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In August 2018, India’s southern state of Kerala experienced its worst flooding in over a century. This report describes the relief efforts in Kozhikode, a coastal region of Kerala, where Operation Navajeevan was initiated.
Data were collected from a centralized database at the command center in the District Medical Office as well as first-hand accounts from providers who participated in the relief effort.
From August 15 through September 8, 2018, 36,846 flood victims were seen at 280 relief camps. The most common cause for presentation was exacerbation of an on-going chronic medical condition (18,490; 50.2%). Other common presentations included acute respiratory infection (7,451; 20.2%), traumatic injuries (3,736; 10.4%), and psychiatric illness (5,327; 14.5%).
The prevalence of chronic disease exacerbation as the primary presentation during Operation Navajeevan represents an epidemiologic shift in disaster relief in India. It is foreseeable that as access to health care improves in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and climate change increases the prevalence of extreme weather events around the world, that this trend will continue.
Previous literature has demonstrated a strong association between cigarette smoking, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This association has not previously been examined in a causal inference framework and could have important implications for suicide prevention strategies.
We aimed to examine the evidence for an association between smoking behaviours (initiation, smoking status, heaviness, lifetime smoking) and suicidal thoughts or attempts by triangulating across observational and Mendelian randomisation analyses.
First, in the UK Biobank, we calculated observed associations between smoking behaviours and suicidal thoughts or attempts. Second, we used Mendelian randomisation to explore the relationship between smoking and suicide attempts and ideation, using genetic variants as instruments to reduce bias from residual confounding and reverse causation.
Our observational analysis showed a relationship between smoking behaviour, suicidal ideation and attempts, particularly between smoking initiation and suicide attempts (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% CI 1.91–2.26; P < 0.001). The Mendelian randomisation analysis and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, however, did not support this (odds ratio for lifetime smoking on suicidal ideation, 0.050; 95% CI −0.027 to 0.127; odds ratio on suicide attempts, 0.053; 95% CI, −0.003 to 0.110). Despite past literature showing a positive dose-response relationship, our results showed no clear evidence for a causal effect of smoking on suicidal ideation or attempts.
This was the first Mendelian randomisation study to explore the effect of smoking on suicidal ideation and attempts. Our results suggest that, despite observed associations, there is no clear evidence for a causal effect.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with later depression and there is considerable genetic overlap between them. This study investigated if ADHD and ADHD genetic liability are causally related to depression using two different methods.
First, a longitudinal population cohort design was used to assess the association between childhood ADHD (age 7 years) and recurrent depression in young-adulthood (age 18–25 years) in N = 8310 individuals in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Second, two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses examined relationships between genetic liability for ADHD and depression utilising published Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) data.
Childhood ADHD was associated with an increased risk of recurrent depression in young-adulthood (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05–1.73). MR analyses suggested a causal effect of ADHD genetic liability on major depression (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.12–1.31). MR findings using a broader definition of depression differed, showing a weak influence on depression (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02–1.13).
Our findings suggest that ADHD increases the risk of depression later in life and are consistent with a causal effect of ADHD genetic liability on subsequent major depression. However, findings were different for more broadly defined depression.
There is a wealth of literature on the observed association between childhood trauma and psychotic illness. However, the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis is complex and could be explained, in part, by gene–environment correlation.
The association between schizophrenia polygenic scores (PGS) and experiencing childhood trauma was investigated using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Schizophrenia PGS were derived in each cohort for children, mothers, and fathers where genetic data were available. Measures of trauma exposure were derived based on data collected throughout childhood and adolescence (0–17 years; ALSPAC) and at age 8 years (MoBa).
Within ALSPAC, we found a positive association between schizophrenia PGS and exposure to trauma across childhood and adolescence; effect sizes were consistent for both child or maternal PGS. We found evidence of an association between the schizophrenia PGS and the majority of trauma subtypes investigated, with the exception of bullying. These results were comparable with those of MoBa. Within ALSPAC, genetic liability to a range of additional psychiatric traits was also associated with a greater trauma exposure.
Results from two international birth cohorts indicate that genetic liability for a range of psychiatric traits is associated with experiencing childhood trauma. Genome-wide association study of psychiatric phenotypes may also reflect risk factors for these phenotypes. Our findings also suggest that youth at higher genetic risk might require greater resources/support to ensure they grow-up in a healthy environment.
Smoking prevalence is higher amongst individuals with schizophrenia and depression compared with the general population. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can examine whether this association is causal using genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
We conducted two-sample MR to explore the bi-directional effects of smoking on schizophrenia and depression. For smoking behaviour, we used (1) smoking initiation GWAS from the GSCAN consortium and (2) we conducted our own GWAS of lifetime smoking behaviour (which captures smoking duration, heaviness and cessation) in a sample of 462690 individuals from the UK Biobank. We validated this instrument using positive control outcomes (e.g. lung cancer). For schizophrenia and depression we used GWAS from the PGC consortium.
There was strong evidence to suggest smoking is a risk factor for both schizophrenia (odds ratio (OR) 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67–3.08, p < 0.001) and depression (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.71–2.32, p < 0.001). Results were consistent across both lifetime smoking and smoking initiation. We found some evidence that genetic liability to depression increases smoking (β = 0.091, 95% CI 0.027–0.155, p = 0.005) but evidence was mixed for schizophrenia (β = 0.022, 95% CI 0.005–0.038, p = 0.009) with very weak evidence for an effect on smoking initiation.
These findings suggest that the association between smoking, schizophrenia and depression is due, at least in part, to a causal effect of smoking, providing further evidence for the detrimental consequences of smoking on mental health.
Background: Observational studies have reported an association between childhood obesity and a higher risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the difficulties to fully account for confounding and long recall periods make causal inference from these studies challenging. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of childhood obesity to the development of MS through Mendelian randomization, which uses genetic associations to minimize the risk of confounding. Methods: We selected 23 independent genetic variants strongly associated with childhood body mass index (BMI) in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) which included 47,541 children. The corresponding effects of these variants on risk of MS were obtained from a GWAS of 14,802 MS cases and 26,703 controls. Standard two-sample Mendelian randomization methods were performed, with additional sensitivity analyses to assess the likelihood of bias from genetic pleiotropy. Results: The inverse-variance weighted MR analysis revealed that one standard deviation increase in childhood BMI increased odds of MS by 26% (odds ratio=1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.45, p=0.001). There was no significant heterogeneity across the individual estimates. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main findings and provided no evidence of pleiotropy. Conclusions: This study provides genetic support of a role for increased childhood BMI in the development of MS.
This essay directs attention to the original attraction of those amusements outside the city proper: natural landscapes at the edge of cities in which popular amusements were constructed. Here, the heart of subversive possibility was located where the immutable, uncontrollable natural elements interacted with constructed ones. In the case of Coney Island and similar coastal landscapes, this meant the seashore. The beach broke down manufactured limitations, exposing all beachgoers—particularly women—as the same under the sun. I examine the impact that Coney's seashore had on defining class-bound womanhood. I argue that within the island's liminal confines, the beach's natural elements exposed the fallacy that well-off women were naturally cleaner, both physically and morally, than not just men, but also working-class women. Nature trumped the manufactured to sully both the bodies and, metaphorically, the respectability of the women who flocked to Coney. The farther that women ventured toward the ocean, the more the seascape nullified their differences and democratized its allegedly hygienic visitors. This concept normalized in the early twentieth century as city borderlands, primarily the seashore and mountains, introduced possibilities for more porous gender and class identities in urban areas.
On October 1, 2017, a gunman fired on a festival in Las Vegas, Nevada, killing 58 people and wounding over 500. Multiple casualties were received at two nearby hospitals that sponsor residency programs: Sunrise Hospital and Medical Center and University Medical Center.
To evaluate the impact of the most lethal mass-shooting event in US history on graduate medical education (GME) at the involved hospitals.
Anonymized surveys were sent to 210 physicians at SMC and 110 physicians at UMC. Surveys incorporated 4 validated instruments: The Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), The Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and The Team Cohesion Factor (TCF).
Sixty-six physicians completed the surveys (38 attendings; 17 residents). 10% of physicians scored in the likely posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) range and 15% found themselves avoiding or struggling with managing similar patients, though overall survey response rate was low. The majority of physicians did not believe the event impacted their specific GME activities. No attending physician rated the event as negative in terms of global impact on GME, and 34% rated it as positive. However, 12 of 17 residents rated the event as a hurdle in its GME impact. A regression model predicting the IES-R score demonstrated a trend that those with higher pre-event stress and lower social support reported more adverse impact (p<0.06).
We believe our study is the first to examine the impact of mass casualty traumatic events on graduate medical education. Attendings and residents differ in their global perception of the impact, with attendings viewing it as a positive event and residents as a challenge. Pre-event level of stress and perceived social support predicted the impact of the event and may partially explain these results if residents and attendings vary on these parameters.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this project is to study fetal pulmonary vasculature in a CDH animal model, to understand how FETO affects developing vasculature, and to develop a modifiable fetal tracheal occlusive therapeutic device that avoids previously seen sequelae of FETO, like alveolar distension, decreased surfactant production, and decreased Type II Pneumocytes. The primary outcome is lung volume/kilogram. The secondary outcomes are contrast-enhanced ultrasound perfusion metrics (Time to Peak, Mean Transit Time, Wash-in Rate, Wash-in Perfusion Index), pulmonary vascular density, Lung Injury Histology Scores, and Lung Compliance upon ventilation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Congenital diaphragmatic hernias will be modeled by surgical hernia creation via maternal laparotomy and hysterotomy at gestational age 72 - 74 days. The ewe will undergo a second laparotomy at 105 - 115 days gestational age. After a second hysterotomy is made, the fetus will be removed from the amniotic sac, though placental circulation will be maintained (EXIT Procedure). The animal is cannulated via the umbilical vein and arteries onto the pumpless ECMO circuit. The balloon and pressure sensor complex is placed into the trachea via direct laryngoscopy, and the fetus aseptically sealed into the Biobag. The wires of the tracheal occlusive device (balloon catheter and pressure sensor) will egress via the port of the Biobag. The fetus remains in the Biobag for fourteen days, with the tracheal occlusive device in place for ten days, followed by a four day recovery period. Daily contrast-enhanced ultrasounds and pulmonary artery dopplers are performed. Upon study completion, the fetus is intubated and placed on a conventional ventilator. A full necropsy is then performed, with perfusion fixation of the lungs via the pulmonary artery. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Hypothesis 1: Modifiable Tracheal Occlusion will have statistically different effects on developing lung parenchyma, surfactant production, and abundance of Type II Pneumocytes Hypothesis 2: Modifiable Tracheal Occlusion will have lower levels of pulmonary hypertension than negative control animals, as measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (pulmonary artery velocity and washout time). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This project will provide insight into the development of pulmonary hypertension in the CDH fetus. It will provide insight into the physiology of FETO, a novel therapy for congenital diaphragmatic hernias, and will demonstrate the utility of the EXTEND System for fetal treatments that are not possible in the maternal uterus.
To examine relationships between frequency of adolescents eating alone (dependent variable) and diet, weight status and perceived food-related parenting practices (independent variables).
Analyses of publicly available, cross-sectional, web-based survey data from adolescents.
Online consumer opinion panel.
A US nationwide sample of adolescents (12–17 years) completed Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study surveys to report demographic and family meal characteristics, weight, dietary intake, home food availability and perceptions of parenting practices. Parents provided information about demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations between variables.
About 20 % of adolescents reported often eating alone (n 343) v. not often eating alone (n 1309). Adjusted odds of adolescents often eating alone were significantly higher for non-Hispanic Black compared with non-Hispanic White adolescents (OR=1·7) and for overweight or obese compared with normal- or underweight adolescents (OR=1·6). Adjusted odds of adolescents eating alone were significantly lower for those who reported that fruits and vegetables were often/always available in the home (OR=0·65), for those who perceived that parents had expectations about fruit and vegetable intake (OR=0·71) and for those who agreed with parental authority to make rules about intake of junk food/sugary drinks (OR=0·71). Junk food and sugary drink daily intake frequency was positively associated with often eating alone.
Often eating alone was related to being overweight/obese, having less healthy dietary intake and perceptions of less supportive food-related parenting practices.
Despite the well-documented association between smoking and personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion, little is known about the potential causal nature of these findings. If it were possible to unpick the association between personality and smoking, it may be possible to develop tailored smoking interventions that could lead to both improved uptake and efficacy.
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants robustly associated with both smoking phenotypes and personality traits. Here we use publicly available GWAS summary statistics in addition to individual-level data from UK Biobank to investigate the link between smoking and personality. We first estimate genetic overlap between traits using LD score regression and then use bidirectional Mendelian randomisation methods to unpick the nature of this relationship.
We found clear evidence of a modest genetic correlation between smoking behaviours and both neuroticism and extraversion. We found some evidence that personality traits are causally linked to certain smoking phenotypes: among current smokers each additional neuroticism risk allele was associated with smoking an additional 0.07 cigarettes per day (95% CI 0.02–0.12, p = 0.009), and each additional extraversion effect allele was associated with an elevated odds of smoking initiation (OR 1.015, 95% CI 1.01–1.02, p = 9.6 × 10−7).
We found some evidence for specific causal pathways from personality to smoking phenotypes, and weaker evidence of an association from smoking initiation to personality. These findings could be used to inform future smoking interventions or to tailor existing schemes.
Adolescence is a critical time point in the lifecourse. LifeLab is an educational intervention engaging adolescents in understanding Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concepts and the impact of the early life environment on future health, benefitting both their long-term health and that of the next generation. We aimed to assess whether engaging adolescents with DOHaD concepts improves scientific literacy and whether engagement alone improves health behaviours.
Six schools were randomized, three to intervention and three to control. Outcome measures were changed in knowledge, and intended and actual behaviour in relation to diet and lifestyle. A total of 333 students completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires. At 12 months, intervention students showed greater understanding of DOHaD concepts. No sustained changes in behaviours were identified.
Adolescents’ engagement with DOHaD concepts can be improved and maintained over 12 months. Such engagement does not itself translate into behaviour change. The intervention has consequently been revised to include additional components beyond engagement alone.
Identifying prenatal environmental factors that have genuinely causal effects on psychopathology is an important research priority, but it is crucial to select an appropriate research design. In this review we explain why and what sorts of designs are preferable and focus on genetically informed/sensitive designs. In the field of developmental psychopathology, causal inferences about prenatal risks have not always been based on evidence generated from appropriate designs. We focus on reported links between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or conduct problems. Undertaking a systematic review of findings from genetically informed designs and “triangulating” evidence from studies with different patterns of bias, we conclude that at present findings suggest it is unlikely that there is a substantial causal effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on either attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or conduct problems. In contrast, for offspring birth weight (which serves as a positive control) findings strongly support a negative causal effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy. For maternal pregnancy stress, too few studies use genetically sensitive designs to draw firm conclusions, but continuity with postnatal stress seems important. We highlight the importance of moving beyond observational designs, for systematic evaluation of the breadth of available evidence and choosing innovative designs. We conclude that a broader set of prenatal risk factors should be examined, including those relevant in low- and middle-income contexts. Future directions include a greater use of molecular genetically informed designs such as Mendelian randomization to test causal hypotheses about prenatal exposure and offspring outcome.
Psychoses, especially schizophrenia, are often preceded by cognitive deficits and psychosis risk states. Altered metabolic profiles have been found in schizophrenia. However, the associations between metabolic profiles and poorer cognitive performance and psychosis risk in the population remain to be determined.
Detailed molecular profiles were measured for up to 8976 individuals from two general population-based prospective birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy platform was used to quantify 70 metabolic measures at age 15–16 years in the NFBC 1986 and at ages 15 and 17 years in ALSPAC. Psychosis risk was assessed using the PROD-screen questionnaire at age 15–16 years in the NFBC 1986 or the psychotic-like symptoms assessment at age 17 years in ALSPAC. Cognitive measures included academic performance at age 16 years in both cohorts and general intelligence and executive function in ALSPAC. Logistic regression measured cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between metabolic measures and psychosis risk and cognitive performance, controlling for important covariates.
Seven metabolic measures, primarily fatty acid (FA) measures, showed cross-sectional associations with general cognitive performance, four across both cohorts (low density lipoprotein diameter, monounsaturated FA ratio, omega-3 ratio and docosahexaenoic acid ratio), even after controlling for important mental and physical health covariates. Psychosis risk showed minimal metabolic associations.
FA ratios may be important in marking risk for cognitive deficits in adolescence. Further research is needed to clarify whether these biomarkers could be causal and thereby possible targets for intervention.
Pathological worry is a hallmark feature of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), associated with dysfunctional emotional processing. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is involved in the regulation of such processes, but the link between vmPFC emotional responses and pathological v. adaptive worry has not yet been examined.
To study the association between worry and vmPFC activity evoked by the processing of learned safety and threat signals.
In total, 27 unmedicated patients with GAD and 56 healthy controls (HC) underwent a differential fear conditioning paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Compared to HC, the GAD group demonstrated reduced vmPFC activation to safety signals and no safety–threat processing differentiation. This response was positively correlated with worry severity in GAD, whereas the same variables showed a negative and weak correlation in HC.
Poor vmPFC safety–threat differentiation might characterise GAD, and its distinctive association with GAD worries suggests a neural-based qualitative difference between healthy and pathological worries.
Maudsley International was set up to help improve people's mental health and well-being around the world. A variety of programmes have been developed by Maudsley International over the past 10 years, for planning and implementing services; building capacity; and training and evaluation to support organisations and individuals, professionals and managers to train and develop health and social care provisions. Maudsley International's model is based on collaboration, sharing expertise and cultural understanding with international partners.
A case is presented of a 25-year-old man with treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia whose only previous trial of clozapine had been stopped following a suspected clozapine-induced myocarditis. Due to the failure of his psychosis to respond to a number of antipsychotic treatments and augmentation strategies, clozapine was restarted on admission. His rechallenge was marked by intermittent pyrexia, tachycardia and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), but eosinophilia was absent. Clozapine was started and then stopped twice following extensive investigation and with specialist cardiology consultation. Physical symptoms and CRP elevation resolved shortly after clozapine cessation. We believe this constituted an idiosyncratic systemic inflammatory response to clozapine treatment.