To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Suicidal behavior in termite workers is an extreme defensive strategy, probably a consequence of having a low number of soldiers available in the colony and there being high predation from enemies. We investigated the suicidal mechanism in workers of the Neotropical termite Neocapritermes opacus, which involves salivary gland autothysis followed by body cuticle rupture and the release of a defensive secretion. Autothysis was triggered by a physical stimulus such as a soldier bite that causes the protrusion of the salivary acini, burst reservoirs, and foregut. Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses showed salivary acini composed of peripheral parietal cells and two types of central cells, types I and II. Type I cells are filled with large electron-lucent secretory vesicles, which reacted positively to bromophenol blue and xylidine-Ponceau tests, indicating the occurrence of proteins. Type II cells are elongated and display smaller apical secretory vesicles. Parietal cells present an intracellular canaliculus with dense microvilli and cytoplasm rich in mitochondria and large electron-dense vesicles, which may participate in the self-destructive mechanism. Worker suicidal behavior was previously reported for N. taracua and N. braziliensis. N. opacus is a new species in which a salivary weapon has been developed and factors contributing to this altruistic response are discussed.
Detrital zircon populations from six samples of upper Triassic sandstone (Algarve Basin) were analysed, yielding mostly Precambrian ages. zircon age populations of the Triassic sandstone sampled from the western and central sectors of the basin are distinct, suggesting local recycling and/or lateral changes in their sources. Our findings and the available detrital zircon ages from the Palaeozoic terranes of SW Iberia, Nova Scotia and NW Morocco were jointly examined using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and multidimensional scaling diagrams. The obtained results enable direct discrimination of competing Laurussian-type and Gondwanan-type sediment sources, involving recycling and mixing relationships. The detrital zircon populations of the Algarve Triassic sandstone are very different from those of the lower–upper Carboniferous Mértola and Mira formations (South Portuguese Zone), upper Devonian – lower Carboniferous Horta da Torre, Represa and Santa Iria formations (Pulo do Lobo Zone), and the late Carboniferous Santa Susana and early Permian Viar basins, which are ruled out as potential sources. The detrital zircon populations of Triassic sandstone from the central sector and those from the Ossa–Morena Zone Ediacaran–Cambrian siliciclastic rocks, upper Devonian – Carboniferous Ronquillo, Tercenas, Phyllite-Quartzite and Brejeira formations (South Portuguese Zone), and Frasnian siliciclastic rocks of the Pulo do Lobo Zone are not statistically distinguishable. Thus, sedimentation in the central sector was influenced by Gondwanan- and Laurussian-type putative sources exposed in SW Iberia, in contrast to the western sector, where Meguma Terrane and Sehoul Block Cambrian siliciclastic rocks allegedly constituted the main (Laurussian-type) sources. These findings provide insights into the denudation of distinctive source terranes distributed along the late Palaeozoic suture zone that juxtaposed the Laurussian and Gondwanan margins.
To investigate the effect of maternal depressive symptom trajectories, from 3 months to 11 years postpartum, on the offspring’s body composition at 11 years of age.
Data from the Pelotas 2004 Birth Cohort, from the perinatal interview and from the 3-, 12-, 24- and 48-month and 6- and 11-year follow-ups.
Community-based sample from the city of Pelotas, located in southern Brazil with approximately 350 000 inhabitants. The maternal depression symptom trajectories were identified through a semi-parametric group-based modelling approach, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), with data from 3 months to 11 years postpartum.
A total of 3467 (81·9 % of the total cohort).
Five trajectory groups of EPDS scores were identified (‘Low’, ‘Moderate low’, ‘Increasing’, ‘Decreasing’ and ‘Chronic high’). A total of 170 women (4·9 %) from the sample belonged to the ‘Chronic high’ group, having scored ≥13 EPDS points at every follow-up. Mean BMI in the ‘Low’ trajectory group was 0·77 (z-score 1·4), compared with 0·56 (z-score 1·4) in the ‘Chronic high’ group. Children from mothers in the ‘Chronic high’ group had lower fat mass (FM) (–1·34 ± 0·64 kg), FM% (–2·02 ± 0·85 percentage points) and FM index (–0·57 ± 0·27 kg/m2), compared with children from mothers in the ‘Low’ trajectory group. Adjusted analyses showed that sustained or transitory maternal depressive symptoms during childhood had no effect on the offspring’s body composition indices at 11 years of age.
Children raised by chronically depressed mothers have body composition indices at 11 years of age that are similar to those of children whose mothers have never been depressed.
In this systematic review, we critically evaluated human clinical trials that assessed the effects of dietary fat quality on metabolic endotoxemia. The studies were selected from three databases (PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library) and the keywords were defined according to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing terminology. Two authors searched independently, according to pre-defined selection criteria. Quality and risk assessment of bias for each selected study was also evaluated. The results of the included studies demonstrated associations between higher saturated fatty acids intake and increased postprandial LPS concentrations. On the other hand, after the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids bloodstream LPS concentrations were lower. However, in none of the long- term studies the consumption of dietary fats did not seem to exert effects on LPS concentration. Hence, SFAs seems to act as a risk factor for transient increase in endotoxemia, while PUFAs demonstrated to exert a protective effect. Taken together the evidence suggests that the dietary fatty acids profile may influence bloodstream endotoxins concentrations through modulation of factors such LPS clearance, alkaline phosphatase activity, bile acid metabolism, intestinal permeability and intestinal microbiota composition.
Introduction: It is believed by some that emergency physicians prescribe more opioids than required to manage patients’ pain, and this may contribute to opioid misuse. The objective of our study was to assess if there has been a change in opioid prescribing practices by emergency physicians over time for undifferentiated abdominal pain. Methods: A medical record review for adult patients presenting at two urban academic tertiary care emergency departments was conducted for two distinct time periods; the years of 2012 and 2017. The first 500 patients within each time period with a discharge diagnosis of “abdominal pain” or “abdominal pain not yet diagnosed” were included. Data were collected regarding analgesia received in the emergency department and opioid prescriptions written. Opioids were standardized into morphine equivalent doses to compare quantities of opioids prescribed. Analyses included t-test for continuous and chi-square for categorical data. Results: 1,000 patients were included in our study. The mean age was 42.0 years and 69.6% of patients were female. Comparing 2017 to 2012, there was a non-significant decrease in opioid prescriptions written for patients discharged directly by emergency physicians, from 17.8% to 14.4% (p = 0.14). Mean opioid quantities per prescription decreased from 130.4 milligrams of morphine equivalents per prescription to 98.9 milligrams per prescription (p = 0.002). 13.9% of opioid prescriptions in 2017 were for more than 3 days, which is a decrease from 28.1% in 2012. During the emergency department care, there was an increase in foundational analgesia use prior to initiating opioids from 17.6% to 26.8% (p = 0.001). There was also a decrease for within ED opioid analgesia use from 40.0% to 32.8% (p = 0.018). Conclusion: Opioid prescription rates did not change significantly during our study. However, physicians reduced the quantity of opioids per prescription and used less opioid analgesia in the emergency department for abdominal pain of undetermined etiology.
Seed lot heterogeneity is often evaluated through the range between germination percentages of four seed samples, considering normal and binomial approximations for calculating the tolerated range (S). In this paper, an exact test for the germination count range (R) is derived based on the hypergeometric and the binomial probability model for germination count. Through Monte Carlo simulations, the empirical distribution of R is built to evaluate the quantiles of the exact distributions. Moreover, a power analysis is performed by simulation. Sample size and germination rate effects are evaluated. In lots with a high germination rate, the proposed test based on the hypergeometric model is about 20% more powerful than the test based on the S-value. A table containing the critical values is presented and recommended to be used in off-range heterogeneity testing.
This chapter provides detailed practical information about testing for sperm antibodies and interpretation of the results of various antibody tests. It also briefly reviews our knowledge about anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) in males and females and outlines several lines of evidence regarding the predisposing factors for sperm immunity in men and women.
Alterations in the maternal environment may impact on the fetal development. The objective of this study was to investigate the gastrointestinal consequences of maternal hypothyroidism for the male offspring from Wistar rats. The pregnant rats were divided into three groups: control (C – received water), experimental 1 [E1 – received methimazole (MMI) solution] during gestation and lactation, and experimental 2 (E2 – received MMI solution) during gestation. Maternal parameters evaluated: free T3 and T4, bodyweight variation, and water/food intake. Offspring parameters evaluated: litter size, number of male/female, free T3 and T4, stomach area, gastric ulcer susceptibility, small intestine length and weight, small intestine and distal colon motility, the stomach and intestinal weight–body weight ratio (SW/BW–IW/BW), and the accumulation of intestinal fluid. Maternal T3 and T4 from E1 were decreased when compared to the other groups. There were no differences for maternal water/food intake and weight gain, litter size, and number of males and females. Regarding to offspring, free T3, SW/BW, IW/BW, and intestinal fluid accumulation were not different between the groups, but T4 was decreased in E1. However, 30-day-old pups from E1 and E2 were smaller with lower stomach and small intestine. Even more, E1 presented a lower ulcer index when compared to the C, while E2 had a higher distal colon transit. It can be concluded that maternal hypothyroidism impaired the total body development, as well as gastric and intestinal development, besides interfering with the susceptibility to the ulcer and intestinal transit of male offspring from Wistar rats.
Maternal nutrition is an environmental determinant for offspring growth and development, especially in critical periods. Nutritional imbalances during these phases can promote dysregulations in food intake and feeding preference in offspring, affecting body composition. The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the effects of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) on offspring feeding behavior and body composition. A search was performed in the PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and LILACS databases. Inclusion criteria were studies in rodents whose mothers were submitted to HFD that assessed outcomes of food or caloric intake on offspring and food preference associated or not with body weight or body composition analysis. At the end of the search, 17 articles with the proposed characteristics were included. In these studies, 15 articles manipulated diet during pregnancy and lactation, 1 during pregnancy only, and 1 during lactation only. Maternal exposure to a HFD leads to increased food intake, increased preference for HFDs, and earlier food independence in offspring. The offspring from HFD mothers present low birthweight but become heavier into adulthood. In addition, these animals also exhibited greater fat deposition on white adipose tissue pads. In conclusion, maternal exposure to HFD may compromise parameters in feeding behavior and body composition of offspring, impairing the health from conception until adulthood.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
In this work, filament based on ɛ-polycaprolactone (PCL) and containing the bioactive ceramics nanohydroxyapatite (nHap) and Laponite® (Lap) was prepared by the extrusion process. To obtain the material, a mass ratio of 89:10:1 (PCL:nHap:Lap) was used, and structural and morphological characterization was realized. In addition, cytotoxicity (using Allium cepa bulbs) and viability tests on L929 cells also were performed. The results showed that filament (diameter of 1.79 ± 0.17 mm) presented a good dispersion of nHap and Lap into polymeric matrices. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy identified typical bands at 1720, 1091, and 1045 cm−1 addressed to PCL and nHAp, In addition, Lap was identified through dispersive energy system and X-ray diffraction analyses. All filaments did not exhibit cytotoxic effects.
The effects of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) of dielectric barrier discharges on the wettability, imbibition and germination of Leucaena leucocephala were investigated. It was established that CAP treatment markedly hydrophilized the seed coat, especially at longer treatment times. From the profile of the imbibition curve and visual observation, it was possible to verify that there are two resistance barriers to water penetration: integument surface and region of the macrosclereid cell wall (light line). Although the plasma interacts only in the integument, increasing the density of hydrophilic sites increases the capacity of water absorption, producing enough driving force to overcome the second resistance barrier. The existence of these two barriers changes the three-phase pattern generally observed during seed germination. Despite an increase in imbibition, the plasma treatment conditions used in this work, were not enough to overcome completely the dormancy barrier.
Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae cause myiasis in animals and humans. To register a commercial product to control this dipteran is necessary to experiment on animals. The in vitro test was standardized to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of commercial topical products. Five formulations were analysed in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro test, a colony was formed and three replicates (n = 200) of each larval stage (L1, L2 and L3) were treated. The viability of the larvae was evaluated after 5 and 30 min, and at 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 60 and 72 h post-treatment (HPT). For the in vivo test, 30 bovines divided into six groups were castrated to achieve natural infestation with C. hominivorax. Animals in the treated groups received the product. Myiasis and efficacy were evaluated 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 HPT. Four formulations tested in the in vitro test achieved 100% efficacy at 24 HPT. In the in vivo experiment only one achieved 100% efficacy at 24 HPT. However, all products achieved the maximum efficacy by the end of study. The in vitro test developed here could be adopted to evaluate the efficacy of topical products for the control of C. hominivorax larvae.
The perception of individuals with low education about dietary assessments is not well explored and studying this may be beneficial to improve data collection. The study builds on previous quantitative studies by providing explanations for the observed lower performance of the 24-h recall method among low-educated individuals. A qualitative study was carried out in Brazil. First, trained interviewers attended a focus group via video conference. Next, individuals with low education, defined as less than 9 years of study, participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Three main themes emerged from the focus groups and were contrasted with the interviews. Summarising, the establishment of adequate communication during the interview is of utmost importance among the low-educated population. Besides, the familiarity of individuals with food and nutrition favours the report of information. Lastly, the use of photographs for food portion quantification helps the dietary assessment although further investigations to improve their use are also needed.
Pregnancy is considered a period in which immunomodulation occurs, although it is important for the maintenance of the foetus, could contribute to infections as Toxoplasma gondii. Immune response cells such as regulatory T cells participate in this immunomodulation, and surface molecules such as CTLA-4 develop an immunosuppressive role, could contribute to the establishment of the parasite. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of regulatory T cells and the expression of CTLA-4 in parturient and non-pregnant seropositive and seronegative for anti-T. gondii antibodies. Sixty-two participants were evaluated, 14 parturient with negative serology, 23 parturient with positive serology, 16 non-pregnant women seronegative and 9 non-pregnant women seropositive. Immunophenotyping was performed for characterize TCD4+Foxp3+ cells, T CD4+CD25-Foxp3+, TCD4+CD25highFoxp3+, TCD4+CTLA-4+, TCD4+CD25-CTLA-4+ and TCD4+CD25highCTLA-4+. We observed a lower level of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ cells from seropositive parturient compared with seropositive non-pregnant cells. Significative levels of CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ cells from seronegative pregnant were observed compared with seropositive pregnant cells. Furthermore, the higher level of CD4+CD25-CTLA-4+ cells populations was detected in seropositive pregnant cells compared with seropositive non-pregnant. Although a significant increase in CTLA-4 cells was observed in pregnant women positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies, this increase did not cause a risk of reactivation of the infection.
Ensemble data assimilation methods integrate measurement data and computational flow models to estimate the state of fluid systems in a robust, scalable way. However, discretization errors in the dynamical and observation models lead to biased forecasts and poor estimator performance. We propose a low-rank representation for this bias, whose dynamics is modelled by data-informed, time-correlated processes. State and bias parameters are simultaneously corrected online with the ensemble Kalman filter. The proposed methodology is then applied to the problem of estimating the state of a two-dimensional flow at modest Reynolds number using an ensemble of coarse-mesh simulations and pressure measurements at the surface of an immersed body in a synthetic experiment framework. Using an ensemble size of 60, the bias-aware estimator is demonstrated to achieve at least 70 % error reduction when compared to its bias-blind counterpart. Strategies to determine the bias statistics and their impact on the estimator performance are discussed.
This study evaluated the feeding habits of the franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) in south-eastern Brazil. Stomach contents were collected from a total of 145 dead specimens found incidentally caught by fishing vessels or stranded between 2005 and 2015. Fish otoliths, cephalopod beaks and whole non-digested prey were used for prey species identification. A total of 9337 prey items were identified, including 26 species of teleost fishes and three species of cephalopods. The most important prey families were Sciaenidae among fish and Loliginidae among cephalopods. Franciscana dolphins tended to feed on small fish (mean = 5.25 cm) and cephalopods (mean = 8.57 cm). The index of relative importance (IRI) showed that Pellona harroweri and Doryteuthis plei were the most important prey for both males and females. The PERMANOVA test confirmed that there is no significant difference between the feeding habits of different sexes, but detected a significant difference among seasons. Overall, our results show that franciscana dolphins are predominantly ichthyophagous and non-selective in relation to the type of prey, feeding on pelagic, demersal and pelagic-demersal prey.