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Psychometrics is the science of psychological measurement. For an intelligence test to be considered valid, it must be evaluated using the principles and methods of psychometrics. In this chapter we introduce basic psychometric techniques such as factor analysis and review the evolution of psychometric theories of intelligence, with emphasis on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities.
In the aftermath of natural disasters and in the urgency of the deteriorating situation in a “complex emergency”, aid is often provided in a haphazard manner. Organizing appropriate medical help is complicated by differences in the type of disaster, the available infrastructure that remains in place, the status of the country’s wealth, and, occasionally, the outbreak of violence and epidemics. Nevertheless, a sequential order of priorities and changing needs for various types of medical intervention such as (emergency) surgery, rehabilitation, and obstetrics can be made, as for managing medicinal needs, mental health, and communicable diseases. This chapter describes how this medical landscape changes qualitatively and quantitatively and how resources can be adapted dynamically and reflected in the capacity of the emergency medical team (EMT). Recently, disaster-prone countries have seen an expansion in the capacity of national EMTs. For a variety of reasons these are to be preferred over international EMTs, but where the latter are needed it is important that their competencies and capabilities follow both local and general guidelines.
The blue crab Callinectes sapidus is an important ecological and commercial species. It plays a fundamental role in the structure and function of coastal benthic food webs, with global catches of ~74,357 tons. This is the most exploited portunid species in Brazil. However, few studies about the ecology and population dynamics of C. sapidus have been published. This study aimed to analyse the preferred areas for the spatial distribution of juveniles and moulting individuals of C. sapidus in shallow areas of the Patos Lagoon estuary and the adjacent marine reproductive area, and their relation to water and sediment characteristics. Juveniles and moulting individuals preferred the embayment of the upper estuary, where the sediments are finer, with higher contents of organic matter and the presence of submerged vegetation. There was also a temporal variability in the abundance of juvenile size classes, with two marked increments of smaller individuals: (1) in late spring and summer and (2) in winter, indicating two recruitment peaks. Unusual environmental conditions in the summer of the first year, with an increase of fine sediments and organic matter, combined with low salinities in the adjacent marine area, allowed recruitment of individuals there. We suggest better attention to the embayment around the Marinheiros Island (considered here as upper estuary) for management and protection measures due to the overlapping of recruitment preferences of the blue crab, pink shrimp and fish species in this area.
Strongyle infection is an important issue in horse breeding. It impairs horse health and performance, with young horses being the most sensitive. Strongyle control has long relied on the systematic use of chemical treatments. However, expanding anthelmintic resistance among strongyles calls for alternative options. Mixed grazing is assumed to reduce strongyle load on the pasture as the result of a dilution effect. This has been shown in small ruminants grazing with cattle, but the putative benefits of co-grazing between horses and cattle have not yet been evaluated. Here, we conducted field surveys and face-to-face interviews on 44 farms from two contrasted saddle-horse production areas, Normandy and northern Massif Central, to compare equine strongyle management practices between specialized systems and mixed horse-cattle systems. Our goals were (i) to quantify breeders’ awareness of the putative benefits associated with the co-grazing of horses and cattle, (ii) to establish whether mixed farming was associated with different strongyle management strategies and (iii) to test whether strongyle egg excretion was reduced in horses grazed with beef cattle. Every breeder relied on systematic calendar treatments, and only 8 out of the 23 mixed breeders were aware that co-grazing of horses with cattle could be used as part of their strongyle control strategy. Management practices were similar across both systems in Normandy. In Massif Central, mixed breeders formed a distinct cluster from their specialized counterparts: deworming was less frequent and stocking density was higher in mixed farms, while specialized breeders seemed more willing to integrate herd and plot management into control strategies. Faecal egg counts measured in horses from Massif Central were significantly reduced when horses were grazed with cattle. This was the result of an increased reliance on macrocyclic lactones in mixed farms (P < 0.01) and a significant dilution effect (P < 0.01). When considering a subsample of horses treated with macrocyclic lactones only, young horses grazed with cattle had 50% fewer strongyle eggs excreted in their faeces than horses grazed in equine-only pastures (P < 0.01). This is the first evidence of the benefits of mixed grazing with cattle as an alternative to control strongyle infection in horses, although this promising alternative remains largely unknown by horse breeders.
The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae), causes severe damages in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier; Rosaceae) fields in Québec, Canada. Currently, only chemical insecticides successfully control that major pest. Lygus lineolaris aggregate in trap crops such as buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; Polygonaceae) and white mustard (Sinapis alba Linnaeus; Brassicaceae) but do not remain long enough on these plants to significantly reduce damages on strawberries. However, the attractiveness of the trap crop gives the opportunity to gather L. lineolaris in an area of the field where chemical treatments could be applied more efficiently. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of the combination of trap crop (buckwheat and white mustard) and chemical treatments to control L. lineolaris. Randomised complete-block design included treatment with either no trap crop, buckwheat, or white mustard row planted close to strawberry plants. Half blocks were treated with insecticide (cypermethrin) sprayed on strawberry plants (in treatment without trap crop) or directly on trap crop. We found that L. lineolaris was more abundant on buckwheat than on white mustard or strawberry plants. Insecticide application on trap crops reduced the population on these hosts, but did not reduce L. lineolaris on adjacent strawberry plants. Behavioural avoidance and physiological pesticide resistance could explain this result.
Livestock farming is criticized for negatively impacting the environment, concerns about animal welfare and the impact of excessive meat consumption on human health. However, livestock farming provides other underappreciated and poorly communicated benefits to society in terms of employment, product quality, cultural landscapes and carbon storage by grasslands. Few attempts have been made so far to simultaneously consider the services and impacts provided by livestock production. Here, we propose an integrated graphical tool, called the ‘barn’ to explicitly summarize the synergies and trade-offs between services and impacts provided by livestock farming. It illustrates livestock farming interacting with its physical, economic and social environment along five interfaces: (i) Markets, (ii) Work and employment, (iii) Inputs, (iv) Environment and climate, (v) Social and cultural factors. This graphical tool was then applied by comparing two contrasting livestock production areas (high livestock density v. grassland-based), and the dominant v. a niche system within a crop-livestock area. We showed the barn could be used for cross-comparisons of services and impacts across livestock production areas, and for multi-level analysis of services and impacts of livestock farming within a given area. The barn graphically summarizes the ecological and socio-economic aspects of livestock farming by explicitly representing multiple services and impacts of different systems in a simple yet informative way. Information for the five interfaces relies on available quantitative assessments from the literature or data sets, and on expert-knowledge for more qualitative factors, such as social and cultural ones. The ‘barn’ can also inform local stakeholders or policy-makers about potential opportunities and threats to the future of livestock farming in specific production areas. It has already been used as a pedagogical tool for teaching the diversity of services and impacts of livestock systems across Europe and is currently developed as a serious game for encouraging knowledge exchange and sharing different viewpoints between stakeholders.
Livestock is a major driver in most rural landscapes and economics, but it also polarises debate over its environmental impacts, animal welfare and human health. Conversely, the various services that livestock farming systems provide to society are often overlooked and have rarely been quantified. The aim of analysing bundles of services is to chart the coexistence and interactions between the various services and impacts provided by livestock farming, and to identify sets of ecosystem services (ES) that appear together repeatedly across sites and through time. We review three types of approaches that analyse associations among impacts and services from local to global scales: (i) detecting ES associations at system or landscape scale, (ii) identifying and mapping bundles of ES and impacts and (iii) exploring potential drivers using prospective scenarios. At a local scale, farming practices interact with landscape heterogeneity in a multi-scale process to shape grassland biodiversity and ES. Production and various ES provided by grasslands to farmers, such as soil fertility, biological regulations and erosion control, benefit to some extent from the functional diversity of grassland species, and length of pasture phase in the crop rotation. Mapping ES from the landscape up to the EU-wide scale reveals a frequent trade-off between livestock production on one side and regulating and cultural services on the other. Maps allow the identification of target areas with higher ecological value or greater sensitivity to risks. Using two key factors (livestock density and the proportion of permanent grassland within utilised agricultural area), we identified six types of European livestock production areas characterised by contrasted bundles of services and impacts. Livestock management also appeared to be a key driver of bundles of services in prospective scenarios. These scenarios simulate a breakaway from current production, legislation (e.g. the use of food waste to fatten pigs) and consumption trends (e.g. halving animal protein consumption across Europe). Overall, strategies that combine a reduction of inputs, of the use of crops from arable land to feed livestock, of food waste and of meat consumption deliver a more sustainable food future. Livestock as part of this sustainable future requires further enhancement, quantification and communication of the services provided by livestock farming to society, which calls for the following: (i) a better targeting of public support, (ii) more precise quantification of bundles of services and (iii) better information to consumers and assessment of their willingness to pay for these services.
Livestock farming systems provide multiple benefits to humans: protein-rich diets that contribute to food security, employment and rural economies, capital stock and draught power in many developing countries and cultural landscape all around the world. Despite these positive contributions to society, livestock is also the centre of many controversies as regards to its environmental impacts, animal welfare and health outcomes related to excessive meat consumption. Here, we review the potentials of sustainable intensification (SI) and agroecology (AE) in the design of sustainable ruminant farming systems. We analyse the two frameworks in a historical perspective and show that they are underpinned by different values and worldviews about food consumption patterns, the role of technology and our relationship with nature. Proponents of SI see the increase in animal protein demand as inevitable and therefore aim at increasing production from existing farmland to limit further encroachment into remaining natural ecosystems. Sustainable intensification can thus be seen as an efficiency-oriented framework that benefits from all forms of technological development. Proponents of AE appear more open to dietary shifts towards less animal protein consumption to rebalance the whole food system. Agroecology promotes system redesign, benefits from functional diversity and aims at providing regulating and cultural services. We analyse the main criticisms of the two frameworks: Is SI sustainable? How much can AE contribute to feeding the world? Indeed, in SI, social justice has long lacked attention notably with respect to resource allocation within and between generations. It is only recently that some of its proponents have indicated that there is room to include more diversified systems and food-system transformation perspectives and to build socially fair governance systems. As no space is available for agricultural land expansion in many areas, agroecological approaches that emphasise the importance of local production should also focus more on yield increases from agricultural land. Our view is that new technologies and strict certifications offer opportunities for scaling-up agroecological systems. We stress that the key issue for making digital science part of the agroecological transition is that it remains at a low cost and is thus accessible to smallholder farmers. We conclude that SI and AE could converge for a better future by adopting transformative approaches in the search for ecologically benign, socially fair and economically viable ruminant farming systems.
Previous studies have established a model of atresia in preovulatory follicles after stimulation of immature rats with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). This gonadotropin recruits a follicular pool and the deprivation of preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge induces the atresia in preovulatory follicles. The present study investigated the occurrence of ovulation and provided some morphological features of granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis of atretic follicles at 0, 48, 72 and 120 h after eCG stimulation. Histological sections of ovaries from untreated animals (0 h) showed primordial, primary, secondary and early antral follicles. After 48 h ovaries showed large antral follicles. Preovulatory follicles were observed at 72 h, and two out of five rats displayed cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) in the oviducts. All animals exhibited corpora lutea after 120 h. We observed increased estradiol (E2) levels 48 h after eCG treatment that might trigger an endogenous preovulatory gonadotropin surge. Higher progesterone (P4) level, which is the hallmark of a functional corpus luteum, was observed at 120 h. Atresia in secondary and antral follicles was observed by pyknotic granulosa cell nuclei in histology and positive immunolabelling for cleaved caspase 3. We also observed macrophages in secondary and antral follicles in atresia. Transmission electron microscopy revealed GCs with compacted chromatin against the nuclear envelope, nuclear fragmentation, cell shrinkage and fragmentation. No preovulatory follicles showed apoptosis of GCs. In conclusion, our results suggested the occurrence of an endogenous gonadotropin surge, promoting ovulation and preventing atresia of preovulatory follicles.
The increased accessibility of soft-tissue data through diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) enables comparative biologists to increase the taxonomic breadth of their studies with museum specimens. However, it is still unclear how soft-tissue measurements from preserved specimens reflect values from freshly collected specimens and whether diceCT preparation may affect these measurements. Here, we document and evaluate the accuracy of diceCT in museum specimens based on the soft-tissue reconstructions of brains and eyes of five bats. Based on proxies, both brains and eyes were roughly 60% of the estimated original sizes when first imaged. However, these structures did not further shrink significantly over a 4-week staining interval, and 1 week in 2.5% iodine-based solution yielded sufficient contrast for differentiating among soft-tissues. Compared to six “fresh” bat specimens imaged shortly after field collection (not fixed in ethanol), the museum specimens had significantly lower relative volumes of the eyes and brains. Variation in field preparation techniques and conditions, and long-term storage in ethanol may be the primary causes of shrinkage in museum specimens rather than diceCT staining methodology. Identifying reliable tissue-specific correction factors to adjust for the shrinkage now documented in museum specimens requires future work with larger samples.
Secondary carbonate deposits (similar to speleothems) in urban undergrounds, have been recently highlighted as powerful archives for reconstruction of the historical anthropogenic imprint on the environment. The precise chronology of these secondary carbonate deposits is a key issue for the accurate time reconstruction of environmental conditions. We present three 14C data sets for urban speleothem-like deposits that developed in contrasted man made environments. The first one was sampled in an underground technical gallery of the Palace of Versailles (France), and the other two in a manhole (Saint-Martin spring) of a historical underground aqueduct in Paris (France). The comparison of these records with the bomb peak and relative chronology (laminae counting) allowed us to identify: i) fast carbon transfer from the atmosphere to the urban underground; ii) a high proportion of dead carbon and a high damping effect in relation to possible old carbon stored within urban soils and/or the influence of local fossil carbon burning. This study also shows that the lamination of these deposits is bi-annual in these highly urbanized sites.
Band ogives are a striking and enigmatic feature of Mer de Glace glacier flow. The surface mass balances (SMBs) of these ogives have been thoroughly investigated over a period of 12 years. We find similar cumulative SMBs over this period, ranging between −64.1 and −66.2 m w.e., on the dark and light ogives even though the dark ogive albedo is ~40% lower than that of the light ogives. We, therefore, looked for another process that could compensate for the large difference of absorbed short-wave radiation between dark and light ogives. Based on in situ roughness measurements, our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that a significant difference in turbulent flux over the dark and light ogives due to different surface roughnesses could compensate for the difference in radiative forcing. Our results discard theories for the genesis of band ogives that are based on the assumption of a strong ice ablation contrast between dark and light ogives. More generally, our study demonstrates that future roughness changes are as important to analyze as the radiative impacts of a potential increase of aerosols or debris at the surface of glaciers.
Thank you very much for the invitation. Good morning, everybody. I am based at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which has been working on migration since the 1960s, and I will try to take a different stance on the issue, stepping back and looking at the long-term perspective regarding the global governance of migration.
The spread of anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyle nematodes has become a major problem, advocating for the development of alternative control for strongyles. Our study consisted of both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We investigate for the first time the efficacy of a short-term consumption of tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) or extra proteins in naturally infected horses. We used 30 horses allocated into three groups of 10 individuals that received for 18 days either (i) a tannin-rich diet with 70% DM sainfoin pellets (Sd), (ii) a protein-rich diet with 52% DM Italian rye-grass pellets and 18% DM grinded linseed expeller (Pd), or (iii) a control diet with 45% DM barley and 25% DM cereal-based pellets (Cd). The three diets were isoenergetic, covering 94% of animal energy requirements on average, and the Sd and Pd diets were isoproteic and provided extra proteins (227% of protein requirements v. 93% for the Cd diet). Pd and Cd were compared to test for benefits of receiving extra proteins, while Sd and Pd were compared to account for the effect of sainfoin secondary metabolites. There were no between-diet differences in faecal egg counts (FEC) or in worm burden evaluated from worm counts in faeces of drenched horses at the end of the experiment. However, coprocultures from the faeces collected in each group at the beginning and at the end of the experiment suggested a lower rate of strongyle larval development in the Sd group at the end of the experiment (Sd=8.1%, Pd=30.5%, Cd=22.6%). In vitro tests using sainfoin solutions evidenced the influence of sainfoin on strongyle larval development: adding 29% of sainfoin pellets to faeces reduced the strongyle egg development into infective larvae by 82% (P<0.001) and using solutions with sainfoin concentrations higher than 7.5 mg/ml reduced egg hatching by 37% (P<0.05). The short-term use of tannin-rich plants in horse diet could thus constitute a promising strategy to reduce the risk of infection by strongyles at pasture.
There is a lot of interest in the contribution that agroforestry can make to reverse land degradation and create resilient multifunctional landscapes that provide a range of socio-economic benefits. The agroforestry research agenda has been characterized by approaches that promote a few priority tree species, within a restricted set of technological packages. These have often not spread widely beyond project sites, because they fail to take account of fine scale variation in farmer circumstances. New methods are needed to generate diverse sets of agroforestry options that can reconcile production and conservation objectives and embrace varying local conditions across large scaling domains. Here, we document a novel approach that couples local knowledge acquisition with structured stakeholder engagement to build an inclusive way of designing agroforestry options. We applied this approach in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where armed conflict, erratic governance and poverty have resulted in severe pressure on forests in the Virunga National Park, a global biodiversity hotspot. Around the park, natural resources and land are severely degraded, whereas most reforestation interventions have consisted of exotic monocultures dominated by Eucalyptus species grown as energy or timber woodlots mainly by male farmers with sufficient land to allocate some exclusively to trees. We found that structured stakeholder engagement led to a quick identification of a much greater diversity of trees (more than 70 species) to be recommended for use within varied field, farm and landscape niches, serving the interests of a much greater diversity of people, including women and marginalized groups. The process also identified key interventions to improve the enabling environment required to scale up the adoption of agroforestry. These included improving access to quality tree planting material, capacity strengthening within the largely non-governmental extension system, and collective action to support value capture from agroforestry products, through processing and market interventions. Integrating local and global scientific knowledge, coupled with facilitating broad-based stakeholder participation, resulted in shifting from reliance on a few priority tree species to promoting tree diversity across the Virunga landscape that could underpin more productive and resilient livelihoods. The approach is relevant for scaling up agroforestry more generally.
The presence of a child afflicted with a life-threatening illness is a difficult situation for the child's siblings, especially when their own needs are left unmet. The present article describes the first three phases of research involved in the conceptualization, development, and content validation of an initial version of the Inventaire des Besoins de la Fratrie d'Enfants Malades Sévèrement (IBesFEMS) [Needs Inventory for Siblings of Critically ill Children].
The first phase of the development of this instrument was conducted using qualitative methodology (focus groups: 6 siblings, 8 parents). The second phase consisted of validating the content of a pool of items developed according to the needs identified in the first phase. Some 21 participants (3 psychometricians, 3 researchers, 9 clinicians, and 6 siblings) evaluated each item for relevance and clarity. Finally, during the third phase, the acceptability and administration procedures of the preliminary version of the instrument were assessed qualitatively by five siblings.
The first phase led to production of a typology made up of 43 needs in 10 different environments. The second phase allowed for selection of the items that were clearest and most relevant, based on expert opinion. This procedure gave rise to a first version of the IBesFEMS, which consisted of 48 items.
Significance of results:
The IBesFEMS appears to be a promising tool for specifically assessing the needs of the adolescent siblings of seriously ill children.
Lycopene (LYC) bioavailability is relatively low and highly variable, because of the influence of several factors. Recent in vitro data have suggested that dietary Ca can impair LYC micellarisation, but there is no evidence whether this can lead to decreased LYC absorption efficiency in humans. Our objective was to assess whether a nutritional dose of Ca impairs dietary LYC bioavailability and to study the mechanism(s) involved. First, in a randomised, two-way cross-over study, ten healthy adults consumed either a test meal that provided 19-mg (all-E)-LYC from tomato paste or the same meal plus 500-mg calcium carbonate as a supplement. Plasma LYC concentration was measured at regular time intervals over 7 h postprandially. In a second approach, an in vitro digestion model was used to assess the effect of increasing Ca doses on LYC micellarisation and on the size and zeta potential of the mixed micelles produced during digestion of a complex food matrix. LYC bioavailability was diminished by 83 % following the addition of Ca in the test meal. In vitro, Ca affected neither LYC micellarisation nor mixed micelle size but it decreased the absolute value of their charge by 39 %. In conclusion, a nutritional dose of Ca can impair dietary LYC bioavailability in healthy humans. This inhibition could be due to the fact that Ca diminishes the electrical charge of micelles. These results call for a thorough assessment of the effects of Ca, or other divalent minerals, on the bioavailability of other carotenoids and lipophilic micronutrients.
In this article, I examine two aspects of the transition from Kant to Fichte: systematicity and the primacy of practical reason. It is commonly agreed that Kant saw the critical exercise as an occasion to renew, rather than supress, the possibility of a positive metaphysics; however, most scholars now consider the “system” he sketched to be the sole heritage of Schulmetaphysik. However, I take literally Kant’s demand for a system that expects from the “practical” a new and absolute “foundation,” rather than a system that must be completed. Here, Fichte’s perspective gives us the common thread.