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The Indian state treated the partition of Punjab as a ‘national disaster’ and training for refugee women was deemed essential to restore the social landscape; yet the kind of help it offered to refugee women rested on its clear assumptions and biases about the kind of work that was appropriate for them: women were offered training in embroidery, stitching, tailoring, and weaving, as these are associated with feminine and household-based skills. This article will reveal that the state rehabilitation enterprise was primarily masculine in focus. The state treated women refugees as secondary earners and as guardians of hearth, kith, and kin; it did not see them playing a definitive role in nation-building in post-colonial India. In the absence of state supportive policies, refugee women were compelled to take up informal jobs like petty trading, domestic service, and labouring work. This article suggests that refugee women were handicapped in the labour market at their very point of entry. It traces the history of women's informalities in Delhi. In doing so, it investigates the feminization and commercialization of urban space in twentieth-century Delhi. It urges that women made space in more than one way: identifying fragmentary livelihoods, producing small-scale capitalism, and creating informal markets.
Knowledge of proper clinical management of drug overdose and chemical and biological toxin exposure is important for the neurocritical care specialist. Many of the common offenders principally affect the central nervous system (CNS). Even those that do not will lead to a severely incapacitated state when overdosed such that the afflicted patient will require critical care in an intensive care unit (ICU).
This article presents an analysis of three uniquely situated garden-based research studies. As colleagues intrigued by the rich, intricate, learning dynamics playing out within the garden spaces, our collaboration explored the broader meaning and potential for garden-based programming. As we discussed the three garden studies, two themes emerged as valuable for analysis: relationality and decolonisation. We understand the themes in relation to Gregory Cajete’s (2005) conceptualisation of coming to resonance within oneself, one’s community, and the surrounding ecosystem as being integral aspects of a holistic learning program. In addition, centring learning around relationality with place requires, as Delores Calderon (2014) asserts, a critique of colonisation that has shaped place over time. In our collaboration on the three studies and reading of current developments in the literature, it became clear that garden- and place-based education must grapple with the troubled histories of place and work towards decolonisation. Each garden project provided unique insight, but our collective analysis elicited an examination of assumptions about pedagogy and potential for decolonisation of land, body, and minds.
We examine whether early acquisition of a second language (L2) leads to native-like neural processing of phonemic contrasts that are absent in the L1. Four groups (adult and child monolingual speakers of English; adult and child early bilingual speakers of English and Spanish, exposed to both languages before 5 years of age) participated in a study comparing the English /ɪ/ - /ε/ contrast. Neural measures of automatic change detection (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and attention (Processing Negativity, PN and Late Negativity, LN) were measured by varying whether participants tracked the stimulus stream or not. We observed no effect of bilingualism on the MMN, but adult bilinguals differed significantly from adult monolinguals on neural indices of attention. The child bilinguals were indistinguishable from their monolingual peers. This suggest that learning a L2 before five years of age leads to native-like phoneme discrimination, but bilinguals develop increased attentional sensitivity to speech sounds.
Discrete unstable modes of hypersonic laminar boundary layers, obtained from an eigenvalue analysis, provide insight into key transition scenarios. The character of such modes near the leading edge is often identified with the corresponding asymptotic free-stream behaviour of acoustic, vortical or entropic (thermal) content, which we designate fluid-thermodynamic (FT) components. In downstream regions, however, this direct one-to-one correspondence between discrete modes and FT components does not hold, since FT components interact in well-defined ways with the basic state and with each other (even under linear scenarios). In the present work, we perform an FT decomposition of discrete modes using momentum potential theory, to yield a physics-based analysis that complements linear stability theory in the linear regime, and seamlessly extends to the nonlinear domain where direct numerical simulations are appropriate. Linear and nonlinear saturated disturbance effects, different forcing types and wall thermal conditions are considered, with emphasis on phenomena occurring near stability-mode synchronization locations. The results show that, in the linear regime, each discrete mode contains all FT components, whose relative amplitudes vary with streamwise distance. Vortical components are always the largest, followed by thermal and acoustic components. These latter two show distinct fore and aft signatures near mode synchronization. The vortical component displays a series of rope-shaped recirculation-cell patterns across the generalized inflection point. However, both acoustic and thermal components display ‘trapped’ structures. The former contains an alternating monopole array between the wall and the critical layer, while the latter is confined to an undulating region between the wall and a wavy locus straddling the generalized inflection point. Nonlinear saturation in the region of Mack-mode growth further strengthens the rope-shaped structures in the vortical component and higher harmonics appear, whose form and location depend on the specific component. Wall cooling modifies the eigenfunctions such that the acoustic component accounts for more of its composition, consistent with its destabilization. Analysis of energy interactions among the FT components indicates that, even though the vorticity component is the largest, the thermal component induces the most significant source term for the growth of acoustic perturbations, possibly due to the trapped nature of both.
The Infectious Diseases and Beliaghata General Hospital, Kolkata, India witnessed a sudden increase in admissions of diarrhoea cases during the first 2 weeks of August 2015 following heavy rainfall. This prompted us to investigate the event. Cases were recruited through hospital-based surveillance along with the collection of socio-demographic characteristics and clinical profile using a structured questionnaire. Stool specimens were tested at bacteriological laboratory of the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), Kolkata. Admission of 3003 diarrhoea cases, clearly indicated occurrence of outbreak in Kolkata municipal area as it was more than two standard deviation of the mean number (911; s.d. = 111) of diarrhoea admissions during the same period in previous 7 years. Out of 164 recruited cases, 25% were under-5 children. Organisms were isolated from 80 (49%) stool specimens. Vibrio cholerae O1 was isolated from 50 patients. Twenty-eight patients had this organism as the sole pathogen. Among 14 infants, five had cholera. All V. cholerae O1 isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, followed by co-trimoxazole (96%), streptomycin (92%), but sensitive to fluroquinolones. We confirmed the occurrence of a cholera outbreak in Kolkata during August 2015 due to V. cholerae O1 infection, where infants were affected.
Among 300 advanced cancer patients with potential urinary tract infection (UTI), 19 had symptomatic UTI. Among remaining patients (n = 281), 21% had asymptomatic bacteriuria or candiduria, and 14% received inappropriate therapy for 279 antimicrobial days. Bacteriuria or candiduria predicted antimicrobial therapy. At 10,000 to <100,000 CFU/mL, the incidence rate ratio [IRR] was 16.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0–47.2), and at ≥100,000 CFU/mL, the IRR was 27.9 (95% CI, 10.9–71.2).
Benign epilepsy of childhood with central temporal spikes (BECTS) and absence epilepsy are common epilepsy syndromes in children with similar age of onset and favorable prognosis. However, the co-existence of the electrocardiogram (EEG) findings of rolandic spike and 3 Hz generalized spike-wave (GSW) discharges is extremely rare, with few cases reported in the literature. Our objective was to characterize the EEG findings of these syndromes in children in our center and review the electro-clinical features.
All EEGs at BC Children’s Hospital are entered in a database, which include EEG findings and clinical data. Patients with both centro-temporal spikes and 3 Hz GSW discharges were identified from the database and clinical data were reviewed.
Among the 43,061 patients in the database from 1992 to 2017, 1426 with isolated rolandic discharges and 528 patients with isolated 3 Hz GSW discharges were identified, and 20 (0.05%) patients had both findings: 3/20 had BECTS, and subsequently developed childhood absence epilepsy and 17/20 had no seizures characteristic for BECTS. At follow-up, 17 (85%) were seizure-free, 1 (5%) had rare, and 2 (10%) had frequent seizures.
This is the largest reported group of patients to our knowledge with the co-existence of rolandic and 3 Hz GSW discharges on EEGs in one institution, not drug-induced. As the presence of both findings is extremely rare, distinct pathophysiological mechanisms are likely. The majority had excellent seizure control at follow-up, similar to what would be expected for each type of epilepsy alone.
Marvell’ s ‘A Dialogue between the Soul and Body’ is one of those idiosyncratic poems which when read nowadays without a proper awareness of the tradition, both in prose and verse, upon which it plays tempts to an over-biographical interpretation and to an assorted variety of philosophical explanations. Indeed, quite contrary conclusions have been drawn from the inconclusiveness of the debate between soul and body—that Marvell is, at least for the space of the poem, dangerous cynic; Pyrrhonist in his suspension of a verdict; Cartesian in his dualism; Puritan idealist coming to terms with historical exigency;
Maturing oocytes have diverse developmental potential and good quality oocytes exhibit a better ability to attain physiological milestones in a time-dependent manner. This situation necessitates the confirmation of oocyte developmental status more precisely under an in vitro embryo production (IVEP) regime. The aim of this study was to explain timely events in germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), an important milestone of oocyte nuclear maturation, to delineate the developmental capacity of Bubalus bubalis oocytes. In addition, the expression profile of genes responsible for GVBD was assessed in order to understand the molecular context responsible for GVBD. The chronology of GVBD events at different time intervals during in vitro maturation (IVM) suggests that the rate at which oocytes undergo GVBD was strikingly different in the brilliant cresyl blue (BCB)+ and BCB− groups. The expression of AKT and CDC25B genes for BCB+ oocytes was maximum at 8 h of IVM, and CCNB (cyclin B) peaked at around 10 h, which suggested that GVBD was finished after 10 h in BCB+ oocytes, whereas the expression of AKT and CDC25B was found to peak at around 12–14 h of IVM. This difference consequently delays the GVBD event by 2–4 h in BCB− oocytes. Poor abundance of gene transcripts was mainly implicated in delay and lower rate of GVBD in BCB− oocytes which in turn strongly affected the translational ability of oocytes to blastocysts. The findings of this study support the idea that there is a propensity in sub-optimal grade oocytes for delayed GVBD that compromises the developmental ability of low grade buffalo oocytes. The study highlights the very small, but importantly vital and separate, time window of the GVBD event during which the competence levels of buffalo oocytes are altered along with their translational ability to develop into the prospective embryos.