts she had composed and so entered into an informal partnership with the author of two books of poetry, Polyxene Christiane Auguste Büsching, née Dilthey (1728– 77), and through her with another published writer, Johanna Charlotte Unzer (1725–82). Together, I argue, the three became a tenuous collective of women supporting each other in their writing. To analyze their interaction, I am applying two related social science models, one of social networks and the other of communities of practice. Social network analysis treats network participants as “interdependent rather than independent” actors, sees the linkages among them as “channel[ing] information, affection and other resources,” and assumes that “the structures of … ties among actors both constrain and facilitate action.” Of various available accounts of a “community of practice,” the one most helpful for literary-historical purposes describes a group of individuals with a shared attachment to a craft or field of expertise, who, in pursuing their craft or knowledge, “engage in joint activities and discussions, help each other, … build relationships,” and are themselves practitioners, not passive observers. By considering the three writers as a very small social network, and specifically as a “community of practice,” it is possible to discern certain less recognized elements of what enabled German women in the eighteenth century to become and remain writers, as well as what constrained them.
It is the emphasis on practitioners that distinguishes the “community of practice” from a “literary group,” such as the one composed of geographically dispersed readers who were united by their responses to Sophie von La Roche's monthly journal Pomona (1783–84). Paying attention to literary groups, I have argued elsewhere, enables us to identify and name certain loosely organized communities that persisted through time and across distance and provided their members, mostly women in the Pomona instance, “at least a small degree of reciprocal communication,” thus nurturing both readers and writers.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Reconstructions of prehistoric vegetation composition help establish natural baselines, variability, and trajectories of forest dynamics before and during the emergence of intensive anthropogenic land use. Pollen–vegetation models (PVMs) enable such reconstructions from fossil pollen assemblages using process-based representations of taxon-specific pollen production and dispersal. However, several PVMs and variants now exist, and the sensitivity of vegetation inferences to PVM selection, variant, and calibration domain is poorly understood. Here, we compare the reconstructions, parameter estimates, and structure of a Bayesian hierarchical PVM, STEPPS, both to observations and to REVEALS, a widely used PVM, for the pre–Euro-American settlement-era vegetation in the northeastern United States (NEUS). We also compare NEUS-based STEPPS parameter estimates to those for the upper midwestern United States (UMW). Both PVMs predict the observed macroscale patterns of vegetation composition in the NEUS; however, reconstructions of minor taxa are less accurate and predictions for some taxa differ between PVMs. These differences can be attributed to intermodel differences in structure and parameter estimates. Estimates of pollen productivity from STEPPS broadly agree with estimates produced for use in REVEALS, while comparison between pollen dispersal parameter estimates shows no significant relationship. STEPPS parameter estimates are similar between the UMW and NEUS, suggesting that STEPPS parameter estimates are transferable between floristically similar regions and scales.
Clinician-patient communication is a major factor in influencing outcomes of healthcare. Complexity increases if an individual has multiple health needs requiring support of different clinicians or agencies.
To develop and evidence a simple dynamic computerised tool to capture and communicate outcomes of intervention or alteration in clinical need in patients with multiple chronic health needs.
A MS Excel algorithm was designed for swift capture of clinical information discussed in an appointment using pre-designed set of evidenced based domains. An instant personalized single screen visual is produced to facilitate information sharing and decision-making. The display is responsive to compare changes across time. A prototype was conceptually tested in an epilepsy clinic for people with Intellectual disability (ID) due to the unique challenges posed in this population.
Evidence across 300 patients with ID and epilepsy showed the tool works by enhancing reflective communication, compliance and therapeutic relationship. Medication and appointment compliance was 95% and patient satisfaction over 90%.
To discuss all influencing health factors in a consultation is a communication challenge esp. if the patient has multiple health needs. A picture equals 1000 words and helps address the cognitive complexity of verbal information. The radar offers an evidenced based common framework to host care plans of different health conditions. It provides individualised easy view person centred care plans to allow patients to gain insight on how the different conditions impact on their overall well being and be active participants. The tool will be practically demonstrated.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Brain health diplomacy aims to influence the global policy environment for brain health (i.e. dementia, depression, and other mind/brain disorders) and bridges the disciplines of global brain health, international affairs, management, law, and economics. Determinants of brain health include educational attainment, diet, access to health care, physical activity, social support, and environmental exposures, as well as chronic brain disorders and treatment. Global challenges associated with these determinants include large-scale conflicts and consequent mass migration, chemical contaminants, air quality, socioeconomic status, climate change, and global population aging. Given the rapidly advancing technological innovations impacting brain health, it is paramount to optimize the benefits and mitigate the drawbacks of such technologies.
We propose a working model of Brain health INnovation Diplomacy (BIND).
We prepared a selective review using literature searches of studies pertaining to brain health technological innovation and diplomacy.
BIND aims to improve global brain health outcomes by leveraging technological innovation, entrepreneurship, and innovation diplomacy. It acknowledges the key role that technology, entrepreneurship, and digitization play and will increasingly play in the future of brain health for individuals and societies alike. It strengthens the positive role of novel solutions, recognizes and works to manage both real and potential risks of digital platforms. It is recognition of the political, ethical, cultural, and economic influences that brain health technological innovation and entrepreneurship can have.
By creating a framework for BIND, we can use this to ensure a systematic model for the use of technology to optimize brain health.
A wealth of new writing has emerged around the future of labour, focusing on thinking beyond employment in imagining the futures of ‘surplus populations’ no longer needed by labour markets. These new imaginaries include radically expanded forms of redistribution, such as unconditional cash transfers or universal basic income. But what are the views of the ‘surplus populations’ themselves? This article uses ethnographic research in an informal settlement in South Africa to understand why the unemployed or precariously employed poor are themselves often reluctant to delink labour and income. In particular, we focus on the discursive use of ‘laziness’ by urban unemployed young men. The varied (and often contradictory) ways in which these men employ the laziness discourse sheds light on the logics linking waged work and money in our informants’ social imaginaries. It illuminates the underlying contradictions and complexities of such logics, including those of gender, relational obligations, expectations of citizenship, and the inevitable tensions between aspirational hopes and economic realities. To begin thinking ‘beyond the proper job’, to use Ferguson and Li's phrase, we must unravel and understand such nuanced logics that continue to bind together hard work, deservingness and cash – even for those left out of labour markets.
This essay explores father figures who meditate on their relation to a dominant late nineteenth- early twentieth-century construction of active masculinity, or figures who often find themselves uncomfortably far from the era’s gender ideals. Seeing their own lives as “limited” and constrained, or akin to the era’s fears of masculine “overcivilization,” these figures find solace in an imagined trajectory of masculine accomplishment. Their sons, however, appear to them as promising to restore the family’s depleted vigor, for the younger generation appears as more self-determined and more manly, especially in professional matters. Such meditations on manhood lead to a belief in the developmental potential of the next generation, which promises to supply a long-absent manliness. Not only are the young more active men, engaged in innovative fields that were not available to their elders, but they also seem poised to recover the kind of familial masculine distinction that their elders fear that they forfeited, both for themselves and for their families.
The resolvent formulation of McKeon & Sharma (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 658, 2010, pp. 336–382) is applied to supersonic turbulent boundary layers to study the validity of Morkovin’s hypothesis, which postulates that high-speed turbulence structures in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers remain largely the same as their incompressible counterparts. Supersonic zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers with adiabatic wall boundary conditions at Mach numbers ranging from 2 to 4 are considered. Resolvent analysis highlights two distinct regions of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer in the wave parameter space: the relatively supersonic region and the relatively subsonic region. In the relatively supersonic region, where the flow is supersonic relative to the free-stream, resolvent modes display structures consistent with Mach wave radiation that are absent in the incompressible regime. In the relatively subsonic region, we show that the low-rank approximation of the resolvent operator is an effective approximation of the full system and that the response modes predicted by the model exhibit universal and geometrically self-similar behaviour via a transformation given by the semi-local scaling. Moreover, with the semi-local scaling, we show that the resolvent modes follow the same scaling law as their incompressible counterparts in this region, which has implications for modelling and the prediction of turbulent high-speed wall-bounded flows. We also show that the thermodynamic variables exhibit similar mode shapes to the streamwise velocity modes, supporting the strong Reynolds analogy. Finally, we demonstrate that the principal resolvent modes can be used to capture the energy distribution between momentum and thermodynamic fluctuations.
In this paper we investigate the vortex structure and dynamics formed in the near field of a turbulent axisymmetric jet subjected to transverse acoustic forcing. Full three-dimensional phase-averaged velocity measurements were obtained to elucidate the coherent structures formed when the jet is positioned at the pressure node of a plane standing wave oriented transversely to the streamwise flow direction, which creates a plane symmetry about the nodal line dissecting the jet exit. Due to the change in phase that occurs across the nodal line, it was found that axisymmetry is broken and the jet undergoes a periodic transverse flapping motion consistent with a sinuous mode. This was accompanied by a periodic train of interconnected vortex structures, resembling inverted hairpin (or horseshoe) vortices, formed as the shear layers rolled up in anti-phase either side of the jet, and propagated a few diameters downstream before breaking up. An inviscid vortex model employing inverted hairpin line vortices is shown to capture both the dynamics of the vortex structures and the fluctuating velocity fields. Overall, the jet response and resulting vortex dynamics observed represent a significant departure from the axisymmetric flow structures observed with conventional longitudinal forcing and more closely resemble the phenomenon of bifurcating jets.