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A higher incidence of psychotic disorders has been consistently reported among black and other minority ethnic groups, particularly in northern Europe. It is unclear whether these rates have changed over time.
We identified all individuals with a first episode psychosis who presented to adult mental health services between 1 May 2010 and 30 April 2012 and who were resident in London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark. We estimated age-and-gender standardised incidence rates overall and by ethnic group, then compared our findings to those reported in the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (ÆSOP) study that we carried out in the same catchment area around 10 years earlier.
From 9109 clinical records we identified 558 patients with first episode psychosis. Compared with ÆSOP, the overall incidence rates of psychotic disorder in southeast London have increased from 49.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 43.6–55.3) to 63.1 (95% CI 57.3–69.0) per 100 000 person-years at risk. However, the overall incidence rate ratios (IRR) were reduced in some ethnic groups: for example, IRR (95% CI) for the black Caribbean group reduced from 6.7 (5.4–8.3) to 2.8 (2.1–3.6) and the ‘mixed’ group from 2.7 (1.8–4.2) to 1.4 (0.9–2.1). In the black African group, there was a negligible difference from 4.1 (3.2–5.3) to 3.5 (2.8–4.5).
We found that incidence rates of psychosis have increased over time, and the IRR varied by the ethnic group. Future studies are needed to investigate more changes over time and determinants of change.
This paper proposes to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel using the photocathodic protection (PCP) method with CdS/PbS/titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the photoanode material. Cadmium sulfide (CdS)/lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dot (QD) heterostructure layered on TiO2 enhanced the photoelectrochemical performance and improved the PCP of 304 stainless steel. The photoanode film can protect 304 stainless steel for a period of upto 3 months against corrosion. This work demonstrates that CdS/PbS/TiO2 tandem heterostructure is a promising durable and stable photoanode, which can protect stainless steel in both dark and illuminated conditions.
This study aims to develop an in vitro co-culture system of in situ goat preantral follicles with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC), evaluating the influence of these cells on follicular growth, rate of activation and morphologically normal follicles. Fragments of ovarian cortex were cultured for 1 or 7 days in the presence of BM-MSC (BM-MSC+) and absence of BM-MSC (BM-MSC−). Histological sections of the fragments were analysed and data were obtained regarding morphological classification, survival rate of morphologically normal follicles and rate of follicular activation. Culture medium on days 1 and 7 was also sampled for nitrite concentration and reduced glutathione activity. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the percentage of morphologically normal follicles in the BM-MSC+ compared with the fresh control only on the seventh day of culture. When comparing treatments, on the seventh day of culture, a higher rate of morphologically normal preantral follicles was observed in BM-MSC+ (P < 0.05). In both treatments, primordial and developing follicle rates were similar to the fresh control (P > 0.05). When comparing treatments with each other, as well as with the fresh control, no differences were observed in follicular diameter (P > 0.05) or nitrite concentration (P > 0.05). The concentration of reduced glutathione was lower on the seventh day of co-culture in both treatments (P < 0.05). In conclusion, co-culture had no influence on follicular or oocyte development. However, it was critical to maintain the survival of preantral follicles during 7 days of culture.
Maladaptive learning linking environmental food cues to high-palatability food reward plays a central role in overconsumption in obesity and binge eating disorders. The process of memory reconsolidation offers a mechanism to weaken such learning, potentially ameliorating over-eating behaviour. Here we investigated whether putatively interfering with synaptic plasticity using the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, could weaken retrieved chocolate reward memories through blockade of reconsolidation
Seventy five healthy volunteers with a tendency to binge eat chocolate were randomised to retrieve chocolate reward memory under 10 mg rapamycin (RET + RAP, active condition), or placebo (RET + PBO), or they received 10 mg rapamycin without subsequent retrieval (NO RET + RAP). Indices of chocolate reward memory strength were assessed one week pre and post manipulation and at one month follow-up.
Contrary to hypotheses, the RET + RAP group did not show any greater reduction than control groups on indices of motivational salience of chocolate cues, motivation to consume chocolate or liking of chocolate. Mild evidence of improvement in the RET + RAP group was found, but this was limited to reduced chocolate binge episodes and improved healthy food choices.
We did not find convincing evidence of comprehensive naturalistic chocolate reward memory reconsolidation blockade by rapamycin. The effects on chocolate bingeing and food choices may warrant further investigation. These limited positive findings may be attributable to insufficient interference with mTOR signalling with 10 mg rapamycin, or failure to destabilise chocolate memories during retrieval.
Capping and shedding of ectodomains in Trypanosoma cruzi may be triggered by different ligands. Here, we analysed the mobility and shedding of cell surface components of living trypomastigotes of the Y strain and the CL Brener clone in the presence of poly-L-lysine, cationized ferritin (CF) and Concanavalin A (Con A). Poly-L-lysine and CF caused intense shedding in Y strain parasites. Shedding was less intense in CL Brener trypomastigotes, and approximately 10% of these parasites did not show any decrease in poly L-lysine or CF labelling. Binding of Con A induced low-intensity shedding in Y strain and redistribution of Con A-binding sites in CL Brener parasites. Trypomastigotes of the Y strain showed intense labelling with anti-〈-galactosyl antibodies, resulting in the lysis of approximately 30% of their population, in contrast with what was observed in CL Brener parasites. Incubation with Con A and CF protected trypomastigotes of the Y strain from lysis by anti-αGal. The last treatment did not interfere with the survival of the CL Brener parasites. This study corroborates with the idea that a ligand can differentially modulate the cell surface of T. cruzi, depending on the strain used, resulting in variable immune system responses and recognition by host cells.
Identification of common weeds and problems with weeds is fundamental to determine adequate recommendations for management practices. The aim of this study was to identify the patterns of weed management adopted by rice farmers and the characteristics of consultants who work in flooded rice areas in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), Brazil. Fifty-three public and fifty private consultants who worked with rice in RS in 2017 and 2018 were interviewed. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Both weedy rice and Echinochloa sp. were the most important species in terms of occurrence and escape from chemical control, since they remained in field until harvest in 59% of the area. According to consultants, the main reasons for reduced weed control were related to herbicide resistance and late herbicide applications. Fifty-six percent of farmers used imidazolinones rates greater than the label in the POST applications. The consultants’ main problems were related to management of weed escapes, resistance management, and guidelines on herbicide rates. Therefore, results show that the use of herbicide rates above the label, and the consultants’ work on control of weed escapes are directly related to the high occurrence of herbicide resistance.
To assess the effect of tranexamic acid on intra-operative bleeding and surgical field visualisation.
Fifty patients undergoing various endoscopic ear surgical procedures, including endoscopic tympanoplasty, endoscopic atticotomy or mastoidectomy, endoscopic ossiculoplasty, and endoscopic stapedotomy, were randomly assigned to: a study group that received tranexamic acid or a control group which received normal saline. The intra-operative bleeding and operative field visualisation was graded using the Das and Mitra endoscopic ear surgery bleeding and field visibility score, which was separately analysed for the external auditory canal and the middle ear.
The Das and Mitra score was better (p < 0.05) in the group that received tranexamic acid as a haemostat when working in the external auditory canal; with respect to the middle ear, no statistically significant difference was found between the two agents. Mean values for mean arterial pressure, heart rate and surgical time were comparable in both groups, with no statistically significant differences.
Tranexamic acid appears to be an effective haemostat in endoscopic ear surgery, thus improving surgical field visualisation, especially during manipulation of the external auditory canal soft tissues.
Compound droplets confined in a microfluidic channel often exhibit intriguing shapes, primarily attributable to complex hydrodynamic interactions over small scales. Here, we show that the effect of electrohydrodynamic interactions may modulate the shape evolution of the same in a somewhat non-trivial manner. By adopting a phase field formalism, our studies reveal that the combined influence of electrohydrodynamics and fluidic confinement eventually culminates towards influencing the droplet transients, distortion of the local field, as well as droplet stabilization or destabilization, allowing one to develop different regimes of shape evolution that are distinct from the ones reported in earlier studies on single droplet dynamics. Under the assumption of negligible fluid inertia and small shape deformation, we also develop an asymptotic model to predict the transient as well as the steady-state behaviour of the compound droplet for the limiting case of an unbounded suspending medium. The relative magnitude of the permittivity and conductivity of the system, in conjunction with the channel confinement, is seen to play an important role in altering the deformation characteristics of either of the interfaces. We further observe that, depending on these electrical properties, the inner droplet, if eccentrically located, may exhibit a to-and-fro or a simple translational motion. Remarkably, below a threshold confinement dimension, we unravel the onset of a definitive translational motion of the inner droplet instead of a more intuitive to-and-fro motion, thereby rendering its migration characteristics to be independent of any electrical properties. Furthermore, the viscosity contrast of the fluid phase also plays a vital role in controlling the motion and deformation dynamics of the droplet in both confined and unbounded domains. These results may bear far-reaching consequences towards understanding the control of cellular dynamics in confined in vivo physiological passages by introducing embedded electrical chips, as well as electrohydrodynamically modulated lab-on-a-chip devices for medical diagnostics on a cellular level.
To compare the microbiological profile, clinical course and outcome of acute diarrhoea in children aged <5 years having severe acute malnutrition (SAM) with those of children having normal nutritional status.
Cross-sectional comparative study.
Tertiary-care hospital catering mainly to the urban poor of East Delhi, India.
Children aged <5 years (n 140; seventy with SAM (cases) and seventy with normal anthropometry (controls)) with acute diarrhoea (duration < 14 d). Stool samples were collected for conventional culture, microscopy, acid-fast staining, rotavirus and Cryptosporidium antigen detection, and subtyping of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). We followed-up these children for persistent diarrhoea and subsequent diarrhoeal episode in the next 3 months.
Rotavirus was detected in six (9 %) cases and in fifteen (21 %) controls (P = 0·03; OR = 0·34; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·94). DEC was isolated significantly more in cases compared with controls (93 v. 64 %; P < 0·001; OR = 7·25; 95 % CI 2·57, 20·4). Cryptosporidium was detected in seven (10 %) cases and five (7 %) controls. Total duration of diarrhoea and percentage change in weight after resolution of diarrhoea were comparable between cases and controls. At 3-month follow-up, number of subsequent episodes of diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea were comparable between the two groups.
Rotavirus was found significantly less frequently, whereas DEC was detected more frequently in children with SAM in comparison to non-malnourished children. To further reduce diarrhoea-related mortality, preventive and therapeutic interventions need to be designed against organisms causing diarrhoea in children with SAM.
To analyse usual intakes of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients, and their percentage of inadequacy, in a Brazilian population at severe food insecurity (SFI) risk, determined from a predictive model using two national databases.
Cross-sectional study. Our study used a statistical model to predict SFI using the 2009 National Sample Household Survey, where the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale measured SFI.
The model was applied in a probabilistic sample of 34 003 Brazilians aged 10 years or older that participated in a national dietary survey during 2008–2009. The application of the model generated the probability of each individual being in SFI. The probability of SFI was grouped into quartiles (first quartile with the lowest SFI risk, fourth quartile with highest probability of SFI risk).
The intakes of macro- and micronutrients were associated with SFI. The amount of energy and nutrients in the diet tended to be lower among individuals in the fourth quartile, with highest probability of SFI. The average intake of all studied minerals (Ca, Fe, Na, Mg) was less in individuals in the fourth quartile. Only Na presented a higher percentage of inadequacy in the first quartile, the one with a lower chance of SFI.
The food intake of the Brazilian population at higher SFI risk is characterized by energy reduction, reduced consumption of macronutrients and high prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, as well as a lower mean intakes, when compared with the first quartile with the lowest SFI risk.
Multiple sulphur isotope compositions of sedimentary pyrites across the Ediacaran–Cambrian (Ed–C) transition and into the early Cambrian from the Xiaotan section, Yunnan, South China, are presented to explore the evolution of the sulphur cycle. The values of δ34Spy range from 13.5 ‰ to 35.8 ‰, and the values of Δ33Spy range from −0.044 ‰ to 0.063 ‰. The first-order observation of highly positive δ34Spy is consistent with sulphur isotope records from other sedimentary successions (with various degrees of enrichment in 34S), reflecting a common feature in cycling of sulphur among ocean basins. The positive values suggest that pyrite was formed in a depositional setting with limiting availability of sulphate that suppressed the expression of microbial fractionations. The first-order observation of a 10-million-year period of negative Δ33Spy beginning around the Ed–C boundary likely reflects changes in isotopic compositions of sulphur influx to the oceans. Such changes are suggested to be linked to a pulse of preferred weathering of sulphides (with negative Δ33S) relative to sulphate, which may reflect enhanced exposure of pyrites in continental margins due to reorganization of continents at this time. Both δ34Spy and Δ33Spy data imply low seawater sulphate levels, and possibly heterogeneity in sulphate concentrations in the world’s coastal oceans. The predictions about sulphur isotope signatures of evolved seawater (with highly positive δ34S and negative Δ33S) at the Xiaotan section are testable with future measurements of carbonate-associated sulphate (CAS), a proxy of ancient oceanic sulphate that carries information about the operation of sulphur cycling on a global scale.
Design fixation refers to blind adherence to a set of ideas, which can limit the output of conceptual design. Engineering designers tend to fixate on features of pre-existing solutions and consequently generate designs with similar features. The objective of this study is to leverage functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the brain activity of engineering designers during conceptual design in order to understand whether/where design fixation can be detected in a person’s brain when solving design problems. Design solutions indicated that fixation effects were detectable at a statistically significant level. fMRI results show increased activation in areas associated with visuospatial processing when comparing ideation activities using an Example solution to No Example solution. Activation was found in the right inferior temporal gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule regions. The left lingual and superior frontal gyri were found to be less active in the example condition; these gyri are close in proximity to the prefrontal cortex, associated with creative output. The spatial patterns of activation provide evidence that a shift in mental resources can occur when a designer becomes fixated. For designers, the timing of ideation relative to the timing of benchmarking existing solutions should be considered.
We analyse the structure of equilibria of a coagulation–fragmentation–death model of silicosis. We present exact multiplicity results in the particular case of piecewise constant coefficients, results on existence and non-existence of equilibria in the general case, as well as precise asymptotics for the infinite series that arise in the case of power law coefficients.
The BW has been largely used as a selection criterion in genetic selection programmes; however, increases in BW can affect animal metabolism and metabolites. The knowledge of how genetic potential for growth affects the metabolites can give a footprint of growth metabolism. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic potential for post-weaning growth (GG) on performance, carcass traits and serum metabolome of non-castrated Nellore males during the finishing phase. Forty-eight Nellore non-castrated males, with divergent potential for post-weaning growth, were selected and divided into two groups: high potential for post-weaning growth (HG; n = 24) and low potential for post-weaning growth (LG; n = 24). Animals were kept and fed for 90 days where performance and ultrasound carcass traits were evaluated. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of feeding period to analyse serum metabolites concentration. The hot carcass weight and dressing percentage were recorded at slaughter. The feedlot performance and carcass traits were not affected by genetic potential. The HG animals had a lower glucose (P = 0.039), glutamate (P = 0.038), glutamine (P = 0.004), greater betaine (P = 0.039) and pyruvate (P = 0.039) compared to the LG group at the beginning of feedlot. In addition, higher creatine phosphate concentrations were observed at the beginning of feeding period, compared to final, for both groups (P = 0.039). In conclusion, the genetic potential for post-weaning growth does not affect performance and carcass traits during the finishing period. Differences in metabolite concentrations can be better found at the beginning of feedlot, providing a footprint of growth metabolism, but similar metabolite concentration at the end of finishing period.
Previous studies have indicated that people with social anxiety disorder (SAD) often experience spontaneous, recurrent images (SRI). It was assumed that Koreans with interdependent self-views may contain more features related to social contexts in their self-images than those reported in Western cultures.
In the present study, we aimed to explore the prevalence and content of SRIs in individuals with SAD in Korea. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between features of SRIs and variables of SAD.
Sixty-four individuals with SAD (27.00 ± 7.42 years, 64.1% female), diagnosed with SAD, completed self-report questionnaires related to social anxiety. Afterwards, a semi-structured interview was used to assess features and content of the individuals’ SRI.
Thirty (47%) of the participants reported experiencing SRIs in social situations. The content of the SRIs were classified under three themes: negative self-images, negative images of others, and abstract images. The distress level of SRIs was positively associated with social phobia scales (r = .385, p < .05) and physical anxiety symptoms (r = .478, p < .05). Frequency of SRIs was positively associated with avoidance scores (r = .402, p < .05).
The results demonstrated differences in the prevalence and content of the SRIs between Western and non-Western cultures. Fewer individuals with SAD in Korea reported having SRIs, and the content of these SRIs involved people other than the self. Some features of SRIs were associated with variables of SAD.
Quantifying the abundance of species is essential for their management and conservation. Much effort has been invested in surveys of freshwater dolphins in the Amazon basin but river dimensions and complex logistics limit replication of such studies across the region. We evaluated the effectiveness of using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying two Amazon dolphin species, the tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis and pink river dolphin Inia geoffrensis, in tropical rivers. In 2016 we conducted drone and visual surveys over 80 km of the Juruá River in Brazil. The aerial surveys provided higher accuracy than human observers in counting individuals detected in groups. Compared to estimates derived from visual surveys, the use of UAVs could provide a more feasible, economical and accurate estimate of Amazon river dolphin populations. The method could potentially be replicated in other important areas for the conservation of these species, to generate an improved index of river dolphin populations in the Amazon.
The article analyzes how Brazil has become an increasingly active voice for liberalization within global spheres of agricultural governance. With the focus on domestic institutional developments, we identify the gradual materialization of an agro-export policy network consisting of public and private actors. We conduct a periodization of the overarching phases of the policy network's development, from its incipient formation during the Uruguay Round to a high degree of organizational refinement in the new millennium. Through analysis of its external linkages, internal structure, and the distribution of resources, we examine how this network became an absolutely central factor in spurring the offensive orientation and assertive engagement of Brazil within the global agricultural policy arena. We thereby provide a domestically rooted explanation for the rise of Brazil as a central agricultural ‘player’, with the focus on the collective agency capacity of public and private stakeholders.
This cross-sectional study analysed data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011 to investigate factors associated with diabetes in Bangladesh. Data were analysed using logistic and log-binomial regressions to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and prevalence ratios (PRs), respectively. Among the 7544 respondents aged ≥35 years, the estimated prevalence of diabetes was 11.0%. In the adjusted analysis, survey participants in the age group 55–64 years (adjusted PR [APR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.4, 2.2; adjusted OR [AOR]: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.5) and those with at least secondary education level (APR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6; AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.7) were more likely to have diabetes than those in the age group 35–44 years and those with no education. Furthermore, respondents living in Khulna (APR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.6; AOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.6) were less likely to have diabetes than people living in Barisal. While adjusted estimates of PR and OR were similar in terms of significance of association, the magnitude of the point estimate was attenuated in PR compared with the OR. Nevertheless, the measured factors still had a significant association with diabetes in Bangladesh. The results of this study suggest that Bangladeshi adults would benefit from increased education on, and awareness of, the risk factors for diabetes. Focused public health intervention should target these high-risk populations.
In this paper, we consider exponentiated location-scale model and obtain several ordering results between extreme order statistics in various senses. Under majorization type partial order-based conditions, the comparisons are established according to the usual stochastic order, hazard rate order and reversed hazard rate order. Multiple-outlier models are considered. When the number of components are equal, the results are obtained based on the ageing faster order in terms of the hazard rate and likelihood ratio orders. For unequal number of components, we develop comparisons according to the usual stochastic order, hazard rate order, and likelihood ratio order. Numerical examples are considered to illustrate the results.