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Traditional investigative journalism maintains a commitment to neutral objectivity, but the genre of creative nonfiction, in which writers are deeply immersed in complex and rapidly shifting social and political conditions, has proven to be one of the most durable genres of human rights literature. On the one hand, reportage often enjoys the documentary authority of the first person observer. However, the intensely personal relationship of the writer to his or her subject also entails vexed questions of how they represent the experiences of human rights subjects (whether victims or survivors), the usually uneven structural relations of power between the writer and subject, and the ethical good or harms enacted by the representations themselves. This chapter turns to reportage and other first-person documentary prose, including Human Rights Watch press releases, Addario’s The Forever War, and Angelina Jolie’s Notes from my Travels to examine both the appeals and difficulties the genre poses for representing human rights victims and struggles.
Using quantitative and qualitative data from a large national sample of lawyers, we examine self-reports of perceived discrimination in the legal workplace. Across three waves of surveys, we find that persons of color, white women, and LGBTQ attorneys are far more likely to perceive they have been a target of discrimination than white men. These differences hold in multivariate models that control for social background, status in the profession and the work organization, and characteristics of the work organization. Qualitative comments describing these experiences reveal that lawyers of different races, genders, and sexual orientations are exposed to distinctive types of bias, that supervisors and clients are the most frequent sources of discriminatory treatment, and the often-overt character of perceived discrimination. These self-reports suggest that bias in the legal workplace is widespread and rooted in the same hierarchies of race, gender, and sexual orientation that pervade society.
We argue that the ways in which we as humans derive well-being from nature – for example by harvesting firewood, selling fish or enjoying natural beauty – feed back into how we behave towards the environment. This feedback is mediated by institutions (rules, regulations) and by individual capacities to act. Understanding these relationships can guide better interventions for sustainably improving well-being and alleviating poverty. However, more attention needs to be paid to how experience-related benefits from nature influence attitudes and actions towards the environment, and how these relationships can be reflected in more environmentally sustainable development projects.
We investigate the link between genes, psychological traits, and political engagement using a new data set containing information on a large sample of young German twins. The TwinLife Study enables us to examine the predominant model of personality, the Big Five framework, as well as traits that fall outside the Big Five, such as cognitive ability, providing a more comprehensive understanding of the underpinnings of political engagement. Our results support previous work showing genetic overlap between some psychological traits and political engagement. More specifically, we find that cognitive ability and openness to experience are correlated with political engagement and that common genes can explain most of the relationship between these psychological traits and political engagement. Relationships between genes, psychological traits, and political engagement exist even at a fairly young age, which is an important finding given that previous work has relied heavily on older samples to study the link between genes, psychological traits, and political engagement.
This article considers the role of lute culture (specifically, the lyra) in a Mediterranean society. Cretan lute cultures have historical roots imagined and otherwise which entangle them completely in a local musical and social world. My research into Cretan musical instrument cultures among others have demanded not only a scholarly response to new questions but also the construction and application of a broad theoretical and analytical framework with which to try and understand lute worlds. It is within this cultural and academic context, therefore, that I probe the relationship of music, technology, and the body and how these connections are configured in a Cretan-Mediterranean context, in symbol and metaphor, and as engendered and socially active, existing where musical and social practices coalesce. Therefore broader and theoretically demanding questions must form the basis of an opening discussion as defining of an approach and preparing the ground for a focussed study of the Cretan context.
The nonstationary Erlang-A queue is a fundamental queueing model that is used to describe the dynamic behavior of large-scale multiserver service systems that may experience customer abandonments, such as call centers, hospitals, and urban mobility systems. In this paper we develop novel approximations to all of its transient and steady state moments, the moment generating function, and the cumulant generating function. We also provide precise bounds for the difference of our approximations and the true model. More importantly, we show that our approximations have explicit stochastic representations as shifted Poisson random variables. Moreover, we are also able to show that our approximations and bounds also hold for nonstationary Erlang-B and Erlang-C queueing models under certain stability conditions.
Age-related hearing and vision problems are common among people with dementia and are associated with poorer function, reduced quality of life and increased caregiver burden. Addressing sensory impairments may offer an opportunity to improve various aspects of life for people with dementia.
Electronic databases were searched using key terms dementia, hearing impairment, vision impairment, intervention, and management. Database searches were supplemented by hand searching bibliographies of papers and via consultation with a network of health professional experts. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included adults aged over 50 with dementia with adult-onset hearing or vision impairment who had received a hearing or vision intervention in relation to cognitive function, rate of decline, psychiatric symptoms, hearing/vision-related disability, quality of life, and/or caregiver burden outcomes. A range of study designs were included. Results were summarized descriptively according to level of evidence and effect sizes calculated where possible. Risk of bias was assessed using Downs and Black's (1998) checklist. The development of the intervention was summarized according to the CReDECI2 scheme. PROSPERO review registration number 2016:CRD42016039737.
Twelve papers describing hearing interventions and five papers describing vision interventions were included. Most were of low to moderate quality. One high quality randomized controlled trial of a hearing aid intervention was identified. Hearing interventions included provision of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, communication strategies, hearing aid trouble shooting, and cochlear implantation. Vision interventions included prism lenses, rehabilitation training, and cataract surgery. There was no consistent evidence for the positive impact of hearing/vision interventions on cognitive function, rate of cognitive decline, quality of life, or caregiver burden.
Sensory interventions may promote better outcomes, but there is a need for properly powered, controlled trials of hearing and vision interventions on outcomes relevant to people living with dementia.
In 2014, Pila and Tsimerman gave a proof of the Ax–Schanuel conjecture for the
-function and, with Mok, have recently announced a proof of its generalization to any (pure) Shimura variety. We refer to this generalization as the hyperbolic Ax–Schanuel conjecture. In this article, we show that the hyperbolic Ax–Schanuel conjecture can be used to reduce the Zilber–Pink conjecture for Shimura varieties to a problem of point counting. We further show that this point counting problem can be tackled in a number of cases using the Pila–Wilkie counting theorem and several arithmetic conjectures. Our methods are inspired by previous applications of the Pila–Zannier method and, in particular, the recent proof by Habegger and Pila of the Zilber–Pink conjecture for curves in abelian varieties.
There are many levels of disorder in amblyopic vision, from basic acuity and contrast sensitivity loss to abnormal binocular vision and global perception of motion and form. Amblyopia treatment via patching to restore acuity often leaves other aspects of vision deficient. The source for these additional deficits is unclear. Neural correlates of poor binocular function and acuity loss are found in V1 and V2. However, they are generally not sufficient to account for behaviorally measured vision loss. This review summarizes the known cortical correlates of visual deficits found in association with amblyopia, particularly those relevant to binocular vision and higher-order visual processing, in striate and extrastriate cortex. Recommendations for future research address open questions on the role of suppression and oculomotor abnormalities in amblyopic vision, and underexplored mechanisms such as top-down influences on information transmission in the amblyopic brain.
The mainstay of management of epistaxis refractory to first aid and cautery is intranasal packing. This review aimed to identify evidence surrounding nasal pack use.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using standardised methodology.
Twenty-seven eligible articles were identified relating to non-dissolvable packs and nine to dissolvable packs. Nasal packing appears to be more effective when applied by trained professionals. For non-dissolvable packs, the re-bleed rates for Rapid Rhino and Merocel were similar, but were higher with bismuth iodoform paraffin paste packing. Rapid Rhino packs were the most tolerated non-dissolvable packs. Evidence indicates that 96 per cent of re-bleeding occurs within the first 4 hours after nasal pack removal. Limited evidence suggests that dissolvable packs are effective and well tolerated by patients. There was a lack of evidence relating to: the duration of pack use, the economic effects of pack choice and the appropriate care setting for non-dissolvable packs.
Rapid Rhino packs are the best tolerated, with efficacy equivalent to nasal tampons. FloSeal is easy to use, causes less discomfort and may be superior to Merocel in anterior epistaxis cases. There is no strong evidence to support prophylactic antibiotic use.