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Nineteenth-century republicans across the political spectrum agreed: the Spanish monarchy produced ‘miserable Indians’. Abolishing tribute and privatising communal lands, known as resguardos in New Granada (roughly today's Panama and Colombia), would transform that wretched class into equal citizens. Drawing on late eighteenth-century privatisation efforts by the Spanish Crown, early republican leaders in Gran Colombia inaugurated an era seeking equal access to wealth from communal land for all indigenous community members. After Gran Colombia (the first Colombian Republic, 1819–30) dissolved into New Granada, Ecuador and Venezuela in 1830, New Granada's experiments with indigenous resguardo policies went further. By then, legislative efforts considered the needs of all resguardo members, including unmarried mothers and their illegitimate children. Complex laws, diverse ecological terrain and nuanced social realities required well-trained surveyors to ensure each eligible indigenous family received a fair share of land. Whereas indigenous communities in Pasto, Santa Marta and the Cauca river valley resorted to armed insurrection against liberal policies through the War of the Supremes (1839–42), those in the highlands near Bogotá did not. Instead, these republican indígenas – with their greater access to the levers of power housed in the national capital – chose to engage in the reforms of a decentralising state. This article reveals how contentious experiments seeking republican equality within indigenous resguardos as a path towards abolishing the institution were consistently stymied by efforts to ensure that indigenous community governance and communal landholding remained intact.
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients on the target coverage when using 6 MV beams-VMAT therapy and to propose strategies that allow us to evaluate the dose or correct it by normalization without having to perform a new simulation.
Methods and materials:
Ten patients of high-risk prostate cancer were chosen for the study. All test plans were delivered using the same isocenter and monitor units as the original plan and compared against the original unedited plan. The expansion and contraction of body contours due to size changes was mimicked by increasing and decreasing the body contour with depths of −2, −1·5, …, 1·5, 2 cm, in the anterior, and both lateral directions of the patient. A total of 90 plans were evaluated, 9 for each patient. Dose-volume histogram statistics were extracted from each plan and normalized to prescription dose.
Weight changes resulted in considerable dose modifications to the target and critical structures. Plans were found to be varied with 2·9% ± 0·3% per cm SSD change for VMAT treatment with a correlation index close to one. Therefore, doses variations were linear to the changes of depth. Gamma index evaluation was performed for the 10 renormalized plans. All of them passed criteria of 3%/3 mm in at least 98.2% of points. Eight of them passed criteria in 99% points. Gamma index 4%/4 mm passed 100% points in all patients for the chosen region of interest.
The dosimetry estimation presented in this study shows important data for the radiation oncology staff to justify whether a CT rescan is necessary or not when a patient experiences weight changes during treatment. Based on the results of our study, discrepancies between real dose and planned dose were >5% for 1·7 cm of difference in external contour in the anterior and both lateral directions of the patient.
The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae. In total 159 S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered. There was a decrease in the incidence of IPD in children <2 years old after the introduction of PCV7 (18.4/100 000 vs. 5.1/100 000, P = 0.004). Meningitis cases decreased significantly in the second period (P = 0.036) as well as the overall case fatality rate (P = 0.025), including a decreased case fatality rate of pneumonia (16.3% to 0%, P = 0.04). PCV7 serotypes showed a downward trend. Vaccine-preventable serotypes caused 78.9% of IPD cases, mainly 14, 6B, 5, 19F and 23F. A non-significant increase in erythromycin resistance was reported. Our findings suggest that the introduction of PCV7 led to a significant decrease of IPD in children under 2 years old and in the overall case fatality rate.
We report on the design of polycaprolactone (PCL)-TiO2-collagenase mesh scaffolds by Forcespinning technique. The dependence of the degree of crystallinity in PCL caused by the incorporation of dopants (TiO2-collagenase) and the reduction of dimensionality (1D), during the nanofiber formation, were investigated by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The tensile strength of the mesh scaffolds (randomly oriented) was determined using uniaxial testing equipment. The permeability was measured by contact angle obtaining an improvement in the hydrophobicity for the PCL-TiO2-collagenase mesh scaffolds. The results reported in this research are of great relevance for tissue engineering applications.
The aim of the present research was to evaluate pectin-gelatine and pectin-collagen polymeric compounds as encapsulating and releasing matrices for whey active peptides with antioxidant properties. Active peptides were obtained by hydrolysis of whey proteins with thermolysin and proteinase enzymes from B. subtilis. The hydrolysates were fractioned and encapsulated in the pectin composite matrices to obtain particles loaded with active whey peptides. The composite particles were analysed by SEM and IR techniques. In addition, they were also tested under simulated gastric conditions to evaluate the encapsulation efficiency and delivering power of the composite materials. The results showed that both encapsulation particles were excellent supports, because they retained to-the peptides and maintained their antioxidant activity during the simulated gastric process (120 min). However, the pectin gelatine particles were digested faster than those of pectin-collagen. The peptides from-encapsulated in pectin-gelatine were released within this time, showing an increment in the-antioxidant activity. Peptides from gelatine protein were also released by the gastric enzymes, and thus also they contributed to the antioxidant activity; in addition to the whey peptides.
High-entropy alloys (HEAs), originally introduced to the literature due to their ability to stabilize a single phase across large temperature ranges, have recently demonstrated to display multiphase systems undergoing a variety of strengthening mechanisms. Previous reports have focused on solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening; however, other hardening mechanisms such as twinning and martensite formation have been reported to play a key role in controlling their mechanical behavior. Such deformation mechanisms display significant variations with temperature and strain rate. The present contribution provides an outline of the various hardening mechanisms reported in the literature for HEAs. For each mechanism, a modeling strategy is proposed to describe the associated mechanical behavior. The mechanisms are combined into a single framework to discover new HEAs of improved mechanical behavior. A strategy for HEA design is presented, and the advantages of adopting additive layer manufacturing to improve mechanical behavior are discussed.
Transport of test particles in two-dimensional weak turbulence with waves propagating along the poloidal direction is studied using a reduced model. Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects are included by gyroaveraging over one particle orbit. For low wave amplitudes the motion is mostly regular with particles trapped in the potential wells. As the amplitude increases the trajectories become chaotic and the Larmor radius modifies the orbits. For a thermal distribution of Finite Larmor radii the particle distribution function (PDF) is Gaussian for small
(thermal gyroradius) but becomes non-Gaussian for large
. However, the time scaling of transport is diffusive, as characterized by a linear dependence of the variance of the PDF with time. An explanation for this behaviour is presented that provides an expression for an effective diffusion coefficient and reproduces the numerical results for large wave amplitudes which implies generalized chaos. When a shear flow is added in the direction of wave propagation, a modified model is obtained that produces free-streaming particle trajectories in addition to trapped ones; these contribute to ballistic transport for low wave amplitude but produce super-ballistic transport in the chaotic regime. As in the previous case, the PDF is Gaussian for low
becoming non-Gaussian as it increases. The perpendicular transport presents the same behaviour as in the case with no flow but the diffusion is faster in the presence of the flow.
The Prado-Recoletos axis is the main historical boulevard in Madrid, which contains the most important concentration of art museums in all of Spain: the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, the Museo Nacional del Prado and the Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza. In the last years, they have undergone extensive renovation. The different renovation projects can be used to examine how museum libraries today juggle the needs of their users while addressing the challenge of providing the services of a modern research library. The new State Museum Libraries Network (BIMUS) has been an important factor in this development.
In this paper, we introduce the simplest exponential dispersion model containing the Pareto and exponential distributions. In this way, we obtain distributions with support (0, ∞) that in a long interval are equivalent to the Pareto distribution; however, for very high values, decrease like the exponential. This model is useful for solving relevant problems that arise in the practical use of extreme value theory. The results are applied to two real examples, the first of these on the analysis of aggregate loss distributions associated to the quantitative modelling of operational risk. The second example shows that the new model improves adjustments to the destructive power of hurricanes, which are among the major causes of insurance losses worldwide.
In this chapter we present an overview of NASA's Planetary Data System project with emphasis on the Small Bodies Node (SBN) and describe a separate relational database project, the Steward Observatory Asteroid Relational Database (SOARD). We summarize the datasets that are currently available through SBN and SOARD as well as those planned to be ingested in the future. Procedures for accessing data from the SBN and SOARD via Internet are included.
The worldwide cultivation of fig (Ficus carica L.) has achieved great economic importance, mainly, due to its important role as a food supplement. This situation has generated great interest in researching its methods of production, processing and conservation. The objective of this research was to evaluate six intensive production systems of fig in hydroponic and greenhouse conditions. The experimental phase started on November 15, 2010 and was completed in September 2011. Production systems were established by varying the number of productive stems between three and eight in each plant, with densities of 1.25 plants m−2. A completely experimental – randomized design was used with five replications, with a pot and a plant as an experimental unit. The results indicate that the highest yielding of fresh fruit was presented by eight productive stems (109.5 t ha−1), this one outperformed the seven productive stems (94.8 t ha−1) in 13.3% and six productive stems (78.6 t ha−1), at 26.8%. The handling of productive stems allowed an increase in the leaf area index, harvest index and fruit yielding. These results suggest that intensive production in hydroponic and greenhouse conditions of fig is an excellent alternative production, allowing to collect up to 20 times of fresh fruit yielding in relation to the plantations in the open field.
Two different crystalline structures corresponding to a zinc adipate and a zinc succinate were determined combining: X-ray powder and single-crystal diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and true densities experiments. The zinc succinate crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space-group Cccm with unit-cell parameters a = 4.792(1) Å, b = 21.204(6) Å, c = 6.691(2) Å, V = 679.8(3) Å3, and Z = 8. Zinc adipate crystal structure was refined from the laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data by the Rietveld method. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c with unit-cell parameters, a = 16.2037(17)Å, b = 4.7810(2)Å, c = 9.2692(6)Å, β = 90.329(3)°, V = 718.07(9) Å3, and Z = 4. The thermal expansion of it was estimated in 5.40 × 10−5 K−1. This contribution is a step on the way to systematize the regularities in the coordination diversity between linear dicarboxylates and transition metal–inorganic buildings units of metal–organic frameworks.
The ovaries of 31 franciscana dolphins (19 immature and 12 mature) by-caught in coastal waters of Argentina were examined to describe the reproductive biology. No ovarian polarity was found, both ovaries were functional and showed similar amounts of corpora. A positive trend was observed between the number of corpora and age (3–8 years old), indicating that ovulation scars are detectable for at least 4 years, and a ovulation rate of 0.39 was found for the sampled population. Age, length and weight at sexual maturity were estimated at 3.92 ± 0.09 years, 133.47 ± 11.11 cm and 32.68 ± 2.72 kg, respectively. The annual pregnancy rate was 0.36 ± 0.02 (95% CI = 0.10–0.65). The proportion of lactating and resting females found were 0.25 and 0.33 respectively. These outcomes constitute the first reproductive and life history information on franciscana dolphins from the southernmost population and are important in relation with adequate conservation management plans for this small cetacean.
This will be the last triennial report from Commission 50 under that label, because of the reorganization of the IAU at the end of the triennial period. Fortunately, site protection was recognized as an important ongoing function of the IAU, and the work of the Commission is continuing as Commission C.B7. The Commission has its primary association with Division B because of the technical aspects of its work and association with ground-based facilities, while it has the support of Division C as an Inter-Division Commission because of the strong need for educating the public on the issues.
The addition of nanoparticles into polymeric materials has changed dramatically the properties of the host polymers, promising a novel class of composite materials with different properties and added functionalities. This research focuses on the influence of inorganic nanospheres particles such as SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and nanoplatelets, such as Bentonite nanoclay, on the thermo-mechanical properties of a polyacrylic latex (utilized in commercial coatings). The analysis of the thermal and mechanical properties showed a decrease of Young's modulus and glass transition temperature Tg in the presence of spherical nanoparticles. However, there was an increase of these properties in the presence of nanoplatelets (Bentonite), as demonstrated by the dynamic mechanical analysis and uniaxial tensile analysis. Moreover, water contact angle measurements demonstrated significant increase in hydrophobic behavior when incorporating nanosphere particles as compared to nanoplatelets. These results showed that the metallic oxides nanoparticles greatly influenced the physical and mechanical properties of the neat polyacrylic matrix.