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This paper presents three different age domains, obtained by electron microprobe monazite dating, for granulitic gneisses collected from the Shillong-Meghalaya Gneissic Complex in Sonapahar, NE India, which contain radioactive materials, e.g. thorium (3.32–7.20 wt %), uranium (0.133–1.172 wt %) and lead (0.101–0.513 wt %). The microprobe analyses of monazite grains in the rock samples show that the monazites have three different ages ranging from Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic. The oldest age (1571 ± 22 Ma) represents a peak metamorphic event, the youngest dominant age indicates the Pan-African tectonic event (478 ± 7 Ma) and the intermediate age marks the Grenvillian orogeny (1034 ± 91 Ma) or may be a mixing artefact; these ages are located at the cores, rims and intermediate parts of the monazite grains, respectively. The equilibrium mineral phases calculated for the granulitic gneisses from Sonapahar lie in a P–T range from 5.9 kbar/754 °C to 8.3 kbar/829 °C in the NCKFMASH system. Plotting the P–T conditions of the granulitic gneisses reveals a clockwise P–T path. Two major metamorphic events are observed in Sonapahar. The M1 metamorphic stage is represented by peak mineral assemblages of prograde garnet-forming reactions (8.2 kbar/∼713 °C) during Mesoproterozoic time (1571 ± 22 Ma). The M2 metamorphic stage featured decompression (3.9 kbar/∼701 °C) in which garnet–sillimanite broke down to form cordierite along an isothermal decompression path during the Pan-African tectonic event (478 ± 7 Ma).
Almost 30% of the world’s stunted children reside in India. This study examined sibling linkage in childhood stunting by assessing the extent of clustering of stunted children born to the same mother. Data were taken from 225,002 children under the age of five from the Indian National Family and Health Survey (NFHS)-4 conducted in 2015–16. States with high fertility and lower socioeconomic development displayed higher clustering of childhood stunting among siblings. Simulating removal of this clustered burden showed an almost 10 percentage point reduction in stunting in India. Multinomial regression analysis highlighted that the propensity to have multiple stunted births was higher among less-educated women, scheduled caste/tribes and poor households. The multilevel model results indicated that the odds of stunting for the index child increased by 1.93 if the older sibling was stunted. The odds of the index child being stunted if the previous child was stunted were high, irrespective of the differences in state-level public health performances and political commitments. Although socioeconomic correlates play a crucial role in determining child stunting status, they also act as proxies for poor-quality intra-generational health. Clustering of stunting among siblings is an indicator of both genetic and environmental association with the height-for-age (HAZ) of children. Mothers with repeated stunted births should be prioritized and monitored over a substantial part of their lives. Inclusion of multiple child beneficiaries in nutrition policies and revisiting the ‘one size fits all’ concept at the micro level, owing to the substantial village/ward-level variation, might be an effective policy measure.
According to research led by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, out of the 410 000 cases of GBS detected globally every year, 147 000 end in stillbirth or infant death. In 2015 Africa had the highest incidence of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, including infant death. The research found GBS was present all over the world, with an average of 25 per cent of pregnant women colonised with the bacteria (ranging from 11 per cent in eastern Asia to 35 per cent in the Caribbean).
We employ global input–output analysis to quantify amplification of exogenous disturbances in compressible boundary layer flows. Using the spatial structure of the dominant response to time-periodic inputs, we explain the origin of steady reattachment streaks in a hypersonic flow over a compression ramp. Our analysis of the laminar shock–boundary layer interaction reveals that the streaks arise from a preferential amplification of upstream counter-rotating vortical perturbations with a specific spanwise wavelength. These streaks are associated with heat-flux striations at the wall near flow reattachment and they can trigger transition to turbulence. The streak wavelength predicted by our analysis compares favourably with observations from two different hypersonic compression ramp experiments. Furthermore, our analysis of inviscid transport equations demonstrates that base-flow deceleration contributes to the amplification of streamwise velocity and that the baroclinic effects are responsible for the production of streamwise vorticity. Finally, the appearance of the temperature streaks near reattachment is triggered by the growth of streamwise velocity and streamwise vorticity perturbations as well as by the amplification of upstream temperature perturbations by the reattachment shock.
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the severe neurological complication causing acute non-traumatic encephalopathy in tropical countries. The mechanisms underlying the fatal cerebral complications are still not fully understood. Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of the mammalian brain, plays a key role in the development of neuronal cells, motor function, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory processes under normal physiological conditions. The subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptor are N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) which are involved in cellular mechanisms of learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and also mediate excitotoxic neuronal injury. In the present study, we found that glutamate level in synaptosomes, as well as expression of NMDAR, was elevated during the extreme condition of CM in C57BL6 mice. Arteether at 50 mg kg−1 × 1, 25 mg kg−1 × 2, days decreased the NMDAR expression and increased the overall survival of the experimental CM mice.
Self-Consistent 2D modelling of stellar wind interaction with the upper atmosphere of WASP-12b has been performed. The two case-scenarios of the planetary material escape and interaction with the stellar wind, namely the ‘blown by the wind’ (without the inclusion of tidal force) and ‘captured by the star’ (with the tidal force) have been modelled under different stellar XUV radiations and stellar wind parameters. In the first scenario, a shock is formed around the planet, and the planetary mass loss is controlled completely by the stellar radiation energy input. In the second scenario, the mass loss is mainly due to the gravitational interaction effects. The dynamics of MGII and related absorption were modelled with three sets of different stellar wind parameters and XUV flux values.
Using HINODE/XRT, GOES, SDO/AIA observations, we study a compact C-1.4 class flare outside a major sunspot of AR 12178 on 4 October 2014. This flare is associated with a peculiar coronal jet, which is erupted in two stages in the overlying corona above the compact flaring region. At the time of flare maximum, the first stage of the jet eruption occurs above the flare energy release site, and thereafter in the second stage its magneto-plasma system interacts with the overlying distinct magnetic field domain in its vicinity to build further the typical jet plasma column.
This study assessed caste differentials in family-level death clustering, linked survival prospects of siblings (scarring) and mother-level unobserved heterogeneity affecting infant mortality risk in the central and eastern Indian states of Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Chhattisgarh. Family-level infant death clustering was examined using bivariate analysis, and the linkages between the survival prospects of siblings and mother-specific unobserved heterogeneity were captured by applying a random effects logit model in the selected Indian states using micro-data from the National Family Health Survey-III (2005–06). The raw data clustering analysis showed the existence of clustering in all four states and among all caste groups with the highest clustering found in the Scheduled Castes of Jharkhand. The important factor from the model that increased the risk of infant deaths in all four states was the causal effect of a previous infant death on the risk of infant death of the subsequent sibling, after controlling for mother-level heterogeneity and unobserved factors. The results show that among the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, infant death clustering is mainly affected by the scarring factor in Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh, while mother-level unobserved factors were important in Odisha and both (scarring and mother-level unobserved factors) were key factors in Chhattisgarh. Similarly, the Other Caste Group was mainly influenced by the scarring factor only in Odisha, mother-level unobserved factors in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh and both (scarring and mother-level unobserved factors) in Madhya Pradesh. From a government policy perspective, these results would help in identifying high-risk clusters of women among all caste groups in the four central and eastern Indian states that should be targeted to address maternal and child health related indicators.
Under Stokesian conditions, a neutrally buoyant non-Brownian spheroid in simple shear flow rotates indefinitely in any of a one-parameter family of closed (Jeffery) orbits characterized by an orbit constant
. The limiting values,
, correspond to spinning and tumbling modes respectively. Hydrodynamics alone does not determine the distribution of spheroid orientations across Jeffery orbits in the absence of interactions, and the rheology of a dilute suspension of spheroids remains indeterminate. A combination of inertia and stochastic orientation fluctuations eliminates the indeterminacy. The steady-state Jeffery-orbit distribution arising from a balance of inertia and thermal fluctuations is shown to be of the Boltzmann equilibrium form, with a potential that depends on
, the particle aspect ratio (
), and a dimensionless shear rate (
being the Reynolds and rotary Péclet numbers), and therefore lends itself to a novel thermodynamic interpretation in
space. In particular, the transition of the potential from a single to a double-well structure, below a critical
, has similarities to a thermodynamic phase transition, and the small-
minima are therefore identified with spinning and tumbling phases. The hysteretic dynamics within the two-phase tumbling–spinning envelope renders the rheology sensitively dependent on the precise shear rate history, the signature in simple shear flow being a multivalued viscosity at a given shear rate. The tumbling–spinning transition identified here is analogous to the coil–stretch transition in the polymer physics literature. It should persist under more general circumstances, and has implications for the suspension stress response in inhomogeneous shearing flows.
A possible role of the APC/beta-catenin pathway in the pathogenesis of sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has been suggested. This paper presents its current status and clinical association in our patients.
A prospective observational study was conducted at King George Medical University and Central Drug Research Institute, in Lucknow, India. Western blot analysis was undertaken in 16 cases to examine beta-catenin expression. The clinical details were recorded along with follow up observations, to determine associations.
Up-regulation of beta-catenin expression was seen in 69 per cent of cases. The clinical variables did not reveal significant differences between patients with extremes of expression (extreme under- vs over-expression). However, absent expression was shown exclusively in young adults aged over 18 years, while enhanced expression was associated with an altered facial profile.
Although a beta-catenin association was seen in a subset of our sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma cases, its expression was not homogeneous. This is in contrast to the Western literature that suggests a universal (homogenous) enhanced expression in the majority. Hence, further research is required to better define its molecular cascade.
Cerebral malaria (CM) shows lethality rate of 15–25% despite effective antimalarial chemotherapy. The effective adjunct treatment to counteract the CM pathogenesis is urgently required. In murine CM model, most interventions studied till date are administered before the onset of CM symptoms, which belittle its translational value to human. We studied intramuscular arteether–vitamin D (ART–VD) combination treatment for CM outcome improvement after the onset of neurological symptoms. The intramuscular dose of 50 µg kg−1 VD for 3 days combined with a loading dose of 25 mg kg−1α/β arteether followed by 12·5 mg kg−1 dose for two consecutive days led to significant improvement in survival (73% in combination group vs 29 and 0% in arteether and VD monotherapy, respectively) and clinical recovery. The treatment in all the groups partially restored the blood–brain barrier integrity and reduced the level of serum proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ. The brain transcripts of inflammatory chemokines viz. CXCL10, CXCL9, CCL4 and CCL5 and T cell migration in the brain microvasculature were significantly diminished in all the treatment groups. ART–VD treatment significantly reduced intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Taken together, our findings show that coordinated actions of ART–VD improve the outcome of experimental CM.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181
Mass-gathering (MG) events pose challenges to the most adept of public health practitioners in ensuring the health safety of the population. These MGs can be for sporting events, musical festivals, or more commonly, have religious undertones. The Kumbh Mela 2013 at Allahabad, India may have been the largest gathering of humanity in history with nearly 120 million pilgrims having thronged the venue. The scale of the event posed a challenge to the maintenance of public health security and safety. A snapshot of the experience of managing the hygiene and sanitation aspects of this mega event is presented herein, highlighting the importance of proactive public health planning and preparedness. There having been no outbreaks of disease is vindication of the steps undertaken in planning and preparedness, notwithstanding obvious limitations of insanitary behaviors and traditional beliefs of those attending the festival. The evident flaw on post-event analyses was the failure to cater adequately for environmental mopping-up operations after the festival. Besides, a system of real-time monitoring of disease and morbidity patterns, harnessing low cost technology alternatives, should be planned for at all such future events.
DwivediS, CariappaMP. Mass-gathering Events: The Public Health Challenge of the Kumbh Mela 2013. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(6):621–624.
The overlapping risk factors for lung and head and neck cancer present a definite risk of synchronous malignant pathology. This is the first study to specifically review incidental positron emission tomography computed tomography findings in the head and neck region in lung carcinoma patients.
A retrospective review was performed of all lung cancer patients who underwent positron emission tomography computed tomography imaging over a five-year period (January 2008 – December 2012), identified from the Liverpool thoracic multidisciplinary team database.
Six hundred and nine patients underwent positron emission tomography computed tomography imaging over this period. In 76 (12.5 per cent) scans, incidental regions of avid 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose uptake were reported in the head and neck region. In the 28 patients who were fully investigated, there were 4 incidental findings of malignancy.
In lung cancer patients undergoing investigative positron emission tomography computed tomography scanning, a significant number will also present with areas of clinically significant 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose uptake in the head and neck region. Of these, at least 5 per cent may have an undiagnosed malignancy.
This paper reports on micro-pattering of Indium thin film (donor substrate) using a higher deposition dose than previously reported. The threshold deposition dose required for micro-patterning was measured. Ejected material from the micro-patterned thin film was deposited onto an accepter substrate kept in close proximity; it clearly shows deposition of micron and submicron particles of Indium. Moreover, a clean line like structure was deposited onto the accepter substrate when the accepter substrate was moved with the same velocity as that of the donor substrate.
In the present study, the anti-atherosclerotic effect and the underlying mechanism of curcuma oil (C. oil), a lipophilic fraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), was evaluated in a hamster model of accelerated atherosclerosis and in THP-1 macrophages. Male golden Syrian hamsters were subjected to partial carotid ligation (PCL) or FeCl3-induced arterial oxidative injury (Ox-injury) after 1 week of treatment with a high-cholesterol (HC) diet or HC diet plus C. oil (100 and 300 mg/kg, orally). Hamsters fed with the HC diet were analysed at 1, 3 and 5 weeks following carotid injury. The HC diet plus C. oil-fed group was analysed at 5 weeks. In hyperlipidaemic hamsters with PCL or Ox-injury, C. oil (300 mg/kg) reduced elevated plasma and aortic lipid levels, arterial macrophage accumulation, and stenosis when compared with those subjected to arterial injury alone. Similarly, elevated mRNA transcripts of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45), TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β and IL-6 were reduced in atherosclerotic arteries, while those of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and IL-10 were increased after the C. oil treatment (300 mg/kg). The treatment with C. oil prevented HC diet- and oxidised LDL (OxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression of CD68 and CD36, and increased the mRNA expression of PPARα, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in both hyperlipidaemic hamster-derived peritoneal and THP-1 macrophages. The administration of C. oil suppressed the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ and increased the expression of TGF-β in peritoneal macrophages. In THP-1 macrophages, C. oil supplementation prevented OxLDL-induced production of TNF-α and IL-1β and increased the levels of TGF-β. The present study shows that C. oil attenuates arterial injury-induced accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and macrophage foam-cell formation.