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Conservation research is essential for advancing knowledge but to make an impact scientific evidence must influence conservation policies, decision making and practice. This raises a multitude of challenges. How should evidence be collated and presented to policy makers to maximise its impact? How can effective collaboration between conservation scientists and decision-makers be established? How can the resulting messages be communicated to bring about change? Emerging from a successful international symposium organised by the British Ecological Society and the Cambridge Conservation Initiative, this is the first book to practically address these questions across a wide range of conservation topics. Well-renowned experts guide readers through global case studies and their own experiences. A must-read for practitioners, researchers, graduate students and policymakers wishing to enhance the prospect of their work 'making a difference'. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
This chapter examines the regulatory framework governing the use of human embryos and gametes in treatment and research in the United Kingdom. This framework, overseen by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), permits the use of germline genome modification in human embryos for specific research purposes, but it does not currently allow such modified embryos to be used in treatment. The chapter goes on to consider how germline genome modification may become a licensable treatment in the future, building on the recent experience of regulating research into mitochondrial donation and its clinical application in the United Kingdom. The legal and ethical challenges raised against the use of mitochondrial donation (and likely to be raised against the clinical use of germline genome modification) are also considered, including concerns arising out of EU legislation.
This 10-year-old boy was hit by a car while crossing the road and sustained a closed head injury with GCS 8/15. He has been intubated because he is combative. A secondary survey has revealed this associated limb injury (Figure 16.1).
I can see a shoulder trauma series with an AP and an attempted shoot-through or trans-scapular view. It’s not quite a lateral Y-view I’m suspecting as the radiographer couldn’t get the correct projection. There’s a transverse fracture of the metaphysis, which is angulated medially due to the pull of the pectoralis major. If he was conscious I would specifically look at the axillary nerve function.
The FRCS (Tr & Orth) structured oral viva is a daunting prospect because of its high-stakes nature and the uncertainty surrounding it. The aim of this chapter is to consolidate insights from successful former candidates as well as the perspective of a senior examiner to guide you through the difficult challenges and achieve exam success!
The FRCS (Tr & Orth) represents the standard of knowledge and aptitude required for clinical practice by a day one consultant in the generality of Trauma and Orthopaedics. Passing the exam is an important milestone which symbolizes the pinnacle of a stressful period of intensive study. It is also seen as an opportunity to demonstrate the learning and knowledge you have accumulated over many years of training!
Networks are everywhere: networks of friends, transportation networks and the Web. Neurons in our brains and proteins within our bodies form networks that determine our intelligence and survival. This modern, accessible textbook introduces the basics of network science for a wide range of job sectors from management to marketing, from biology to engineering, and from neuroscience to the social sciences. Students will develop important, practical skills and learn to write code for using networks in their areas of interest - even as they are just learning to program with Python. Extensive sets of tutorials and homework problems provide plenty of hands-on practice and longer programming tutorials online further enhance students' programming skills. This intuitive and direct approach makes the book ideal for a first course, aimed at a wide audience without a strong background in mathematics or computing but with a desire to learn the fundamentals and applications of network science.
An ever-increasing number of laboratory facilities are enabling in situ spectral reflectance measurements of materials under conditions relevant to all the bodies in the Solar System, from Mercury to Pluto and beyond. Results derived from these facilities demonstrate that exposure of different materials to various planetary surface conditions can provide insights into the endogenic and exogenic processes that operate to modify their surface spectra, and their relative importance. Temperature, surface atmospheric pressure, atmospheric composition, radiation environment, and exposure to the space environment have all been shown to measurably affect reflectance and emittance spectra of a wide range of materials. Planetary surfaces are dynamic environments, and as our ability to reproduce a wider range of planetary surface conditions improves, so will our ability to better determine the surface composition of these bodies, and by extension, their geologic history.
In this work of historical theology, Rachel Davies considers the relationship between aesthetics and anthropology in Bonaventure's thought, and shows how bodily diminishment can become a sign and source of the self's renewal. Drawing from texts like the Collations on the Six Days, and the Major Life of Francis, Davies reconfigures traditional accounts of the fallen body's rebellion against the soul and emphasizes instead the soul's original abandonment of the body. Her interpretation draws attention to the crucial but undervalued role that Bonaventure assigns to the body in the self's coming-to-be, showing how contemplation involves the soul's tender recovery of the body it once rejected. Though contemplation makes body-soul integrity possible again, Davies argues that the body never fully recovers from its primordial alienation. Instead, Bonaventure suggests that individuals can experience brokenness and healing at the same time, and that suffering bodies can become paschal spaces, graced and open to beatific wholeness.
Aristotle, Hume, Kant, and Wittgenstein devoted some of their attention to aesthetics and the philosophy of art. But many analytic philosophers now are dismissive of the area. I doubt that this negative attitude is well founded. Analytic aestheticians grapple with questions as deep and subtle as any addressed elsewhere in philosophy, and its practitioners are as well trained as are their colleagues in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, philosophy of science, and so on. So rich is the range of issues that are considered by analytic philosophers of art that it is very difficult to list them all in a chapter such as this.
We analyse the entrainment and energetics of equal and opposite axisymmetric turbulent air plumes in a vertically confined space at a Rayleigh number of
using theory and direct numerical simulation. On domains of sufficiently large aspect ratio, the steady state consists of turbulent plumes penetrating an interface between two layers of approximately uniform buoyancy. As described by Baines & Turner (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 37(1), 1969, pp. 51–80), upon penetrating the interface the flow in each plume becomes forced and behaves like a constant-momentum jet, due to a reduction in its mean buoyancy relative to the local environment. To observe the behaviour of the plumes we partition the domain into sub-domains corresponding to each plume. Domains of relatively small aspect ratio produce a single primary mean-flow circulation between the sub-domains that is maintained by entrainment into the plumes. At larger aspect ratios the mean flow between the sub-domains bifurcates, indicating the existence of a secondary circulation within each layer associated with entrainment into the jets. The largest aspect ratios studied here exhibit an additional, tertiary, circulation in the vicinity of the interface. Consistency between independent calculations of an effective entrainment coefficient allows us to identify aspect ratios for which the flow can be modelled using plume theory, under the assumption of a two-layer stratification. To study the flow’s energetics we use a local definition of available potential energy (APE). For plumes with Gaussian velocity and buoyancy profiles, the theory we develop suggests that the kinetic energy dissipation is split equally between the jets and the plumes and, collectively, accounts for almost half of the input of APE at the boundaries. In contrast, 1/4 of the APE dissipation and background potential energy (BPE) production occurs in the jets, with the remaining 3/4 occurring in the plumes. These bulk theoretical predictions agree with observations of BPE production from simulations to within 1 % and form the basis of a similarity solution that models the vertical dependence of APE dissipation and BPE production. Unlike results concerning the dissipation of buoyancy variance and the strength of the circulations described above, the model for the flow’s energetics does not involve an entrainment coefficient.
Using Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici's mausoleum in San Lorenzo in Florence as a case study, this article asks why high-ranking members of Florentine society increasingly opted for burial in a sacristy in the years after c. 1350. Countering the argument that the attraction for patrons was primarily one of size, it argues that sacristies were seen as ideal burial places in which to convey the souls of the departed through purgatory, since they were both repositories for collections of saints’ relics that might intercede on the deceased's behalf and the busiest spaces in a church, where priests would have had innumerable opportunities to offer prayers for them. In discussing this choice, the article considers Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici's anxiety for the health of his soul and why he took the highly unconventional step of establishing two chapels in San Lorenzo to care for it; and it goes on to consider how the design of the so-called Old Sacristy was conceived to assist. In doing so, it offers a range of new documentary evidence regarding the early usage of the space, and it concludes with observations about the strategies employed by patrons in the siting of their tombs so as to maximise the care for their souls.
Belonging to a social group is one of the most important factors contributing to well-being. The Belonging Regulation model proposes that humans possess a social monitoring system (SMS) that evaluates social inclusion and monitors belonging needs. Here, we used a prospective longitudinal design to examine links between peer victimization experienced across 7 years and social monitoring at the behavioral and neural level in adolescent girls (n = 38, Mage = 15.43 years, SD = .33). Participants completed a social evaluation task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. More severe peer victimization was associated with increased activation to in-group versus out-group peers in the amygdala, ventral striatum, fusiform gyrus, and temporoparietal junction. Moreover, participants who displayed increased activation in these regions reported lower social self esteem and higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. These results suggest that exposure to peer victimization across the school years is associated with heightened social monitoring at the neural level during adolescence, which has potential adverse implications for girls’ adjustment and well-being.
Subject–verb (SV) agreement helps listeners interpret the number condition of ambiguous nouns (The sheep is/are fat), yet it remains unclear whether young children use agreement to comprehend newly encountered nouns. Preschoolers and adults completed a forced choice task where sentences contained singular vs. plural copulas (Where is/are the [novel noun(s)]?). Novel nouns were either morphologically unambiguous (tup/tups) or ambiguous (/geks/ = singular: gex / plural: gecks). Preschoolers (and some adults) ignored the singular copula, interpreting /ks/-final words as plural, raising questions about the role of SV agreement in learners’ sentence comprehension and the status of is in Australian English.
Parental alcohol dependence is a significant risk factor for harsh caregiving behaviors; however, it is unknown whether and how harsh caregiving changes over time and across parenting contexts for alcohol-dependent mothers. Furthermore, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether and how distinct dimensions of child characteristics, such as negative emotionality modulate harsh caregiving among alcohol-dependent mothers. Guided by parenting process models, the present study examined how two distinct domains of children's negative emotionality—fear and frustration—moderate the association between maternal alcohol dependence and maternal harshness across discipline and free-play contexts. A high-risk sample of 201 mothers and their two-year-old children were studied over a one-year period. Results from latent difference score analyses indicated that harsh parenting among alcohol-dependent mothers increased over time in the more stressful discipline context, but not in the parent–child play context. This effect was maintained even after controlling for other parenting risk factors, including other forms of maternal psychopathology. Furthermore, this increase in harsh parenting was specific to alcohol-dependent mothers whose children were displaying high levels of anger and frustration. Findings provide support for specificity in conceptualizations of child negative emotionality and parenting contexts as potential determinants of maladaptive caregiving among alcohol-dependent mothers.
Light and intermittent smokers (LITS) represent almost 50% of all current smokers. Research is needed to understand smoking motives among adult light smokers.
To explore smoking cues and motivators among a racially diverse sample of adult LITS (≤10 CPD). In addition, we explored differences between native (always smoked ≤10), and converted (former heavier) LITS.
We used purposive sampling to recruit participants who were native and converted LITS and to include equal numbers of African Americans, Whites and Latinos. We coded and analyzed transcripts using a stage approach to identify themes.
Four main themes emerged that may be unique to light smokers and suggests potential strategies for intervention: (1) smoking in response to cues and control, (2) identifying as a smoker, (3) concern about health consequences, and (4) other priorities influencing smoking. There were some differences among smoking cues and motivators by race and ethnicity, and differences between native and converted LITS.
Overall, LITS reported drivers of smoking that were unrelated to symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. Even when experiencing salient cues, our LITS cohort expressed the ability to assert control over smoking by abstaining when situational contexts made smoking inconvenient.
When a symbol is a marker of a primary bearer of value and, secondarily, a bearer of value itself, then it has symbolic value. Philosophers have long been suspicious of symbolic values, often regarding them as illusory or irrelevant. I suggest that arguments against symbolic values either overgeneralize or else require premises that can only be supported if the normative significance of some symbolic considerations is presupposed. Humans need symbols to represent identity facts to themselves and others. Symbolic values thereby contribute to individuals’ control over their own agency.
Abundance thresholds are of fundamental importance in our attempts to understand the dynamics of wildlife infection. Identifying and manipulating these thresholds may also have substantial applied significance. The plague system in the Pre-Balkhash region of Kazakhstan has been extensively studied, including an unusually thorough investigation of the nature and importance of an abundance threshold for the infection. Great gerbils are the main reservoir host, with plague transmitted between them by a variety of flea species. Initial work identified such a threshold from time-series data, with great gerbil abundance being measured by level of occupancy (the proportion of the burrow systems in the landscape supporting an extended family group). However, this and other refinements of the threshold were better at predicting the absence of plague (below the threshold) than in guaranteeing its presence (above). Further analysis indicated that the threshold was a critical point in the percolation of plague across the landscape, rather than in a mass-action random mixing process. The performance of the threshold was also improved by incorporating both gerbil and flea abundance to generate a hyperbolic threshold curve.
Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) technology such as impact mills that destroy weed seeds in seed-bearing chaff material during grain crop harvest, has been highly effective in Australian cropping systems. However, the impact mill has never been tested in soybeans and weeds common to soybean production systems in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic US. We conducted stationary testing of Harrington Seed Destructor (HSD) impact mill and winter burial studies during 2015-2016 and 2017-2018 to determine (i) the efficacy of the impact mill to target weed seeds of seven common weeds in Midwestern and five in Mid-Atlantic US, and (ii) the fate of impact mill processed weed seeds after winter burial. The impact mill was highly effective in destroying seeds of all the species tested, with 93.5-99.8% weed seed destruction in 2015 and 85.6-100% in 2017. The weak relationships (positive or negative) between seed size and seed destruction by impact mill, and high percentage of weed seed destruction by impact mill across all seed sizes indicate that the biological or practical effect of seed size is limited. The impact mill-processed weed seeds that retained at least 50% of their original size, labeled as potentially viable seed (PVS), were buried for 90 d over winter to determine the fate of weed seeds after winter burial. At 90 d after burial (DAB), the impact mill processed PVS were significantly less viable than unprocessed control seeds, indicating that impact mill processing physically damaged the PVS and promoted seed mortality over winter. A very small fraction (< 0.4%) of the total weed seed processed by the impact mill remained viable after winter burial. The results presented here demonstrate that the impact mill is highly effective in increasing seed mortality and could potentially be used as a HWSC tactic for weed management in this region.
Uninsured patients are more likely than the general population to use tobacco and less likely to quit.
To determine if the mode of delivering the PHS Guidelines influenced the effectiveness of smoking cessation among patients in a safety net setting.
Six free clinics were randomly assigned to a training program delivered by an academic physician or community partner plus video support. A repeated cross-sectional survey of patients was conducted at three waves to assess effectiveness to promote quitting.
Tobacco use was triple the rate of the US population: 57.7% (Wave 1), 44.7% (Wave 2), and 48.9% (Wave 3). Patients were more likely to report receipt of at least one evidence-based strategy to promote quitting at Wave 2 (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI (1.18–4.58)). Patients treated in clinics trained by the community partner were significantly more likely to report receiving cessation assistance at Wave 2 (AOR 2.54, 95%CI 1.29–5.00) and the trend was similar, but not significant at Wave 3. Patients in the community partner-led arm were significantly less likely to report tobacco use at Wave 3 (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35–0.99).
Implementation of the PHS Guidelines in free clinics demonstrates preliminary efficacy, with delivery by community partners offering greater scalability.
The link between trade and inequality has been of central importance in analysing international trade since the seminal work of Stolper and Samuelson (1941). While early work on the topic was primarily theoretic, with improved data availability more recent contributions have examined it empirically, with examples using aggregate data including Bergh and Nilsson (2010) and those with micro data including Cosar, Guner, and Tybout (2016). Some studies, such as Jaumotte, Lall, and Papageorgiou (2013), find that the inequality impact of trade is secondary when compared to factors such as technological change while others such as Lim and McNelis (2014) find that the impact is conditional on other factors. In any case, the evidence consistently points to a significant potential for increased trade to exacerbate inequality. More recent contributions, however, discuss the role in inequality itself in determining trade when preferences are non-homothetic. In particular, a growing literature has replaced homothetic preferences with Stone-Geary preferences. Examples include Francois and Kaplan (1996), Bekkers, Francois, and Manchin (2012), Markusen (2013), Caron, Fally, and Markusen (2014), and Bertoletti and Etro (2016). In particular, Bekkers et al. (2012) find evidence in the data on prices of tradeables and inequality that is consistent with the hierarchical demand patterns predicted by the Stone-Geary approach to incorporating non-homothetic preferences in a trade model. Within these models, the key is that the consumption of certain goods (luxuries) only begins when a given consumer reaches a minimum income level. The empirical work also finds that income distribution within a country can be a driving force in trade patterns (e.g. Francois and Kaplan, 1996; Hummels and Klenow, 2005; Dalgin, Trindade, and Mitra, 2008; Fieler, 2011; and Tasarov, 2012).
This chapter is a “case study,” that is, a collection of facts organized into a story (the case) analyzed to yield one or more lessons (the study). Collecting facts is always a problem. There is no end of facts. Even a small event in the distant past may yield a surprise or two if one looks carefully enough. But the problem of collecting facts is especially severe when the facts change almost daily as the story “unfolds” in the news. One must either stop collecting on some arbitrarily chosen day or go on collecting indefinitely. I stopped collecting on October 3, 2016 (the day on which I first passed this chapter to the editor of this volume). There is undoubtedly much to be learned from the facts uncovered since then, but this chapter leaves to others the collecting and analyzing of those newer facts. The story I tell is good enough for the use I make of it here – and for future generations to consider. Increasingly, whistleblowing is being understood to be part of the professional responsibilities of an engineer.