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Cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD) is increased in patients with schizophrenia. It is important to establish if this is explained by non-causal factors, such as shared genetic vulnerability. We aimed to investigate whether the polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders would predict CUD in controls, patients with schizophrenia, and patients with other psychiatric disorders.
We linked nationwide Danish registers and genetic information obtained from dried neonatal bloodspots in an observational analysis. We included people with schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders, and controls. The exposures of interest were the PRS for schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) autism spectrum disorder, and anorexia nervosa. The main outcome of interest was the diagnosis of CUD.
The study included 88 637 individuals. PRS for schizophrenia did not predict CUD in controls [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI 0.95–1.43 per standard-deviation increase in PRS, or HR = 1.47, 95% CI 0.72–3.00 comparing highest v. remaining decile], but PRS for ADHD did (HR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.08–1.50 per standard-deviation increase, or HR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.27–3.22 for the highest decile of PRS). Among cases with schizophrenia, the PRS for schizophrenia was associated with CUD. While CUD was a strong predictor of schizophrenia (HR = 4.91, 95% CI 4.36–5.53), the inclusion of various PRS did not appreciably alter this association.
The PRS for schizophrenia was not associated with CUD in controls or patients with other psychiatric disorders than schizophrenia. This speaks against the hypothesis that shared genetic vulnerability would explain the association between cannabis and schizophrenia.
Thomas Pynchon has so carefully guarded his privacy that relatively little is known for certain about his personal life. He evidently prefers to have readers focus on his fiction rather than on himself. His principled determination to avoid personal publicity has led to his routinely, but inaccurately, being described as a recluse, has sparked some bizarre rumors – that he was J. D. Salinger, or the Unabomber – and has provoked some spiteful and self-serving revelations. After defying the norms of celebrity culture for decades, Pynchon does seem to have let down his guard a bit: In 2004 he mocked his own reputation as a “reclusive author” by voicing a caricature of himself with a brown paper bag over his head in two episodes of The Simpsons, and in 2009 he narrated a promotional video for his novel Inherent Vice.
A famous image from The Crying of Lot 49 (1966) – in which Oedipa Maas compares the concealed communication of a suburban “sprawl of houses” to that of a “printed circuit” board (CL 24) – sets the tone for Thomas Pynchon’s writing on real estate as much as on computing. Both these fields have grown during Pynchon’s writing career; both have come to represent systems of control throughout his writing. In his latest novel, Bleeding Edge (2013), real estate and urban planning along with the integration of computing into personal and relational spaces reappear, two twenty-first-century digital natives (sons of the female protagonist Maxine Tarnow) merging the fields at a deeper level than Oedipa’s superficial pattern recognition had done. In Pynchon’s latest analysis of human agency, both urban planning and IT infrastructure remain central; they become either loci of control, contested spaces, or places of resistance, depending on who builds, buys, uses, or reclaims the city – be it real or virtual.
During the family reunion in Vineland (1990) that resolves the novel’s action, protagonist daughter Prairie Wheeler notes she is “[f]eeling totally familied out” (VL 374). After finishing Pynchon’s novels, especially those after Gravity’s Rainbow (1973), readers, too, could feel totally familied out. The adventures of a variety of families and family-like groups are important in each novel. However, this significance has been overlooked by scholarly readers – understandably, with so much else of academic interest to puzzle out in the books. Pynchon’s “decentered subjectivity,” well described by McHale, has caused readers to attend to unusual, “postmodern” aspects of Pynchon’s fiction at the expense of traditional aspects such as families. Yet the early novels feature children and neglectful parents, and in the novels after Gravity’s Rainbow, families become increasingly central and noticeable. The action from Vineland on often illustrates troubled families remedying their troubles. Families or family-like groups (such as cults) appear in all Pynchon’s main plots, even when family members are conspicuous by various forms of absence. Ongoing thematic concerns of Pynchon’s like alienation, the attraction to death, the perils of science, the power of history, and the limits of knowledge are expressed through parents and children. The following reviews the secondary literature on families in Pynchon, surveys specific instances of families, considers the significance of Pynchon’s families for his vision of American culture, and examines families in relation to pedagogy.
Thomas Pynchon has long had a place in the pantheon of Great American Writers. His status lies in the scope of his work – the number of publications, the prodigious detail and expansiveness of his topics – as well as the sheer quality of his writing, all of which quickly led to comparisons with Herman Melville and James Joyce. His writing is widely taught (as part of required literature survey courses at universities, for example), and remains the subject of many scholarly articles, dissertations, and monographs not just in the United States and other English-speaking countries, as one might expect, but also across Europe and Asia. According to the database of publications compiled on Vheissu.net, more than 400 doctoral dissertations have been accepted and more than 100 monographs and essay collections published on his writing already, mostly in English but also in other languages such as Spanish, Italian, and German, with a handful from publishers in Korea, China, and Japan. However, Pynchon is not just a canonical writer within scholarly research and teaching communities. Because of their scope and imaginative richness, his novels also have great appeal outside academia, and many devoted readers share their interest in his novels on websites dedicated to exploring his work. It is to help all such readers and students that Thomas Pynchon in Context brings together forty-four essays by some of the foremost specialists in the field, providing the most comprehensive resource yet published on the many ways in which his writing engages the wider world.
“Narratology” is a term coined by Tzvetan Todorov for the structuralist brand of narrative theory he and various Parisian colleagues started developing in the mid-1960s. “Classical narratology,” as it has now come to be called, primarily searched for narrative universals, but in the process it also provided critics with a handy toolkit for the study of any literary narrative. Thanks to the work of Gérard Genette, for instance, the concept of “focalization” now helps us to be precise when describing the (possibly varying) perspective on characters and events in a story. More recent work in “postclassical narratology” (a term proposed by David Herman in 1999) tries to overcome the flaws of its predecessor by paying attention “to the historicity and contextuality of modes of narrative representation as well as to its pragmatic function across various media, while research into narrative universals has been extended to cover narrative’s cognitive and epistemological functions.” As a result, the classical toolkit is also under scrutiny, but it does still keep the proliferation of new approaches to narrative together. If, for instance, the notion of the narrator has to be adjusted for the medium of film, that does not mean it simply goes out of the window.
Persons diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have an increased risk of suicidal behaviour, but the pathway remains to be thoroughly explored.
To determine whether persons with ADHD are more likely to present with suicidal behaviour (i.e. suicide attempts and deaths by suicide) if they have a comorbid psychiatric disorder.
Using nationwide registers covering the entire population of Denmark, this cohort study of 2.9 million individuals followed from 1 January 1995 until 31 December 2014, covers more than 46 million person-years. All persons aged ≥10 years with Danish-born parents were identified and persons with a diagnosis of ADHD were compared with persons without. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated by Poisson regression, with adjustments for sociodemographics and parental suicidal behaviour.
Persons with ADHD were followed for 164 113 person-years and 697 suicidal outcomes were observed. This group was found to have an IRR of suicidal behaviour of 4.7 (95% CI, 4.3–5.1) compared with those without ADHD. Persons with ADHD only had a 4.1-fold higher rate (95% CI, 3.5–4.7) when compared with those without any psychiatric diagnoses. For persons with ADHD and comorbid disorders the IRR was higher yet (IRR: 10.4; 95% CI, 9.5–11.4).
This study underlines the link between ADHD and an elevated rate of suicidal behaviour, which is significantly elevated by comorbid psychiatric disorders. In sum, these results suggest that persons with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders are targets for suicide preventive interventions.
System software subsystems in an unmanned aircraft system share hardware resources due to space, weight, and power constraints. Such subsystems have different criticality, requirements, and failure rates, and can cause undesired interference when sharing the same hardware. A component with high failure rate can reduce the reliability of the system unless a fault containment mechanism is adopted.
This work proposes an asymmetric multiprocessor architecture to establish isolation at the hardware level for distributed implementation of safety-critical subsystems along with user defined payload subsystems on the same hardware with minimally reduced reliability of the system. To achieve that, subsystems are strategically segregated in separate processors, connected to an on-chip protective interconnect for inter-processor communications. A custom watchdog and reset mechanism are implemented to reset a specific processor without affecting the entire system if required. The architecture is demonstrated on a FPGA chip. In addition, an example of an optimised distribution is provided for a specific flight control system with five subsystems.
Thomas Pynchon in Context guides students, scholars and other readers through the global scope and prolific imagination of Pynchon's challenging, canonical work, providing the most up-to-date and authoritative scholarly analyses of his writing. This book is divided into three parts. The first, 'Times and Places', sets out the history and geographical contexts both for the setting of Pynchon's novels and his own life. The second, 'Culture, Politics and Society', examines twenty important and recurring themes which most clearly define Pynchon's writing - ranging from ideas in philosophy and the sciences to humor and pop culture. The final part, 'Approaches and Readings', outlines and assesses ways to read and understand Pynchon. Consisting of Forty-four essays written by some of the world's leading scholars, this volume outlines the most important contexts for understanding Pynchon's writing and helps readers interpret and reference his literary work.
Non-fasting TAG – postprandial lipaemia (PPL) – are to a higher degree associated with cardiovascular risk compared with fasting TAG. Dietary protein, especially whey proteins (WP), may lower PPL. We hypothesised that a WP pre-meal (17·6 g protein) consumed 15 v. 30 min before a fat-rich meal reduces the PPL response in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and that a WP pre-meal has more potent effects than casein and gluten pre-meals. A total of sixteen subjects with the MetS completed an acute, randomised, crossover trial. WP pre-meals were consumed 15 and 30 min, and casein and gluten 15 min before a fat-rich meal. Blood samples were drawn 360 min postprandially to determine metabolite and hormone responses, S-paracetamol (for assessment of gastric emptying) and amino acids. Insulin and glucagon responses were affected by both timing and protein type (for all P <0·01), with significantly higher concentrations for WP given at –15 min than WP at –30 min and higher responses compared with gluten for the first 30 min after pre-meal consumption (for all P <0·05). The PPL responses changed neither by timing nor by protein type. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide but not glucagon-like peptide 1 responses differed between the three protein types. S-paracetamol concentration was higher for WP (–30 min) than for WP (–15 min) 15 min after the main meal (P = 0·028), and higher for casein and gluten than for WP at time point 30 min (for all P <0·05). In conclusion, the PPL response was not changed by ingestion of a 17·6 g protein pre-meal, whereas both timing and protein quality affected hormone secretion (insulin and glucagon).
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders have been proposed as precursors of bipolar disorder, but their joint and relative roles in the development of bipolar disorder are unknown.
To test the prospective relationship of ADHD and anxiety with onset of bipolar disorder.
We examined the relationship between ADHD, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder in a birth cohort of 2 409 236 individuals born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991. Individuals were followed from their sixteenth birthday or from January 1995 to their first clinical contact for bipolar disorder or until December 2012. We calculated incidence rates per 10 000 person-years and tested the effects of prior diagnoses on the risk of bipolar disorder in survival models.
Over 37 394 865 person-years follow-up, 9250 onsets of bipolar disorder occurred. The incidence rate of bipolar disorder was 2.17 (95% CI 2.12–2.19) in individuals with no prior diagnosis of ADHD or anxiety, 23.86 (95% CI 19.98–27.75) in individuals with a prior diagnosis of ADHD only, 26.05 (95% CI 24.47–27.62) in individuals with a prior diagnosis of anxiety only and 66.16 (95% CI 44.83–87.47) in those with prior diagnoses of both ADHD and anxiety. The combination of ADHD and anxiety increased the risk of bipolar disorder 30-fold (95% CI 21.66–41.40) compared with those with no prior ADHD or anxiety.
Early manifestations of both internalising and externalising psychopathology indicate liability to bipolar disorder. The combination of ADHD and anxiety is associated with a very high risk of bipolar disorder.
I present evolutionary tracks and curves of constant central hydrogen abundance in diagrams based on frequencies of high-order, low-degree p modes. For stars with masses between 0.7 and 1.5 M⊙, a clean separation is obtained between the effects of varying mass and varying evolutionary state.
The purpose of the present paper is to give an introduction to the nomenclature, and a few of the results, of helio- and asteroseismology. It is hoped that this may provide a useful background for the more specialized reviews, and the contributed papers, in these proceedings. Other recent, general reviews are, e.g., Deubner & Gough (1984), Leibacher et al (1985), and Christensen-Dalsgaard et al (1985a).
We present results of an on-going effort to identify the minimum level of systematic, purely numerical differences in low-mass stellar models on the Red Giant Branch, by comparing models in selected phases for pre-defined physical input assumptions.