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The Cambridge Companion to the Circus provides a complete guide for students, scholars, teachers, researchers, and practitioners who are seeking perspectives on the foundations and evolution of the modern circus, the contemporary extent of circus studies, and the specialised literature available to support further enquiries. The volume brings together an international group of established and emerging scholars working across the multi-disciplinary domain of circus studies to present a clear overview of the specialised histories, aesthetics and distinctive performances of the modern circus. In sixteen commissioned essays, it covers the origins in commercial equestrian performance during the late-eighteenth century to contemporary inflections of circus arts in major international festivals, educational environments, and social justice settings.
Examining the evolving representation of military service in African American literature reveals how African American writers illustrate the possibility and the disillusionment of military service between the Civil War and World War I, adding individual perspective to the historical record. In The Negro in the American Rebellion (1867), William Wells Brown expresses hope that African Americans would receive citizenship after fighting for their freedom. After Reconstruction, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper wrote Iola Leroy (1893) and Paul Laurence Dunbar published The Fanatics (1901), works that reimagine the consequences of the Civil War in light of the nation’s institutionalized racism. Later, Victor Daly portrayed the experience of an African American soldier in a segregated army in Not Only War (1932). These books demonstrate that the complicated questions about African American military service and citizenship would take generations to resolve.
Is debate on issues related to faith and reason still possible when dialogue between believers and non-believers has collapsed? Taking God Seriously not only proves that it is possible, but also demonstrates that such dialogue produces fruitful results. Here, Brian Davies, a Dominican priest and leading scholar of Thomas Aquinas, and Michael Ruse, a philosopher of science and well-known non-believer, offer an extended discussion on the nature and plausibility of belief in God and Christianity. They explore key topics in the study of religion, notably the nature of faith, the place of reason in discussions about religion, proofs for the existence of God, the problem of evil, and the problem of multiple competing religious systems, as well as the core concepts of Christian belief including the Trinity and the justification of morality. Written in a jargon-free manner, avoiding the extremes of evangelical literalism and New Atheism prejudice, Taking God Seriously does not compromise integrity or shy from discussing important or difficult issues.
The present study examined the developmental value of parsing different forms of children's risky involvement in interparental conflict as predictors of children's subsequent psychological adjustment. Participants included a diverse sample of 243 preschool children (Mage = 4.6 years) and their mothers across two measurement occasions spaced 2 years apart. Three forms of risky involvement (i.e., cautious, caregiving, and coercive) were identified using maternal narratives describing children's emotional and behavioral reactivity during and immediately following interparental conflict. Utilizing a multimethod, multi-informant design, findings revealed that each form of involvement prospectively predicted unique configurations of children's developmental outcomes. Greater coercive involvement was associated with higher levels of externalizing problems, callous and unemotional traits, and extraversion. Higher levels of caregiving involvement were linked with greater separation anxiety. Finally, cautious involvement predicted more separation anxiety and social withdrawal.
Gloria Davies’ chapter focuses on two aspects of ideology that help to determine how we can look at law in China. She contrasts two different ways of thinking about ideology, one implicit and the other explicit. She first considers how the disciplinary rules and conventions of academic work sustain the discursive dominance of certain patterns of understanding. Second, she looks at the dominance of ideology under Xi Jinping, particularly how it has worked to undermine academic inquiry in China in some areas and to produce a more explicitly political understanding of China’s ‘socialist rule of law’ in others. With these issues in mind, she explores Party ideology as a cultural and linguistic phenomenon of China’s Party-state system. She argues that to the extent that ideology is shaped by spoken and written communications, texts and images, its imprint as a dominant pattern of understanding is contingent as much on the persuasiveness of what it promises and represents as on its institutional entrenchment.
To address appropriateness of antibiotic use, we implemented an electronic framework to evaluate antibiotic “never events” (NEs) at 2 medical centers. Patient-level vancomycin administration records were classified as NEs or non-NEs. The objective framework allowed capture of true-positive vancomycin NEs in one-third of patients identified by the electronic strategy.
The Scaling-up Health-Arts Programme: Implementation and Effectiveness Research (SHAPER) project is the world's largest hybrid study on the impact of the arts on mental health embedded into a national healthcare system. This programme, funded by the Wellcome Trust, aims to study the impact and the scalability of the arts as an intervention for mental health. The programme will be delivered by a team of clinicians, research scientists, charities, artists, patients and healthcare professionals in the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the community, spanning academia, the NHS and the charity sector. SHAPER consists of three studies – Melodies for Mums, Dance for Parkinson's, and Stroke Odysseys – which will recruit over 800 participants, deliver the interventions and draw conclusions on their clinical impact, implementation effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We hope that this work will inspire organisations and commissioners in the NHS and around the world to expand the remit of social prescribing to include evidence-based arts interventions.
Subglacial sediments have the potential to reveal information about the controls on glacier flow, changes in ice-sheet history and characterise life in those environments. Retrieving sediments from beneath the ice, through hot water drilled access holes at remote field locations, present many challenges. Motivated by the need to minimise weight, corer diameter and simplify assembly and operation, British Antarctic Survey, in collaboration with UWITEC, developed a simple mechanical percussion corer. At depths over 1000 m however, manual operation of the percussion hammer is compromised by the lack of clear operator feedback at the surface. To address this, we present a new auto-release-recovery percussion hammer mechanism that makes coring operations depth independent and improves hammer efficiency. Using a single rope tether for both the corer and hammer operation, this modified percussion corer is relatively simple to operate, easy to maintain, and has successfully operated at a depth of >2130 m.
Pancreatic eurytrematosis (PE) is an under diagnosed and neglected parasitosis in goats and sheep in the Americas. Clinical and pathological features of PE are not well defined in small ruminants worldwide. Natural cases of PE in small ruminants were detected in the Federal District, Brazil. A survey of necropsy records, including epidemiological and clinicopathological data, in goats and sheep was conducted. Most cases of PE occurred during the rainy season in adult females, with an incidence of 12.9% in goats and 0.8% in sheep. Clinical signs varied from asymptomatic infections to anorexia, lethargy, weakness, marked weight loss and death in some goats. Overall, most cases of PE in goats and sheep were incidental necropsy findings with minor pancreatic lesions. Three goats, however, showed severe chronic pancreatitis, dilation of major pancreatic ducts with numerous trematodes present and marked abdominal fat necrosis. Morphological and molecular characterization of flukes detected Eurytrema coelomaticum. Our findings shed light on the prevalence of E. coelomaticum infections in small ruminants in the region and highlight the possibility of severe and lethal cases in goats. PE must be further investigated in small ruminant populations in relevant livestock production regions of the Americas.
A fully three-dimensional boundary-integral method (BIM) is developed for the interaction of drops, suspended in a uniform far-field flow at small Reynolds number, with arbitrary Lyapunov surfaces. The close approach of fluid interfaces to solid surfaces poses significant challenges for numerical BIM implementations, due to the highly singular behaviour of single- and double-layer boundary integrals. Two new methods are described that generalize the accurate calculation of the highly singular surface integrals used by high-order desingularization techniques. The first method is semi-analytical, and applies to axisymmetric solid obstacles (in an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration). An axisymmetric particle can be divided into a series of characteristic disks along its axis, for which closed-form expressions for single and double layers are derived in terms of elliptic integrals. To accommodate arbitrary smooth surfaces, a multimesh desingularization method is introduced that calculates surface integrals utilizing a hierarchy of embedded mesh resolutions, together with distance-activated mesh interactions. Several particle shapes, including spherocylinders (capsules) and flat plates, are used to represent major classes characteristic of porous media. A droplet approaching a capsule will break up after forming two lobes, connected by a thin filament, on either side of the capsule. The cross-sectional shape of the filament affects lubrication behaviour. A constriction made of two parallel capsules, even of low aspect ratio, significantly retards drop passage compared to two spheres. Trends in drop squeezing between two capsules are summarized over a range of capillary number, viscosity ratio, drop size and capsule length. A constriction of two coplanar plates results in notably different lubrication and squeezing behaviour. Flow rectification is demonstrated for constrictions that are non-symmetrical with respect to flow reversal, for several non-axisymmetric particles.
The birth of strict products liability is often traced to Justice Roger Traynor's famous concurrence in Escola v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co. In that case, the California Supreme Court allowed recovery to a waitress who had been injured when a coke bottle exploded in her hand. Although the majority based its decision on the evidentiary doctrine of res ipsa loquitur, Justice Traynor took the opportunity to present an argument for imposition of strict liability which relieves plaintiffs of proving negligence in products liability cases. The rewritten feminist concurrence joins Traynor's approach but provides additional gender, race, and class rationales for imposing strict liability in order to strengthen consumer protection and workplace safety. Situating the case in its World War II context, the feminist concurrence discusses the pressing need for providing tort protection to new classes of minority and female workers who had recently entered the work force and to consumers who had been encouraged to purchase a growing array of consumer goods. The accompanying commentary explains the legal evolution from negligence to strict product liability and delves into the facts and the people behind the case.