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The finding of a rare specimen of Squatina squatina off the Sicilian coast of the Strait of Messina (Central Mediterranean Sea) and its maintenance in an aquarium is reported. The morphometric and meristic characters are presented. The record is proposed as a useful tool for raising attention to the state of this delicate species.
In his autobiographical sketch, On the Boundary, Paul Tillich offers a striking account of his passionate interest in philosophy, which began in his final years at school and which would last throughout his life. This interest is shown not only in his numerous writings up to and including his main systematic work, the three-volume Systematic Theology, but also in his prolific academic teaching. As a young Privatdozent, Tillich lectured on the religious content of Western philosophy at the University of Berlin; in 1929 he was appointed the successor to Max Scheler at the University of Frankfurt am Main and held a chair in philosophy and sociology; and in 1940 he accepted a chair in philosophical theology in New York, which he held until his retirement in 1955. Tillich's theology is permeated by philosophical reflection that should never be reduced simply to philosophy of religion. Tillich not only accurately describes his own relationship to philosophy using the metaphor of a border, but also defines his philosophical thought with this same metaphor. Broadly speaking, there are three phases in Tillich's philosophical thinking. Firstly, there is his enthusiastic reception of the speculative idealism of Fichte and Schelling. This phase began in his student days and continued up to the First World War. The second phase, which began shortly before the end of the war, is characterized by a reshaping of the speculative philosophy of his pre-1914 theology and philosophy in terms of a new theory of meaning. The decisive characteristic of this phase can be seen in Tillich's employment of the concept of meaning as the basic category for the concept of religion. The third and last phase of his philosophical thinking is characterized by a concern with ontological questions.
We investigated the effect of wheat bran on biochemical indicators of Ca and bone metabolism in nineteen healthy women, aged 25·5 (se 0·9) years. Subjects received six wheat bran biscuits or six white flour biscuits per day for a period of 4 weeks (crossover). Wheat bran consumption increased fibre intake from 17·7 (se 1·3) to 29·6 (se 1·3) g/d (7 d food record) and enhanced P intake from 1225 (se 59) mg/d to 1663 (se 65) mg/d; P < 0·001. Mean daily Ca intake during wheat bran consumption (1110 (se 82) mg/d) significantly (P = 0·008) exceeded Ca ingestion during the white flour period (955 (se 67) mg/d). Wheat bran increased the number of defecations per week from 7·9 (se 0·8) to 12·2 (se 1·4) (P = 0·0018). Urinary Ca excretion over 24 h significantly (P = 0·021) decreased from 473 (se 53) μmol/mmol creatinine (control period) to 339 (se 37) μmol/mmol creatinine (wheat bran period). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 2 h fasting urinary Ca/creatinine excretions and 24 h urinary P excretion remained constant. No differences in serum levels of carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (biomarker of bone formation) or in 2 h fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine excretions (biomarker of bone resorption) were observed at the end of the two cycles of dietary supplementation. We conclude that a high fibre intake of approximately 30 g/d has no significant adverse effects on bone turnover in subjects with Ca intakes above 1000 mg/d and that the reduction in 24 h urinary Ca excretion is most probably the result of an adaptation process, induced by a decrease in net absorbed Ca.
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