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In areas where water is scarce, the use of regulated deficit irrigation, combined with decision support system tools, may decrease the impact of agriculture on natural water resources, as well as on energy consumption, thereby improving the profitability of farms. With this aim, the SUBSTOR-Potato model (incorporated in the DSSAT Program) was evaluated with a 2-year field test (2011 and 2012) conducted in a semi-arid area (Albacete, Spain) applying four irrigation levels (120, 100, 80 and 60% of irrigation requirements). Subsequently, the model was used for simulating the potato yield under several deficit irrigation strategies (ISs) during 30 years of a semi-arid climate (1988–2017) and determining the most profitable option. The considered ISs were deemed those most suitable from the yield and water productivity point of view by some authors. The model performance for tuber yield was satisfactory with an index of agreement >0.91 and errors between 0.71 and 3.06 × 103 kg/ha. The ISs simulated with SUBSTOR-Potato showed that slight deficit irrigation (5–10%) may increase the water productivity and profitability of the farms. Moreover, tuber formation (from onset of tuber initiation to harvest) was shown to be the most sensitive stage, therefore it is highly recommended to avoid deficit during this stage, which would cause a large reduction in yield (around 8 t/ha, depending on the level of deficit suffered by the crop).
To summarize the state of knowledge of the Endangered Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus in Hispaniola, which comprises the Dominican Republic and Haiti, I reviewed documentary archives from pre-Columbian times to 2013. Manatees were historically abundant in Hispaniola but were hunted for centuries for their meat and other body parts for diverse uses. By the end of the 19th century manatees had become relatively rare around the island. Nevertheless, manatees remain widespread along the coast and occasionally occupy freshwater habitats in the Dominican Republic. In Haiti recent manatee sightings were restricted to two coastal areas. Currently, the manatee population of Hispaniola is perceived to be declining. The most commonly reported threats to the species include hunting, entanglement in fishing gear, boat strikes and disturbance by boat traffic, pollution, and habitat degradation and destruction. In the Dominican Republic longstanding national laws and international agreements protect the species and its habitat, and past conservation actions have raised public awareness about the status of the manatee. In Haiti knowledge of manatees is extremely limited and the species is not legally protected. I propose country-specific and binational recommendations to improve the contemporary conservation of manatees in the Dominican Republic and Haiti.
It is well known the remarkable optical properties of both graphene and left handed materials, for which we study the optical properties of a multilayer system building by graphene-dielectric-left hand material. In this work, we show the transmission, reflection and absorption spectra for a different set of parameters of the left-handed material structure. It is important to highlight that the inclusion of graphene remarkably modifies the transmission and absorption spectra. The optical properties of the graphene-LHM can be modulated via the different parameters of system. We showed that the fill function do not change the line form of the spectra, however, modify their amplitudes. With respect to light polarization, it’s possible to observe that the spectra are widen for TM respect to TE polarization.
The main goal of the current study is to analyze the relationship between leaders' empowerment, radical innovation and organizational performance. A total of 300 Spanish companies participated in the study. In total, 600 valid questionnaires were obtained. Structural equations were used to validate the proposed hypotheses. Two different respondents in each company were selected to provide information. All the hypotheses proposed in the theoretical model were confirmed. This research provides empirical evidence of the relationship between leaders' empowerment and organizational performance, highlighting the mediation role played by radical innovation. Leaders who empower, promote radical innovation and, in turn, performance. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study that analyzes the effect of leader's empowerment on radical innovation. Although in the former literature there are evidences of a positive relationship between empowerment and innovation, there are no studies that differentiate between innovation typologies.
Tubular pottery comprises certain peculiar artifacts that were produced by late Holocene complex hunter-gatherer societies in southeastern South America for unknown purposes. Some authors have related them to mortuary behaviour which has also been suggested by historical sources, while others have considered domestic use. In this paper, the technical, compositional and functional properties of these artifacts are explored in order to contrast both hypotheses, given an example of how technical analysis allows the identification of special pottery within archeological contexts. This analysis includes a study of the fabrics involved using low and high magnification, thin sections, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and fatty acid profiles. The results show that these tubular artifacts are not fit structurally for utilitarian purposes and show no evidence of domestic use. Based on these results and on historical data, it can be postulated that they were used as part of mortuary rituals, thus becoming part of the select global group of pottery manufactured exclusively for mortuary purposes.
The indications for expanded endoscopic transnasal approaches continue to increase, with more complex skull base defects needing to be repaired. This study reviews the management of large anterior skull base defects with opening of the sellar diaphragm.
A prospective analysis of endonasal endoscopic surgery carried out at Son Espases University Hospital between January 2013 and December 2018 was performed. The analysis included only the cases with a significative intra-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak. In all cases, reconstruction was performed by combining the gasket seal technique with a pedicled mucosal endonasal flap.
Twenty-eight patients were included. The mucoperiosteal nasoseptal flap, the lateral wall flap and the middle turbinate flap were used in 13, 8 and 7 patients, respectively, combined with the gasket seal technique. One case of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak was observed (3.57 per cent).
The combination of a gasket seal with an endonasal mucosal flap is an excellent technique for repairing large anterior skull base defects.
Data regarding humoral immunity against HPV infection are scarce. Most analyses focus on the identification of viruses on mucous membranes and primarily refer to women of reproductive age. The aim of this work was to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against HPV serotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18 among unvaccinated boys living in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study of 257 male students from 48 public primary schools in Mexico City, whose ages fluctuated between 9 and 14 years, was carried out. Immunological status was assessed by applying the competitive Luminex Immunoassay of HPV (cLIA). Among the study population, we initially found that 38.52% (n = 99) of the children tested positive against one or more of the HPV 6, 11, 16 and/or 18 serotypes. The most commonly found serotype was isolated HPV 18 or in combination with other serotypes (22% and 31%, respectively), followed by HPV 6 with frequencies of 4.7% and 11%, respectively; however, lower frequencies were estimated for HPV 16 (2%; 6%) and isolated HPV 11, 4%. If a second set of cut-off points for seropositivity is applied, the overall prevalence for any serotype is reduced to 15.2%. As it appears that a significant sector of the study population has had basal contact with an HPV serotype, we recommend considering the possibility of vaccination against HPV at earlier ages.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in patients diagnosed with advanced cancer (AC), with a prevalence of 16.5%. It is associated with great disability and worsened quality of life, increased number and intensity of physical symptoms, and lower survival. It is the main factor for the presence of suicidal ideation. Antidepressants show modest efficacy, and response requires several weeks. Ketamine has demonstrated a fast and robust antidepressant effect in subanesthetic doses. This effect may prove useful in patients with AC, MDD, and suicidal risk.
We report a case of a patient with advanced cervical cancer who presented with uncontrollable pain, MDD, and a suicide attempt.
A 39-year-old woman diagnosed with cervical cancer stage IVB presented to the Emergency Department after a suicide attempt by hanging. Upon evaluation by the palliative care psychiatrist, she reported intense pain, unresponsive to analgesics, and had a history of persistent suicidal ideation. Antidepressant treatment was started (sertraline 50mg/d) after a single dose of ketamine hydrochloride IV (0.5 mg/kg) was administered. Treatment response was measured using the Brief Edinburgh Depression Scale before and after the intervention. The depressive symptoms decreased by 17% on day 1, 39% on day 3, and 72% on day 17.
Significance of results
This case report shows ketamine's efficacy as an augmentation agent alongside conventional antidepressant treatment in patients with AC. Moreover, it shows rapid response in suicidal ideation that has not been achieved with treatment as usual. More clinical trials are needed to support the potential benefit and safety of ketamine in patients with AC, MDD, and persisting suicidal ideation.
Many orogens on the planet result from plate convergence involving subduction of a continental margin. The lithosphere is strongly deformed during mountain building involving subduction of a plate composed generally of accreted continental margin units and some fragments of downgoing oceanic crust and mantle. A complex deformation involving strong partitioning of deformation modes and kinematics produces crustal shortening, accompanied by crustal thickening. Partitioning depends on three main factors: (1) rheologic layering of the lithosphere; (2) interaction between tectonics and surface processes; (3) subduction kinematics and 3D geometry of continental margins (oblique convergence, shape of indenters). Here we present an original view and discussion on the impact of deformation partitioning on the structure and evolution of orogens by examining the Taiwan mountain belt as a case study. Major unsolved questions are addressed through geological observations from the Taiwan orogen and insights from analogue models integrating surface processes. Some of these questions include: What is the role played by décollements or weak zones in crustal deformation and what is the impact of structural heterogeneities inherited from the early extensional history of a rifted passive continental margin? What is the relationship between deep underplating, induced uplift and flow of crustal material during erosion (finite strain evolution during wedge growth)? Are syn-convergent normal faults an effect of deformation partitioning and erosion? What is the role of strain partitioning on the location of major seismogenic faults in active mountain belts? What can be learned about the long-term and the present-day evolution of Taiwan?
On 16 March 2018, a nursing home notified a possible acute gastroenteritis outbreak that affected 11 people. Descriptive and case–control studies and analysis of clinical and environmental samples were carried out to determine the characteristics of the outbreak, its aetiology, the transmission mechanism and the causal food. The extent of the outbreak in and outside the nursing home was determined and the staff factors influencing propagation were studied by multivariate analysis. A turkey dinner on March 14 was associated with the outbreak (OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.11–16.01). Norovirus genogroups I and II were identified in stool samples. The attack rates in residents, staff and household contacts of staff were 23.49%, 46.22% and 22.87%, respectively. Care assistants and cleaning staff were the staff most frequently affected. Cohabitation with an affected care assistant was the most important factor in the occurrence of cases in the home (adjusted OR 6.37, 95% CI 1.13–36.02). Our results show that staff in close contact with residents and their household contacts had a higher risk of infection during the norovirus outbreak.
It is crucial to identify people at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to implement preventive interventions in order to address these pandemics. A simple score exclusively based on dietary components, the Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS) showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. The objective was to assess the association between DDS and the risk of GDM in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. The ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ project is a prospective and dynamic cohort which included data of 3455 women who notified pregnancies between 1999 and 2012. The diagnosis of GDM is self-reported and further confirmed by physicians. A validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ was used to assess pre-gestational dietary habits. The development of the DDS was aimed to quantify the association between the adherence to this a priori dietary score and T2DM incidence. The score exclusively included dietary components (nine food groups with reported inverse associations with T2DM incidence and three food groups which reported direct associations with T2DM). Three categories of adherence to the DDS were assessed: low (11–24), intermediate (25–39) and high (40–60). The upper category showed an independent inverse association with the risk of incident GDM compared with the lowest category (multivariate-adjusted OR 0·48; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·99; P for linear trend: 0·01). Several sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of these results. These results reinforce the importance of pre-gestational dietary habits for reducing GDM and provide a brief tool to practically assess the relevant dietary habits in clinical practice.
We determine the irregular Hodge filtration, as introduced by Sabbah, for the purely irregular hypergeometric
-modules. We obtain, in particular, a formula for the irregular Hodge numbers of these systems. We use the reduction of hypergeometric systems from GKZ-systems as well as comparison results to Gauss–Manin systems of Laurent polynomials via Fourier–Laplace and Radon transformations.