To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Political sociology is a large and expanding field with many new developments, and The New Handbook of Political Sociology supplies the knowledge necessary to keep up with this exciting field. Written by a distinguished group of leading scholars in sociology, this volume provides a survey of this vibrant and growing field in the new millennium. The Handbook presents the field in six parts: theories of political sociology, the information and knowledge explosion, the state and political parties, civil society and citizenship, the varieties of state policies, and globalization and how it affects politics. Covering all subareas of the field with both theoretical orientations and empirical studies, it directly connects scholars with current research in the field. A total reconceptualization of the first edition, the new handbook features nine additional chapters and highlights the impact of the media and big data.
IQ as a measure of intelligence is at the same time a success and a failure: a success because of the predictive value of IQ, and a failure because we do not know precisely what it is measuring. Intelligence has been defined in many ways. To discuss the definitional issue, we rely on Aristotle and his four ways to define something: explaining what it looks like, what it consists of, where it comes from, and what it is for. In this chapter we present an alternative view on how the measurement of intelligence has evolved and how it relates to different views on what intelligence is. The first initiatives to measure intelligence were inspired by physics and a strictly quantitative approach. These initiatives were based on the notion of general intelligence as mental energy, and led to tests to measure intelligence such as reaction times and perceptual discrimination (i.e., what intelligence looks like). IQ as a quantification of intelligence is from a later date and is based on a quite different type of test, inspired by an interest in what intelligence is for, as expressed in the work of some of the most famous intelligence test developers (e.g., Binet, Terman, Wechsler). The type of content of these tests is preserved in most intelligence tests today, mainly because of the predictive success of IQ tests. There now is also agreement that intelligence is not unitary but multidimensional. Robert Sternberg’s major endeavor to unravel processes has shown that there is no clear-cut answer to the question of what intelligence consists of in terms of cognitive processes or how processes can be measured. Other endeavors have resulted in measurement of genetic and environmental influences, in a revival of reaction time and discrimination measures, and in hypotheses about biological mechanics, such as mitochondrial efficiency. We conclude that intelligence is still a vague concept without much hope that it will be clarified soon, even though its measurement through a variety of cognitive tasks seems to work well from a predictive point of view.
Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.
This study aims to develop an in vitro co-culture system of in situ goat preantral follicles with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC), evaluating the influence of these cells on follicular growth, rate of activation and morphologically normal follicles. Fragments of ovarian cortex were cultured for 1 or 7 days in the presence of BM-MSC (BM-MSC+) and absence of BM-MSC (BM-MSC−). Histological sections of the fragments were analysed and data were obtained regarding morphological classification, survival rate of morphologically normal follicles and rate of follicular activation. Culture medium on days 1 and 7 was also sampled for nitrite concentration and reduced glutathione activity. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the percentage of morphologically normal follicles in the BM-MSC+ compared with the fresh control only on the seventh day of culture. When comparing treatments, on the seventh day of culture, a higher rate of morphologically normal preantral follicles was observed in BM-MSC+ (P < 0.05). In both treatments, primordial and developing follicle rates were similar to the fresh control (P > 0.05). When comparing treatments with each other, as well as with the fresh control, no differences were observed in follicular diameter (P > 0.05) or nitrite concentration (P > 0.05). The concentration of reduced glutathione was lower on the seventh day of co-culture in both treatments (P < 0.05). In conclusion, co-culture had no influence on follicular or oocyte development. However, it was critical to maintain the survival of preantral follicles during 7 days of culture.
We describe the use of immobilized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a silica matrix as a biorecognition agent for the detection of albendazole sulfoxide (ASU), the primary metabolite of albendazole and a suspected teratogenic and embryotoxic agent. The biomaterial (DNA-containing gel) was synthesized by physical entrapment of salmon sperm in an inorganic silicate matrix by the sol-gel method. Functionality of the DNA-containing gel was evaluated by comparative offline frontal chromatography followed by HPLC analysis of ASU and caffeine (CAF, control) using DNA-containing gel and DNA-free gel. The DNA-containing gel showed relatively high specific retention for ASU, while CAF showed no retention using frontal analysis. We anticipate that the DNA-containing gel can be implemented to identify the interactions of DNA with other active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and their metabolites in a readily available, sensitive and selective frontal chromatography experiment.
The work described in this Research Communication concerns the production of Dulce de leche (DL), that is a traditional product from South America obtained by concentration. Maillard reaction (MR) products are mainly responsible for the formation of color and flavor in this product. Lactose-hydrolyzed products have been developed to supply consumer demand, but this hydrolysis may affect the flavor, color, taste, texture and even some nutritional aspects of the product. We studied the influence of different levels of lactose-hydrolysis, sucrose addition and initial pH on the development of MR, appraised by the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A process simulator with multi-monitoring system was used to produce 15 DL. Box-Behnken 33 experimental design was applied for the three factors: pH, lactose-hydrolysis level and sucrose concentration. Lipids, protein, ashes, carbohydrates, water activity, dissolved solids, colorimetric analysis and HMF (free and total) are among the physicochemical attributes and MR indicators analyzed in this work. The products showed significant differences in composition but all the values were in agreement with the literature. Moreover, higher levels of lactose hydrolysis and higher pH presented a direct relation with the development of MR, observed by an increase in coloration (lower luminosity) and more formation of HMF, both free and total. The present study expands the knowledge about DL spread made of lactose-hydrolyzed milk, allowing the food industries to produce a lactose free DL with nutritional and sensory characteristics closer to the traditional product.
In cases of mass-casualty incidents (MCIs), triage represents a fundamental tool for the management of and assistance to the wounded, which helps discriminate not only the priority of attention, but also the priority of referral to the most suitable center.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of different prehospital triage systems based on physiological parameters (Shock Index [SI], Glasgow-Age-Pressure Score [GAP], Revised Trauma Score [RTS], and National Early Warning Score 2 [NEWS2]) to predict early mortality (within 48 hours) from the index event for use in MCIs.
This was a longitudinal prospective observational multi-center study on patients who were attended by Advanced Life Support (ALS) units and transferred to the emergency department (ED) of their reference hospital. Collected were: demographic, physiological, and clinical variables; main diagnosis; and data on early mortality. The main outcome variable was mortality from any cause within 48 hours.
From April 1, 2018 through February 28, 2019, a total of 1,288 patients were included in this study. Of these, 262 (20.3%) participants required assistance for trauma and injuries by external agents. Early mortality within the first 48 hours due to any cause affected 69 patients (5.4%). The system with the best predictive capacity was the NEWS2 with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.891 (95% CI, 0.84-0.94); a sensitivity of 79.7% (95% CI, 68.8-87.5); and a specificity of 84.5% (95% CI, 82.4-86.4) for a cut-off point of nine points, with a positive likelihood ratio of 5.14 (95% CI, 4.31-6.14) and a negative predictive value of 98.7% (95% CI, 97.8-99.2).
Prehospital scores of the NEWS2 are easy to obtain and represent a reliable test, which make it an ideal system to help in the initial assessment of high-risk patients, and to determine their level of triage effectively and efficiently. The Prehospital Emergency Medical System (PhEMS) should evaluate the inclusion of the NEWS2 as a triage system, which is especially useful for the second triage (evacuation priority).
The chapter addresses the role and content of Spanish constitutional identity. It first considers the stance of the Spanish Constitutional Court. In this regard, Spain joins the list of EU Member States whose constitutional courts do not accept the principle of primacy’s effectiveness in EU law vis-à-vis the Constitution. In order to contain the unlimited scope of that principle, the Constitutional Court has come up with an original and controversial distinction between the primacy of EU law and the supremacy of the Constitution. It also acknowledges that there is a core of the Constitution – its constitutional identity – that falls outside the scope of primacy. Its content lies in the respect for state sovereignty, for basic constitutional structures, and for the system of core values and principles in the Constitution, where fundamental rights acquire their own substantive nature. The chapter also examines the role of constitutional identity in the context of the Catalan secessionist movement. It considers that ensuring the state’s territorial integrity is an indispensable part of constitutional identity, whilst providing an obligation incumbent on the EU under Art. 4(2) TEU.
This study evaluated the effects of oocyte meiosis inhibitors roscovitine (ROS) and butyrolactone I (BL-I) on in vitro production of bovine embryos. Bovine oocytes were maintained in pre in vitro maturation (pre-IVM) with 25 µM ROS or 100 µM BL-I for 24 h to delay meiosis and for 24 h in in vitro maturation (IVM). Following this treatment, the nuclear maturation index was evaluated. All embryos degenerated following this procedure. In the second set of experiments, oocytes were maintained for 6 or 12 h in pre-IVM with the following three treatments: ROS (25 µM or 12.5 µM), BL-I (100 µM or 50 µM) or a combination of both drugs (6.25 µM ROS and 12.5 µM BL-I). Oocytes were cultivated for 18 or 12 h in IVM. When a meiosis-inducing agent was used during pre-IVM for 24 h, more degenerated oocytes were observed at the end of the IVM period. This effect decreased when the meiotic blocking period was reduced to 6 or 12 h. No significant differences were observed in the blastocyst production rate of oocytes in pre-IVM for 6 h with ROS, BL-I, or ROS + BL-I compared with that of the control group (P > 0.05). However, inhibition of oocytes for 12 h resulted in decreased embryo production compared with that in the controls (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the post-vitrification embryo re-expansion rate between the study groups, showing that the meiotic inhibition for 6 or 12 h did not alter the embryo cryopreservation process.
Pulmonary hypertension is a complex and progressive condition that is either idiopathic or heritable, or associated with one or multiple health conditions, with or without congenital or acquired cardiovascular disease. Recent developments have tremendously increased the armamentarium of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children and young adults with pulmonary hypertension that is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality. These modalities include non-invasive imaging, pharmacotherapy, interventional and surgical procedures, and supportive measures. The optimal, tailored diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for pulmonary hypertension in the young are rapidly evolving but still face enormous challenges: Healthcare providers need to take the patient’s age, development, disease state, and family concerns into account when initiating advanced diagnostics and treatment. Therefore, there is a need for guidance on core and advanced medical training in paediatric pulmonary hypertension. The Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology working group “pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and transplantation” has produced this document as an expert consensus statement; however, all recommendations must be considered and applied in the context of the local and national infrastructure and legal regulations.
Pregnant individuals who overeat are more likely to predispose their fetus to the development of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Physical training is a prevention and treatment interventional strategy that could treat these disorders, since it improves metabolism and body composition. This study assessed the protective effect of physical exercise against possible metabolic changes in generations F1 and F2, whose mothers were subjected to a high-sugar/high-fat (HS/HF) diet. Wistar rats belonging to generation F0 were distributed into four groups (n = 10): sedentary control (CSed), exercised control (CExe), sedentary HS/HF diet (DHSed) and exercised HS/HF diet (DHExe). From 21 to 120 days of age, maintained during pregnancy and lactation period, CSed/CExe animals received standard feed and DHSed/DHExe animals a HS/HF diet. Animals from the CExe/DHExe underwent physical training from 21 to 120 days of age. Male and female F1 and F2 received a normocaloric feed and did not perform any physical training, categorized into four groups (n = 10) according to the maternal group to which they belonged to. An increase in body weight, adiposity and glucose, and a change in lipid profile in F0 were observed, while exercise reduced the biochemical parameters comparing DHSed with DHExe. Maternal exercise had an effect on future generations, reducing adiposity, glucose and triglyceride concentrations, and preventing deleterious effects on glucose tolerance. Maternal overeating increased health risks both for mother and offspring, demonstrating that an HS/HF diet intake promotes metabolic alterations in the offspring. Importantly, the physical training performed by F0 proved to be protective against such effects.
The aim of this study was to test the effective separation of shape indices of otoliths of three species belonging to the family Sciaenidae before and after in vitro digestion. We measured 328 sagittal otoliths and applied six shape indices. Before the experiment, the aspect ratio (otolith height/otolith length%), circularity, ellipticity and relative surface of the sulcus acusticus were suitable for differentiating the species of genera Paralonchurus and Stellifer. Among the species of Stellifer, the aspect ratio and rectangularity were suitable. Otoliths exposed to in vitro digestion showed no significant differences in their morphometry before and after the experiment. After in vitro digestion, the aspect ratio and circularity were effective in separating Paralonchurus and Stellifer. However, none of the indices used in the present study were efficient to separate otoliths of congeneric species after in vitro digestion.
Before drawing conclusions on the contribution of an effective intervention to daily practice and initiating dissemination, its quality and implementation in daily practice should be optimal. The aim of this process evaluation was to study these aspects alongside a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a multidisciplinary biannual medication review in long-term care organizations (NTR3569).
Process evaluation with multiple measurements.
Thirteen units for people with dementia in six long-term care organizations in the Netherlands.
Physicians, pharmacists, and nursing staff of participating units.
The PROPER intervention is a structured and biannually repeated multidisciplinary medication review supported by organizational preparation and education, evaluation, and guidance.
Web-based questionnaires, interviews, attendance lists of education sessions, medication reviews and evaluation meetings, minutes, evaluation, and registration forms.
Participation rates in education sessions (95%), medication reviews (95%), and evaluation meetings (82%) were high. The intervention’s relevance and feasibility and applied implementation strategies were highly rated. However, the education sessions and conversations during medication reviews were too pharmacologically oriented for several nursing staff members. Identified barriers to implementation were required time, investment, planning issues, and high staff turnover; facilitators were the positive attitude of professionals toward the intervention, the support of higher management, and the appointment of a local implementation coordinator.
Implementation was successful. The commitment of both higher management and professionals was an important factor. This may partly have been due to the subject being topical; Dutch long-term-care organizations are pressed to lower inappropriate psychotropic drug use.
More than 130 late Pleistocene trackway sites from the coastal eolianites and beach deposits of the Cape south coast, South Africa, have previously mostly yielded tracks of large mammals and birds. However, two sites east of Still Bay, and a third near Garden Route National Park, yield distinctive trackways of hatchling sea turtles, made during the short posthatching (postemergence) interval when the trackmakers headed for the sea. One assemblage of approximately parallel trackways indicates smaller loggerhead turtle hatchlings, with alternating gaits, and contrasts with a wider trackway indicating a leatherback turtle hatchling. These are the world's first reports of fossil traces that document this brief “run-for the-sea” phenomenon. They help delineate late Pleistocene sea turtle breeding ranges and indicate climatic conditions along the Cape south coast. Ichnotaxonomically defined swim tracks of large adult sea turtles are known from a few Mesozoic sites. Likewise, walking and swim traces of terrestrial freshwater turtles are also known from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. However, as no ichnotaxonomy exists for these diagnostic hatchling trails, we assign the trackways of the inferred loggerheads to the new ichnotaxon Australochelichnus agulhasii ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov., and the inferred leatherback trackway to Marinerichnus latus ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov.
Twin registries often take part in large collaborative projects and are major contributors to genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis studies. In this article, we describe genotyping of twin-family populations from Australia, the Midwestern USA (Avera Twin Register), the Netherlands (Netherlands Twin Register), as well as a sample of mothers of twins from Nigeria to assess the extent, if any, of genetic differences between them. Genotyping in all cohorts was done using a custom-designed Illumina Global Screening Array (GSA), optimized to improve imputation quality for population-specific GWA studies. We investigated the degree of genetic similarity between the populations using several measures of population variation with genotype data generated from the GSA. Visualization of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the Australian, Dutch and Midwestern American populations exhibit negligible interpopulation stratification when compared to each other, to a reference European population and to globally distant populations. Estimations of fixation indices (FST values) between the Australian, Midwestern American and Netherlands populations suggest minimal genetic differentiation compared to the estimates between each population and a genetically distinct cohort (i.e., samples from Nigeria genotyped on GSA). Thus, results from this study demonstrate that genotype data from the Australian, Dutch and Midwestern American twin-family populations can be reasonably combined for joint-genetic analysis.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Little is known about the long-term effect of breastfeeding on dietary habits. We examined the association between breastfeeding duration and adherence to current dietary patterns of young women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 587 healthy women aged ≤45 years, undergraduates or nutrition graduates. Maternal characteristics and breastfeeding duration [<6; 6–<12; ≥12 months (reference)] were recalled. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and patterns were identified using factor analysis by principal component. Adherence to patterns was categorized in tertiles; the first (T1 = reference) was compared to T2 + T3 (moderate-to-high adherence). Logistic regression was performed considering the minimal sufficient adjustment recommended by the directed acyclic graph. Median age was 22 (interquartile range (IQR) 20; 27) years and body mass index (BMI) 22.2 (IQR 20.4; 25.0) kg/m2. The four dietary patterns identified (Processed, Prudent, Brazilian and Lacto-vegetarian) explained 27% of diet variance. Women breastfed for <6 months showed lower chance of moderate-to-high adherence to the Prudent pattern (odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, p = 0.04). Breastfeeding was not associated with the other patterns. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was directly associated with moderate-to-high adherence to the Processed pattern (OR = 2.01, p = 0.03) and inversely to the Prudent pattern (OR = 0.52, p = 0.02). Higher adherence to the Brazilian pattern was associated with proxies of low socioeconomic status and the Lacto-vegetarian pattern with the opposite. Confirmation in prospective studies of the association found in this study between breastfeeding with the Prudent pattern in adult offspring could suggest that early feeding practices influence long-term dietary habits, which could then affect the risk of nutrition-related diseases.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis in humans, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD). Imidazole compounds are used for the treatment of trichomoniasis, and metronidazole is the most commonly prescribed. However, these compounds can lead to parasite resistance and unwanted side effects. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative treatment for this disease. Here, we explored the potential of clotrimazole (CTZ) and zinc compounds, as well as CTZ complexed with zinc salts ( acetate [Zn(CTZ)2(Ac)2] and  a chloride [Zn(CTZ)2Cl2] complexes) against T. vaginalis. We synthesized the zinc complexed CTZ compounds and determined their concentration values that inhibited parasite growth by 50% (IC50). We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to visualize the ultrastructural alterations induced by CTZ and their zinc complexes. The incubation of the parasites with [Zn(CTZ)2(Ac)2] complex inhibited their growth, yielding an IC50 of 4.9 µm. Moreover, there were changes in the shape of treated parasites, including the formation of surface projections that subsequently detached from the cell, in addition to changes in the hydrogenosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. We found [Zn(CTZ)2(Ac)2] to be a highly effective compound against T. vaginalis in vitro, suggesting its potential utility as an alternative chemotherapy for trichomoniasis.
This paper addresses the relationship between the development of the concepts of autarky and «economy of the extended space» in the German-speaking world and the framing of economic relations between Germany and Brazil in the 1930s. According to this «autarkic» way of conceiving economics, in order to thrive, an economy has to be autonomous regarding its supply of necessary inputs. Proposals presented in the Annual Reports transmitted to the German Foreign Office by German diplomatic representatives in Brazil encouraged, for example, the negotiation of bilateral trade agreements and the expansion of the Brazilian production of strategic inputs for Germany. The choice of Karl Ritter, an expert in economic matters, as ambassador to Brazil is also representative of this strategy.