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The effect of magnetic field on the plasma parameters and surface modification of Cu-alloy has been investigated. For this purpose, we have employed Nd: YAG laser at various irradiances ranging from 1.9 to 5 GW/cm2 to irradiate Cu-alloy under 5 torr pressure of argon, neon, and helium. The evaluated values of excitation temperature (Texc) and electron number density (ne) of Cu-alloy plasma explored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique are higher in the presence of 1.1 Tesla magnetic field as compared with field-free case. It is true at all irradiances as well as under all environmental conditions. It is also found that trends of both Texc and ne are increasing with increasing laser irradiance from 1.9 to 4.4 GW/cm2. For the highest used irradiance 5 GW/cm2, the decrease in both parameters is observed. The analytically calculated values of thermal beta, directional beta, confinement radius, and diffusion time for laser-irradiated Cu-alloy plasma confirm the validity of magnetic confinement. Scanning electron microscope analysis is utilized to study the surface modifications of laser-irradiated Cu samples and reveals the formation of islands, craters, cones, and droplets. The finer-scale surface structures are grown in case of magnetic. It is also revealed Texc and ne play a substantial part in the growth of surface structures on Cu-alloy.
Psychiatric disorders are common in neurological in-patients, but they are under-recognised and undertreated. We investigated the frequency of detection of mental disorder and referral to psychiatric services in a regional neuroscience centre. The results were compared with the expected prevalence. All in-patient referrals received in 2014 from the in-patient wards of the regional neuroscience centre and acute neurological unit were reviewed.
A total of 129 ward referrals were identified; of these, 78 were from the regional in-patient neurological unit, which comprised 11.4% of the total of 679 admissions to that unit.
A spectrum of neuropsychiatric conditions were recognised by neurologists, but overall rates of recognition were low. To address the problem of under-recognition, routine screening with validated assessment tools can represent a cost-effective and acceptable method to detect psychiatric disorders in an in-patient neurological setting.
Spatial confinement effects on plasma parameters and surface morphology of laser-ablated Mg are studied by introducing a metallic blocker as well as argon (Ar) gas at different pressures. Nd: YAG laser at various fluences ranging from 7 to 28 J/cm2 was employed to generate Mg plasma. Confinement effects offered by metallic blocker are investigated by placing the blocker at different distances of 6, 8, and 10 mm from the target surface; whereas spatial confinement offered by environmental gas is explored under four different pressures of 5, 10, 20, and 50 Torr. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis revealed that both plasma parameters, that is, excitation temperature and electron number density initially are strongly dependent upon both pressures of environmental gases and distances of blockers. The maximum electron temperature of Mg plasma is achieved at Ar gas pressure of 20 Torr, whereas maximum electron number density is achieved at 50 Torr. It is also observed that spatial confinement offered by metallic blocker is responsible for the significant enhancement of both electron temperature and electron number density of Mg plasma. Maximum values of electron temperature and electron number density without blocker are 8335 K and 2.4 × 1016 cm−3, respectively, whereas these values are enhanced to 12,200 K and 4 × 1016 cm−3 in the presence of blocker. Physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Mg plasma parameters are plasma compression, confinement and pronounced collisional excitations due to reflection of shock waves. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed to explore the surface morphology of laser-ablated Mg. It reveals the formation of ripples and channels that become more distinct in the presence of blocker due to plasma confinement. The optimum combination of blocker distance, fluence and Ar pressure can identify the suitable conditions for defining the role of plasma parameters for surface structuring.
The effect of the transverse magnetic field on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and surface modifications of germanium (Ge) has been investigated at various fluences. Ge targets were exposed to Nd: YAG laser pulses (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1 Hz) at different fluences ranging from 3 to 25.6 J/cm2 to generate Ge plasma under argon environment at a pressure of 50 Torr. The magnetic field of strength 0.45 Tesla perpendicular to the direction of plasma expansion was employed by using two permanent magnets. The emission spectra of laser-induced Ge plasma was detected by the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system. The electron temperature and number density of Ge plasma are evaluated by using the Boltzmann plot and stark broadening methods, respectively. The variations in emission intensity, electron temperature (Te), and number density (ne) of Germanium plasma are explored at various fluences, with and without employment of the magnetic field. It is observed that the magnetic field is responsible for significant enhancement of both excitation temperature and number density at all fluences. It is revealed that an excitation temperature increases from Te,max,without B = 16,190 to Te,max,with B = 20,123 K. Similarly, the two times enhancement in the electron density is observed from ne,max,without B = 2 × 1018 to ne,max,with B = 4 × 1018 cm−3. The overall enhancement in Ge plasma parameters in the presence of the magnetic field is attributed to the Joule heating effect and adiabatic compression. With increasing fluence both plasma parameters increase and achieve their maxima at a fluence of 12.8 J/cm2 and then decrease. In order to correlate the plasma parameters with surface modification, scanning electron microscope analysis of irradiated Ge was performed. Droplets and cones are formed for both cases. However, the growth of ridges and distinctness of features is more pronounced in case of the absence of the magnetic field; whereas surface structures become more diffusive in the presence of the magnetic field.
The influence of nature and pressure of ambient environment on the surface modification, plasma parameters, hardness, and corrosion resistance of Mg-alloy has been investigated. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 25 mJ) at a fluence of 1.3 J cm−2 has been employed as an irradiation source. Targets of Mg-alloy were exposed in the ambient environments of argon (Ar), neon (Ne), and helium (He) at pressures ranging from 5 to 760 Torr. Scanning electron microscope has been employed to investigate the surface morphology of the irradiated targets. It reveals the formation of cavities, cones, droplets, ripples, and islands on the surface of the irradiated sample. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique was employed to measure electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (Ne) of Mg-alloy. The value of electron temperature ranges from 6628 to 12,855 K, whereas the value of electron number density varies from 5.4 × 1017 to 19.2 × 1017 cm−3. The maximum Te and Ne are observed in Ar and minimum in case of He. It was also revealed that both the surface morphology and plasma parameters are strongly dependent upon nature and pressure of environmental gases. The maxima of Te is achieved at a pressure of 10 Torr for all the three ambient environments that is, Ar, Ne, and He; whereas maxima of Ne is achieved at different pressures, that is, at 760 Torr for Ar, at 200 Torr for Ne, and at 50 Torr for He. The hardness and corrosion resistance of irradiated Mg-alloy have been explored using Vickers Micro-hardness tester and Potentio-dynamic polarization technique, respectively. It was investigated that as compared with un-irradiated target, the hardness as well as corrosion resistance of the laser-irradiated target has been increased significantly in all environments. Plasma parameters, mechanical, and electrical properties of laser-irradiated Mg-alloy have been correlated with induced surface modifications and are strongly influenced by environmental conditions.
Findings from family and twin studies support a genetic contribution to the development of sexual orientation in men. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting evidence for linkage to chromosome Xq28.
We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan on 409 independent pairs of homosexual brothers (908 analyzed individuals in 384 families), by far the largest study of its kind to date.
We identified two regions of linkage: the pericentromeric region on chromosome 8 (maximum two-point LOD = 4.08, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.59), which overlaps with the second strongest region from a previous separate linkage scan of 155 brother pairs; and Xq28 (maximum two-point LOD = 2.99, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.76), which was also implicated in prior research.
Results, especially in the context of past studies, support the existence of genes on pericentromeric chromosome 8 and chromosome Xq28 influencing development of male sexual orientation.
The presence of the fish species Iniistius pavo is confirmed in the Sea of Oman. One adult specimen (420 mm total length) was caught from the waters around the City of Muscat, Sea of Oman, giving a new ichthyofaunal record for the area and new maximum length for the species.
Background: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp) has a strong evidence base and is practised widely in the Western World. Psycho-social interventions, on the other hand, including Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) are hardly used in the low and middle income countries for psychosis. It has been suggested that adaptations in content, format and delivery are needed before CBT can be used outside the Western cultures. We describe preliminary evaluation of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis (CaCBTp) in in-patient settings in Lahore, Pakistan. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp) in Pakistan in a pilot project. Method: In a randomized controlled trial we tested CaCBTp against treatment as usual (TAU) in in-patient settings in Pakistan. Those diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR, and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were recruited into the study. Patients (n = 42) were randomized into two equal groups, i.e. CaCBTp and TAU. Assessments were carried out both at the baseline and then at the end of the therapy by raters blind to the groupings. Psychopathology was measured using PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of Schizophrenia), PSYRATS (Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales), and the Insight Scale. Results: Patients receiving CaCBTp showed statistically significant improvement on measures of positive symptoms (p = .000), negative symptoms (p = .000), overall psychotic symptoms (p = .000), hallucinations (p = .000), delusions (p = .000) and insight (p = .000) at the end of the therapy. Conclusions: The CaCBTp was effective in reducing symptoms of psychosis and in improving insight in in-inpatient settings in Pakistan.
Sharper nanotips are required for application in nanoprobing systems due to a shrinking contact size with each new transistor technology node. We describe a two-step etching process to fabricate W nanotips with controllable tip dimensions. The first process is an optimized AC electrochemical etching in KOH to fabricate nanotips with a radius of curvature (ROC) down to 90 nm. This was followed by a secondary nanotip sharpening process by laser irradiation in KOH. High aspect ratio nanotips with ROC close to 20 nm were obtained. Finally we demonstrate the application of the fabricated nanotips for nanoprobing on advanced technology SRAM devices.
Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of silicon (Si) is a simple and low-cost process to fabricate Si nanostructures with varying aspect ratio and properties. In this work, we report on the structural and vibrational properties of Si nanostructures synthesized with varying metal catalyst. The morphology of the synthesized nanowires was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical and vibrational properties of the Si nanostructures were studied by photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy using three different excitation sources (UV, visible and near-infrared) and are correlated to their microstructures. We propose that the excessive injection of holes into Si at the metal-Si interface and its diffusion to the nanowire surfaces facilitate the etching of Si on these surfaces, leading to a mesoporous network of Si nanocrystallites. When etched with catalytic Au nanoparticles, “hay-stacked” mesoporous Si nanowires were obtained. The straighter nanowires etched with Ag nanoparticles, consisted of a single crystalline core with a thin porous layer that decreased in thickness towards the base of the nanowire. This difference is due to the higher catalytic activity of Au compared to Ag for H2O2 decomposition. The SERRS observed during UV and visible Raman with Ag-etched Si nanowires and near-infrared Raman with Au-etched Si nanowires is due to the presence of the sunken metal nanoparticles. In addition, we explored the influence of varying H2O2 and HF concentration as well as the influence of increased etching temperature on the resultant nanostructured Si morphology. Such Si nanostructures may be useful for a wide range of applications such as photovoltaic and biological and chemical sensing.
This article re-examines the distinction between the libertarian approach and the egalitarian approach to the regulation of campaign finance. The conventional approach (as exemplified by the work of Owen Fiss and Ronald Dworkin) is to reconcile the competing values of liberty and equality. By contrast, this article advances the normative claim that democracies should seek to incorporate both the libertarian and the egalitarian approaches within constitutional law. I argue that instead of emphasizing one value over the other, the ideal position is one that simultaneously recognizes the values of liberty and equality despite the irreconcilable tension between them. Rather than choosing one value over the other, or reconciling these values by redefining them, I claim that it is vital to maintain the tension between liberty and equality by instantiating the conflict in law. Democracy is better served when the law contains an explicit tension between these foundational values.
After setting forth this normative framework, I then apply it to the campaign finance decisions of the Supreme Courts of the United States and Canada, respectively. I make two main claims. First, I argue that although the libertarian/egalitarian distinction is usually presented as a binary choice, the laws of a given jurisdiction often simultaneously display both libertarian and egalitarian characteristics. For this reason, I claim that the libertarian/egalitarian distinction is better conceived of as a “libertarian-egalitarian spectrum.” Second, I argue that in recent years, the U.S. Supreme Court and the Supreme Court of Canada, respectively, have privileged one value—liberty or equality—at the expense of the other. The U.S. Supreme Court has over-emphasized the value of liberty (most notably in its Citizens United decision), with the result that political equality is markedly undermined. By the same token, the Supreme Court of Canada’s commitment to equality has become too one-sided in recent cases (Harper and Bryan), with the result that there are significant impairments to free speech liberties. I argue that both of these approaches are detrimental to democratic participation and governance. Finally, this article offers a preliminary proposal for how courts and legislatures can allow for the conflict between liberty and equality to be instantiated in law.
Effects of admixing argon to air DB discharge, at atmospheric pressure, on the electrical and optical emission characteristics have been studied. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to investigate the effect of argon admixing on the emission intensity of the nitrogen second positive systems (300–450 nm) and its relative population of N2(C3Πu,v′) state. Also the vibrational temperature of the nitrogen second positive systems has been calculated for the sequence Δv = −2, that follows Boltzmann’s distribution. It was found that the vibrational temperature of second positive system can be raised significantly from 0.31 to 0.35 eV in air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at discharge current 0.5 mA with admixing of Ar gas at flow rate of 3 L/min. Admixing of argon to air DB discharge also enhances the discharge current, the electron density and the consumed power. Mechanisms of excitation and ionization processes of nitrogen molecules in this mixture have been studied. Processes which are responsible for the enhancement of the population density of N2(C3Πu,v′) and its vibrational temperature have been reported.
Zingiber barbatum Wall. (family Zingiberaceae), is an underutilized medicinal plant and commonly known as ‘Meik tha-lin’ in Myanmar where it is used in the indigenous system of medicine. In the present study, 19 accessions of Z. barbatum from five provinces in Myanmar have been utilized to characterize and assess genetic diversity. Twenty-nine morphological characters were noted, including growth habit, leaf, pseudo-stem and rhizome characters. Fifteen primer sets of P450-based analogue (PBA) markers were used to reveal molecular characteristics. Of the 29 morphological characters, 22 showed a high degree of variation within wild ginger accessions, whereas 20 of these characters contributed significantly to morphological variation. Eleven amplified primer sets gave a total of 175 bands and exhibited 92.15% polymorphism across Z. barbatum accessions. Based on morphological characters and PBA markers, 19 accessions can be divided into two morphotype groups with comparatively higher genetic diversity. This information can be applied in future crop improvement, proper conservation and better use of this underutilized medicinal species.
In recent years ultrasound diagnosis and improved understanding of problems related to early pregnancy have led to the introduction of medical and expectant management of miscarriage and selected cases of ectopic pregnancy. The commonest early pregnancy complication of spontaneous miscarriage occurs in approximately 15-20% of all pregnancies, as recorded by hospital episode statistics. The embryonic period occupies the first 8 postfertilization weeks, during which organogenesis takes place. Gynecologists and ultrasonographers acknowledge the embryonic period by speaking about fetal heart action and fetal activity before the end of organogenesis. Between 1% and 2% of fertile women will experience recurring miscarriage (RM). Recent papers testify to the high rate of abnormal chromosome type when pregnancy loss has occurred. By actuarial analysis, the success rate for the next pregnancy can be reasonably predicted based on maternal age and number of losses. High-resolution transvaginal ultrasound provides surveillance and reassurance for the majority of women.
Federally funded projects must comply with a suite of environmental federal regulations, including the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and the US Department of Transportation Act of 1966, which are addressed through the National Environmental Policy Act process. In this case study, we describe a Federal Highway Administration sidewalk improvement project implemented by the Georgia Department of Transportation in DeKalb County, Georgia, that used an innovative streamlined process under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 to evaluate and assess effects on historic resources and to comply with National Environmental Policy Act process. This project also represents a novel use of this Streamlined Section 106 Process, since it was used in a new sidewalk construction project that required right-of-way acquisition and easements as compared to previous projects where this streamlined process was used only in cases with existing sidewalks and no right-of-way acquisition. Additionally, we demonstrate how coordination under the National Environmental Policy Act addressed impacts on historic resources and resulted in the successful preservation of cultural resource features.
Early pregnancy problems form a major part of all gynaecological emergencies. Approximately one in five pregnancies will end in pregnancy loss. The model of care for all early pregnancy events and complications provides the timeline base along which the core standards of care elements, care pathways and clinical protocols can support the care provision for best patient experience. Many agents, including prostaglandins, mifepristone, potassium chloride and dactinomycin, have all been used for the medical management of ectopic pregnancy. It is vital that only appropriately trained and competent staff should perform transabdominal and transvaginal early pregnancy scans. As an essential component of clinical governance, all early pregnancy assessment units and recurrent miscarriage clinics should have regular meetings to review clinical guidelines and protocols. This would provide an ideal opportunity to discuss audits, to generate research ideas and discuss recruitment to national or international multicentre trials.