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Brown bears Ursus arctos were historically persecuted and almost eradicated from southern Europe in the twentieth century as a result of hunting and direct persecution. The effects of human-induced mortality were exacerbated by other threats, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, due to the expansion of human populations. As a result, nowadays there are only small fragmented populations of bears in southern Europe. Brown bears in the Cantabrian (north-western Spain), Apennine (central Italy), and Pindos (north-western Greece) mountains represent three examples of small and threatened bear populations in human-modified landscapes. Most of their range is characterized by high human densities, widespread agricultural activities, livestock raising and urban development, connected by dense networks of transport infrastructures. This has resulted in a reduction of continuous habitat suitable for the species. Here, we summarize the past and present histories and fates of these three populations as examples on how the coexistence of bears and people in human-modified landscapes can take different turns depending on human attitudes.
Sink drains in healthcare facilities may provide an environment for antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, including carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPKP).
We investigated the colonization of a biofilm consortia by CPKP in a model system simulating a sink-drain P-trap. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) biofilm reactors (CBRs) were inoculated with microbial consortia originally recovered from 2 P-traps collected from separate patient rooms (designated rooms A and B) in a hospital. Biofilms were grown on stainless steel (SS) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coupons in autoclaved municipal drinking water (ATW) for 7 or 28 days.
Microbial communities in model systems (designated CBR-A or CBR-B) were less diverse than communities in respective P-traps A and B, and they were primarily composed of β and γ Proteobacteria, as determined using 16S rRNA community analysis. Following biofilm development CBRs were inoculated with either K. pneumoniae ST45 (ie, strain CAV1016) or K. pneumoniae ST258 KPC+ (ie, strain 258), and samples were collected over 21 days. Under most conditions tested (CBR-A: SS, 7-day biofilm; CBR-A: PVC, 28-day biofilm; CBR-B: SS, 7-day and 28-day biofilm; CBR-B: PVC, 28-day biofilm) significantly higher numbers of CAV1016 were observed compared to 258. CAV1016 showed no significant difference in quantity or persistence based on biofilm age (7 days vs 28 days) or substratum type (SS vs PVC). However, counts of 258 were significantly higher on 28-day biofilms and on SS.
These results suggest that CPKP persistence in P-trap biofilms may be strain specific or may be related to the type of P-trap material or age of the biofilm.
To evaluate the complementary food consumption according the extent and purpose of food processing based on NOVA classification among children aged 6 to 24 months of Federal District, Brazil.
We performed a cross-sectional study using a 24-hour recall to estimate the daily energy intake and nutrients according to NOVA classification. We conducted a linear regression to assess the association between the processed and ultra-processed-foods (UPF) energy intake and the daily energy intake from saturated fat, daily energy intake from total sugars and daily intake of sodium.
Federal District, Brazil.
538 children between 6 to 24 months attended at Primary Health Care Units from March 2017 to March 2018.
On average, children aged from 6 to 12 and from 12 to 24 months consumed 572 and 969 Kcal/day, respectively, and processed and UPF represented one third of dietary energy intake. Group 2 (processed and UPF) were higher carbohydrate contributors, and lower protein, fiber and most micronutrient contributors, when compared with group 1 (unprocessed, minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients). In addition, the higher the energy intake from processed and UPF, the higher was the intake of daily energy intake from saturated fat, daily energy intake from total sugar and daily intake of sodium.
Children are being exposed early to processed and UPF and their share affect the diet’s nutritional quality.
Our study aimed to describe body phenotypes (BP) estimated by multivariate analysis and their association with body mass.
Body phenotypes were defined based on demographic variables, anthropometric data (body mass, height, skinfolds and circumferences), body composition (phase angle measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis), biochemical parameters (triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol ratio/Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), haemoglobin and sexual maturation (pubic hair and breasts or gonads). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to verify the differences between skin colour and the stages of pubertal development, body phenotypes, body composition, anthropometric, and biochemical variables.
Cities of São Paulo-SP, Piracicaba-SP and Florianópolis-SC from Brazil and the United States.
9269 adolescents aged between 10 to 15 years old.
The composition of BP was similar in all surveys, which are: BP1 was composed by skinfolds, body mass and circumferences variables; BP2 by pubic hair, breast in girls or gonad in boys, height and age; BP3 by cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose; and BP4 by phase angle, haemoglobin and glucose (negative loading). There was a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p <0.001) between BP1 and body mass index.
We highlighted independence observed between biochemical parameters, anthropometry, body composition and sexual maturation. BP may support the calculation of scores for diagnosis of obesity based on anthropometric variables and overcome ambiguity in the isolated use of body mass index.
Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid, which has been theorized to be due to an underlying internalizing vulnerability. We aimed to identify groups of participants with differing vulnerabilities by examining the course of internalizing psychopathology up to age 45.
We used data from 24158 participants (aged 45+) in 23 population-based cross-sectional World Mental Health Surveys. Internalizing disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). We applied latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and investigated the characteristics of identified classes using logistic or linear regression.
The best-fitting LCGA solution identified eight classes: a healthy class (81.9%), three childhood-onset classes with mild (3.7%), moderate (2.0%), or severe (1.1%) internalizing comorbidity, two puberty-onset classes with mild (4.0%) or moderate (1.4%) comorbidity, and two adult-onset classes with mild comorbidity (2.7% and 3.2%). The childhood-onset severe class had particularly unfavorable sociodemographic outcomes compared to the healthy class, with increased risks of being never or previously married (OR = 2.2 and 2.0, p < 0.001), not being employed (OR = 3.5, p < 0.001), and having a low/low-average income (OR = 2.2, p < 0.001). Moderate or severe (v. mild) comorbidity was associated with 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 1.9 and 4.8, p < 0.001), disability (B = 1.1–2.3, p < 0.001), and suicidal ideation (OR = 4.2, p < 0.001 for severe comorbidity only). Adult (v. childhood) onset was associated with lower rates of 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 0.2, p < 0.001).
We identified eight transdiagnostic trajectories of internalizing psychopathology. Unfavorable outcomes were concentrated in the 1% of participants with childhood onset and severe comorbidity. Early identification of this group may offer opportunities for preventive interventions.
The experiment described in this research communication aimed to compare the immunological traits of Simmental (sire) × Holstein (dam) crossbred cows with the two parental breeds in the peripartum and early lactation period and to estimate the effects of heterosis for these traits. Flow cytometric evaluation of leukocyte subpopulations was assessed in 16 Crossbred (CR), 8 Holstein (HO) and 8 Simmental (SI) cows. Estimated average values of innate and adaptive immune cells showed statistically significant differences between the crossbred cows and parental breeds. Interestingly, the most relevant differences between the three groups related to adaptive immune cells. In particular, the CR cows showed a lower percentage of CD3+ T lymphocytes compared with the SI group (P < 0.0001) and the highest proportions of CD21+ B lymphocytes among the three groups (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, we found the highest positive value of heterosis for the CD21+ B lymphocytes (7.0) and the lowest negative value for CD3+ T lymphocytes (−4.8) in F1 derived population. It seems reasonable to believe that these differences could affect immune function of crossbred cows.
Muscle mass may play an important role in the metabolic profile of individuals with or without excess weight. Metabolic phenotypes classify individuals as healthy or unhealthy based on certain metabolic conditions. We investigated the association between skeletal mass indices (SMI) and the metabolically unhealthy phenotype in normal weight and overweight/obese adults. Six hundred and sixty adults aged 20 to 59 years were assessed by a population-based cross-sectional study. Muscle mass of the limbs or appendicular lean mass (ALM) adjusted for weight (SMIweight) and BMI (SMIBMI) was used to evaluate SMI. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the association between SMIweight, SMIBMI, and metabolic phenotypes of normal weight and overweight/obese individuals. Metabolically unhealthy individuals were older in both genders. Metabolically unhealthy men had lower SMI values and higher fat percentage than metabolically healthy men. SMIweight was inversely associated with the metabolically unhealthy phenotype, both in normal weight men (OR, 0.49, 95% CI 0.24–0.99, P = 0.04) and in overweight/obese men (OR, 0.32, 95% CI 0.16–0.64, P = 0.001). SMIBMI was inversely associated with the metabolically unhealthy phenotype in overweight/obese men (OR, 0.36, 95% CI 0.18–0.72, P = 0.004), but not in normal weight range (OR, 0.70, 95% CI 0.34–1.43, P = 0.33). Among women, SMI showed no significant association with the phenotypes. In conclusion, the SMI are inversely associated with the metabolically unhealthy phenotype in men, especially among overweight/obese men.
To analyze the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in workers of a hospital located in one of the most affected areas in Spain.
Design, settings, and patients:
Cross-sectional study performed between March and May 2020 over all workers of a secondary hospital in Madrid, Spain.
We employed polymerase chain reaction (PCR, for symptomatic individuals) and serology (for both PCR-negative symptomatic workers and asymptomatic workers) as diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We analyzed the prevalence of the virus in healthcare workers (HCWs) and nonhealthcare workers (nHCWs). We also collected information about the use of personal protective equipment (PPEs) and possible contacts prior to infection.
In total, 2,963 workers were included: 1,092 were symptomatic, and of these, 539 were positive by PCR (49.4% of symptomatic workers). From the remaining symptomatic workers, 197 (35.6%) were positive by serology. Regarding asymptomatic workers, 345 were positive by serology (31.9% of infected workers). In total, 1,081 (36.5%) presented a positive diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2. Infection rates were different between HCWs (37.4%) and nHCWs (29.8%) (P = .006). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the use of PPE (protective: OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.44–0.72; P < .001) and previous contact with COVID-19 patients (risk factor: OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.28–2.24; P < .001) were independent factors that were associated with SAS-CoV-2 infection.
Overall, >36% of our workers became infected with SARS-CoV-2, and the rate of asymptomatic infections accounted for almost 32% of all SARS-CoV-2 infections. We detected differences in the rates of infection between HCWs and nHCWs. The use of PPE and previous contact with COVID-19 patients were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The aim of the current study was to identify and describe the meal and snack patterns (breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, mid-afternoon snack, dinner and evening snack) of public schoolchildren.
Cross-sectional study. Information on the previous day’s food intake was obtained through the Web-CAAFE (Food Intake and Physical Activity of Schoolchildren), an interactive questionnaire, which divides daily food consumption into three meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) and three snacks (mid-morning, mid-afternoon and evening). Each meal contains thirty-one food items and the schoolchildren clicked on the food items consumed in each meal. Factor analysis was used to identify meal and snack patterns. The descriptions of the dietary patterns (DP) were based on food items with factor loads ≥ 0·30 that were considered representative of each DP.
Schoolchildren, Florianopolis, Brazil.
Children (n 1074) aged 7–13 years.
Lunch was the most consumed meal (96·0 %), followed by dinner (86·4 %), breakfast (85·3 %) and mid-afternoon snack (81·7 %). Four DP were identified for breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, dinner and evening snack, and three for mid-afternoon snack. Breakfast, lunch and dinner patterns included traditional Brazilian foods. DP consisting of fast foods and sugary beverages were also observed, mainly for the evening snack.
The results of the current study provide important information regarding the meal and snack patterns of schoolchildren to guide the development of nutrition interventions in public health.
Alterations in the circadian cycle are known to cause physiological disorders in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal and the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axes in adult individuals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether exposure of pregnant rats to constant light can alter the reproductive system development of male offspring. The dams were divided into two groups: a light–dark group (LD), in which pregnant rats were exposed to an LD photoperiod (12 h/12 h) and a light–light (LL) group, in which pregnant rats were exposed to a photoperiod of constant light during the gestation period. After birth, offspring from both groups remained in the normal LD photoperiod (12 h/12 h) until adulthood. One male of each litter was selected and, at adulthood (postnatal day (PND) 90), the trunk blood was collected to measure plasma testosterone levels, testes and epididymis for sperm count, oxidative stress and histopathological analyses, and the spermatozoa from the vas deferens to perform the morphological and motility analyses. Results showed that a photoperiod of constant light caused a decrease in testosterone levels, epididymal weight and sperm count in the epididymis, seminiferous tubule diameter, Sertoli cell number, and normal spermatozoa number. Histopathological damage was also observed in the testes, and stereological alterations, in the LL group. In conclusion, exposure to constant light during the gestational period impairs the reproductive system of male offspring in adulthood.
Organo-modified clay nanoparticles were mixed at 1 and 5 wt% concentrations with a molten blend of 75 wt% of polylactide (PLA) and 25 wt% poly[(butylene adipate)-co-terephthalate] (PBAT). Three mixing strategies were used to control the localization of nanoclay. Small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) and stress growth tests were conducted to clarify the nanoclay interactions with the blend components and its effect on the molecular relaxation behavior. SAOS and weighted relaxation spectra properties were determined before and after pre-shearing at a rate of 0.01 s−1. Molecular relaxation and its characteristics were influenced by PLA degradation, PBAT droplet coalescence, and nanoclay localization.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Shortfalls in treatment quantity and quality are well-established, but the specific gaps in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are poorly understood. This paper analyzes the gap in treatment coverage for MDD and identifies critical bottlenecks.
Seventeen surveys were conducted across 15 countries by the World Health Organization-World Mental Health Surveys Initiative. Of 35 012 respondents, 3341 met DSM-IV criteria for 12-month MDD. The following components of effective treatment coverage were analyzed: (a) any mental health service utilization; (b) adequate pharmacotherapy; (c) adequate psychotherapy; and (d) adequate severity-specific combination of both.
MDD prevalence was 4.8% (s.e., 0.2). A total of 41.8% (s.e., 1.1) received any mental health services, 23.2% (s.e., 1.5) of which was deemed effective. This 90% gap in effective treatment is due to lack of utilization (58%) and inadequate quality or adherence (32%). Critical bottlenecks are underutilization of psychotherapy (26 percentage-points reduction in coverage), underutilization of psychopharmacology (13-point reduction), inadequate physician monitoring (13-point reduction), and inadequate drug-type (10-point reduction). High-income countries double low-income countries in any mental health service utilization, adequate pharmacotherapy, adequate psychotherapy, and adequate combination of both. Severe cases are more likely than mild-moderate cases to receive either adequate pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy, but less likely to receive an adequate combination.
Decision-makers need to increase the utilization and quality of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Innovations such as telehealth for training and supervision plus non-specialist or community resources to deliver pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy could address these bottlenecks.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
Intermittent food restriction (IFR) is used mainly for weight loss, however, its effects on adipose tissue are not known when alternating with obesogenic diet. To demonstrate its effects on morphological dynamics of fat deposits, female Wistar were distributed into the groups: standard control (ST-C), with commercial diet; DIO control (DIO-C), with a diet that induces obesity (DIO) during the first and last 15 days, replaced by a standard diet for 30 intermediate days; standard restricted (ST-R), with standard diet during the first and last 15 days, with six cycles of IFR at 50% of ST-C; and DIO restricted (DIO-R), in DIO during the first and last 15 days, with six cycles of IFR at 50% of DIO-C. At 105 days of life, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) deposits were collected, weighed and histology performed. IFR groups showed higher food intake (DIO-R: 670.8±31.86kcal/g vs DIO-C: 606.5±26.23kcal/g, p<0.0001), energy efficiency (DIO-R: 3.80±0.15 g/kcal vs DIO-C: 3.26±0.17 g/kcal, p<0.0001), WAT (DIO-R: 5.65±0.30g/100g, ST-R: 3.64±0.23g/100g vs. DIO-C: 4.56±0.30g/100g, ST-C: 2.87±0.31g/100g, p<0.0001) and BAT (DIO-R: 0.13±0.004g/100g vs DIO-C: 0.13±0.005g/100g, p<0.0001) than its respective controls. Furthermore, IFR groups presented hypertrophy of WAT and BAT, as well as fibrosis in BAT. Thus, IFR can establish prospective resistance to weight loss by favoring changes in adipose tissue morphology, increased energy intake, and efficiency. Finally, the DIO diet before and after IFR aggravates the damages caused by the restriction.
Denture-related stomatitis caused by Candida spp. affects elderly individuals using partial/total prosthesis, provoking several discomforts including burning sensation and altered taste. Herein, we have studied 52 denture-wearing individuals (>60 years-old), attended at the dentistry clinic of UNIVALE, aiming to isolate Candida spp. directly from the stomatitis lesions and to evaluate their potential to produce virulence attributes. A low prevalence of denture-related stomatitis was reported in these patients (4/52; 7.7%). Candida albicans was isolated in the 4 selected patients, with the ability to form biofilm over a polystyrene surface and to produce aspartic protease, esterase and hemolysin. However, neither phospholipase nor caseinase activities were detected. Planktonic-growing yeasts were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, while the susceptibility to azoles (fluconazol, itraconazole and voriconazole) varied depending on either the isolate or antifungal. Relevantly, biofilm-forming C. albicans cells exhibited resistance to all studied antifungals. So, new effective drugs against resistant C. albicans isolates causing denture-related stomatitis are urgently required.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most disregarded tropical neglected disease with the occurrence of self-limiting ulcers and triggering mucosal damage and stigmatizing scars, leading to huge public health problems and social negative impacts. Pentavalent antimonials are the first-line drug for CL treatment for over 70 years and present several drawbacks in terms of safety and efficacy. Thus, there is an urgent need to search for non-invasive, non-toxic and potent drug candidates for CL. In this sense, we have implemented a shape-based virtual screening approach and identified a set of 32 hit compounds. In vitro phenotypic screenings were conducted using these hit compounds to check their potential leishmanicidal effect towards Leishmania amazonensis (L. amazonensis). Two (Cp1 and Cp2) out of the 32 compounds revealed promising antiparasitic activities, exhibiting considerable potency against intracellular amastigotes present in peritoneal macrophages (IC50 values of 9.35 and 7.25 μm, respectively). Also, a sterile cidality profile was reached at 20 μm after 48 h of incubation, besides a reasonable selectivity (≈8), quite similarly to pentamidine, a diamidine still in use clinically for leishmaniasis. Cp1 with an oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine scaffold and Cp2 with benzimidazole scaffold could be developed by lead optimization studies to enhance their leishmanicidal potency.
VmCT1 is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) isolated from the venom of the scorpion Vaejovis mexicanus with antimicrobial, anticancer and antimalarial activities, which the rational design with Arg-substitution has yielded AMPs with higher antimicrobial activity than VmCT1. Chagas is a neglected tropical disease, becoming the development of new antichagasic agents is urgent. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the antichagasic effect of VmCT1 and three Arg-substituted analogues, as well their action mechanism. Peptides were tested against the epimastigote, trypomastigote, amastigote forms of Trypanossoma cruzi Y strain and against LLC-MK2 mammalian cells. The mechanism of action of these peptides was evaluated by means of flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy. VmCT1 presented activity against all three forms of T. cruzi, with EC50 against trypomastigote forms of 1.37 μmol L−1 and selectivity index (SI) of 58. [Arg]3-VmCT1, [Arg]7-VmCT1 and [Arg]11-VmCT1 also showed trypanocidal effect, but [Arg]11-VmCT1 had the best effect, being able to decrease the EC50 against trypomastigote forms to 0.8 μmol L−1 and increase SI to 175. Necrosis was cell death pathway of VmCT1, as well [Arg]7-VmCT1 and [Arg]11-VmCT1, such as observed by membrane damage in flow cytometry analyses and scanning-electron-microscopy. In conclusion, [Arg]11-VmCT1 revealed promising as a candidate for new antichagasic therapeutics.