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The false codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an insect pest which represents an important threat to the production and marketing of a wide range of agricultural crops in the African-Caribbean-Pacific (ACP) countries. The FCM reduces not only the yield and quality of the crop but also as a quarantine insect pest, restricts the trade of susceptible agricultural produce on the international market. In addition, little research has been conducted in the ACP countries on the bio-ecology and sustainable management of this pest, especially on vegetables for export. Thus, action-oriented research aimed at understanding the bio-ecology of this important pest is essential to achieve effective management. Various management interventions against this pest have been used in some parts of the world, especially in South Africa on citrus. Currently, farm sanitation is regarded as the key management strategy. Exploring and improving on other interventions such as Sterile Insect Technique, monitoring and mass trapping of male moths, augmentative biological control, use of bio-pesticides, protected cultivation and cold treatment may help to mitigate the expansion of FCM into other countries, especially in the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization region where it has become a regulated insect pest since 2014. This review discussed the bio-ecology of FCM and highlighted some of the challenges and opportunities for its effective management and its implication for international trade, especially the export of chillies from the ACP countries into the European Union market which requires strict phytosanitary regulations.
Obtaining objective, dietary exposure information from individuals is challenging because of the complexity of food consumption patterns and the limitations of self-reporting tools (e.g., FFQ and diet diaries). This hinders research efforts to associate intakes of specific foods or eating patterns with population health outcomes.
Dietary exposure can be assessed by the measurement of food-derived chemicals in urine samples. We aimed to develop methodologies for urine collection that minimised impact on the day-to-day activities of participants but also yielded samples that were data-rich in terms of targeted biomarker measurements.
Urine collection methodologies were developed within home settings.
Different cohorts of free-living volunteers.
Home collection of urine samples using vacuum transfer technology was deemed highly acceptable by volunteers. Statistical analysis of both metabolome and selected dietary exposure biomarkers in spot urine collected and stored using this method showed that they were compositionally similar to urine collected using a standard method with immediate sample freezing. Even without chemical preservatives, samples can be stored under different temperature regimes without any significant impact on the overall urine composition or concentration of forty-six exemplar dietary exposure biomarkers. Importantly, the samples could be posted directly to analytical facilities, without the need for refrigerated transport and involvement of clinical professionals.
This urine sampling methodology appears to be suitable for routine use and may provide a scalable, cost-effective means to collect urine samples and to assess diet in epidemiological studies.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: BURRITO is an efficient strategy that provides full disclosure in the electronic medical record of a patient’s preference in real time. BURRITO uses printed materials only to inform patients and has a <50% rates of consent. We hypothesized that adding an informational video to the printed materials would increase donations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study was IRB-approved and was considered minimal risk. The BURRITO self-consent workflow process (Soares et. al, Biopreservation and Biobanking, IN PRINT) was developed in an outpatient cardiology clinic. In the same clinic, patients were randomized to receiving printed materials only (standard procedure) or the printed materials plus a 2.5-minute informational video (intervention) while waiting for the physician in the exam room. Randomization occurred at the level of the day in clinic. Patients were blinded to the nature of the study. Following the presentation of information, the patient’s decision on consent for donation was documented in the electronic record by ancillary clinical staff. Rates of consent were analyzed by a statistician not involved in the experiment and after completion of trial. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Thirty-five clinic days were randomized to either intervention (17 days) or standard (18 days), and a total of 255 patients decided during their visit to either “opt-in” or “opt-out” to donating remnant biospecimens for future research. One hundred patients opted to defer deciding (28%). No significant demographic differences were noted between the study arms. The rate of consent was 73% vs. 58% in the intervention group and the control group, respectively (p-value = 0.014). This represents an increase in the odds of consenting with an informational video by 96% (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.15 to 3.34). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This is the first randomized trial to show that an informational video with printed materials is superior for when patients are self-consenting to opt-in for clinical remnant biospecimen donation. This result adds to the evidence that the BURRITO process plus video (BURRITOv) is an effective approach for biospecimen universal consenting.
For patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, a traditional fist-bump greeting did not significantly reduce MRSA transfer in comparison to a handshake. However, transfer was reduced with a modified fist bump that minimized the surface area of contact and when hand hygiene was performed before the handshake.
Acute change in mental status (ACMS), defined by the Confusion Assessment Method, is used to identify infections in nursing home residents. A medical record review revealed that none of 15,276 residents had an ACMS documented. Using the revised McGeer criteria with a possible ACMS definition, we identified 296 residents and 21 additional infections. The use of a possible ACMS definition should be considered for retrospective nursing home infection surveillance.
In recent years an enhanced catabolism of serine, with or without the existence of porphyria, has been demonstrated in relation to a specific subtype of psychosis, according to ICD-10 criteria, the acute polymorphic psychosis with or without symptoms of schizophrenia. Since sensory perceptual distortions play a key role in the symptomatology, patients with this disorder are referred to as Acute Polymorphic Psychosis plus psychosensory phenomena (APP+). In a retrospective study, including a total of 140 chronic psychiatric patients, we investigated the prevalence of Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP) and APP+. No subjects with AIP were found. In two patients APP+ could be demonstrated, based on both clinical characteristics and positive biochemical markers, ie lowered plasma serine concentration and increased TSM-ratio (100 × Taurine (μmol/l)/Serine concentration * Methionine concentration). In three patients the psychotic disorder was suspected to be present. It is concluded that careful psychiatric diagnosing may reveal specific psychotic disorders with a distinct biological pathogenetic factor, ie a disturbed serine metabolism.
Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is an amphetamine derivative that is used recreationally and is now being tested in clinical trials for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Ecstasy can damage serotonin neurones in brain of experimental animals; however, relevance of these findings to the human is debated.
To measure by positron emission tomography (PET) levels of binding to the serotonin transporter (SERT), a marker of serotonin neurones, in brain of chronic ecstasy users and in matched controls.
An estimate of brain SERT levels was obtained, using the PET tracer 11C-DASB, in 50 chronic (confirmed by drug hair testing) ecstasy users (mean age, 26 years; mean duration of drug use, 3.9 years; median drug withdrawal time, 38 days) and 50 (drug-hair negative) control subjects (mean age 26 years).
SERT binding levels in the ecstasy group were significantly decreased by 22 to 46% in frontal, temporal, cingulate, insular and occipital cortices, and by 23% in hippocampus. However, concentrations were distinctly normal in the SERT-rich caudate, putamen, ventral striatum and thalamus.
Our imaging data suggest that cerebral cortical SERT concentration is below normal in some ecstasy users for at least one month after last use of the drug. However, it remains to be established whether low SERT might have preceded drug use, reflects actual loss of brain serotonin neurones, or is causally related to any functional impairment in the ecstasy users. (Supported by US NIH NIDA DA017301).
OCD can be a debilitating condition. Major life events can often cause exacerbations. Attempting to conceive, pregnancy and the post partum period are all stressful times in a prospective mother's life. The onset of, or the worsening of OCD at this time can have a dramatic impact upon the life of a mother, a child and the whole family. Maternal OCD effects 3% of new mothers – apporximately 20 000 new mothers in the UK each year. It is often poorly recognised by health care professionals. Stigma of mental illness and of the nature of the intrusive thoughts often seen with maternal OCD can make it difficult for mothers to access help. Even when they do access help, the condition can be poorly understood.
This presentation will look at how maternal OCD can present. It will give key areas to explore to ensure that assessment addresses not just OCD, but the specific concerns that occur for mothers with OCD in the perinatal period. We will look at the impacts of maternal OCD on the mother, the baby and the wider family. We will look at what interventions work for this specific client group and where does the evidence base lie. We will look at pharmacological interentions, psychological interventions and social interventions for mothers and the family.
Finally we will look at the importance of peer support as provided by an online charitable organisation such as Maternal OCD and explore the utility of such social support for familes experiencing maternal OCD.
Depression is among the most common mental illnesses in Canada. Although many factors contribute to depression, stress is among the most commonly reported. Studies suggest that marginalized groups often experience high levels of stress.
To examine associations between ethnicity and depressive symptoms among university students.
To identify if ethnic groups, particularly Aboriginal students, are at greater risk of depression.
Online survey data were collected from students attending eight universities in the Canadian Maritime Provinces (n = 10,180). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Ethnicity was organized into five groups: Caucasian only, Aboriginal only, Aboriginals with other ethnicities, Mixed Ethnicity (not including Aboriginal), and Other (single ethnicity not including Aboriginal or Caucasian). Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess associations between ethnicity and elevated depressive symptoms. Adjusted models accounted for demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioural characteristics.
In adjusted analyses for men, Mixed (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.12–3.63) and Other ethnic students (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.11–1.96) were more likely to have elevated depressive symptoms than Caucasians. There were no differences between those who were Aboriginal and those who were Caucasian. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses for women, depressive symptoms in ethnic groups (including Aboriginals) were not significantly different from Caucasians.
Among male university students in the Maritime, ethnicity (other than being Aboriginal) was associated with depressive symptoms in comparison to Caucasians, after adjusting for covariates. However, among women, ethnicity was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Over the past decade, a growing interest has developed on the archaeology, palaeontology, and palaeoenvironments of the Arabian Peninsula. It is now clear that hominins repeatedly dispersed into Arabia, notably during pluvial interglacial periods when much of the peninsula was characterised by a semiarid grassland environment. During the intervening glacial phases, however, grasslands were replaced with arid and hyperarid deserts. These millennial-scale climatic fluctuations have subjected bones and fossils to a dramatic suite of environmental conditions, affecting their fossilisation and preservation. Yet, as relatively few palaeontological assemblages have been reported from the Pleistocene of Arabia, our understanding of the preservational pathways that skeletal elements can take in these types of environments is lacking. Here, we report the first widespread taxonomic and taphonomic assessment of Arabian fossil deposits. Novel fossil fauna are described and overall the fauna are consistent with a well-watered semiarid grassland environment. Likewise, the taphonomic results suggest that bones were deposited under more humid conditions than present in the region today. However, fossils often exhibit significant attrition, obscuring and fragmenting most finds. These are likely tied to wind abrasion, insolation, and salt weathering following fossilisation and exhumation, processes particularly prevalent in desert environments.
The contemporary post-truth environment imposes limitations and ethical consid erations upon the political theatre-maker’s ability to highlight political leaders’ exceptional acts of deception. By unpacking and applying Giorgio Agamben’s writing on the State of Exception to post-truth political performances, Alex D. Wilson discusses in this article how political deception is an exceptional act of sovereign power and how the state of exception is an inherently performative phenomenon. The inherent challenges this state of affairs presents to the theatre are discussed with particular reference to David Hare’s Stuff Happens (2004), which, it is argued, falls into its own state of exception in terms of its approach to truth. Alex D. Wilson is a PhD candidate in Theatre Studies at the University of Otago, who recently completed an MA which explored ethical authorship of British theatrical work produced in response to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. He is the artistic director of Arcade, a Dunedin-based performing arts company.
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequently reported hospital-acquired infection in the United States. Bioaerosols generated during toilet flushing are a possible mechanism for the spread of this pathogen in clinical settings.
To measure the bioaerosol concentration from toilets of patients with CDI before and after flushing.
In this pilot study, bioaerosols were collected 0.15 m, 0.5 m, and 1.0 m from the rims of the toilets in the bathrooms of hospitalized patients with CDI. Inhibitory, selective media were used to detect C. difficile and other facultative anaerobes. Room air was collected continuously for 20 minutes with a bioaerosol sampler before and after toilet flushing. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to assess the difference in bioaerosol production before and after flushing.
Rooms of patients with CDI at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.
Bacteria were positively cultured from 8 of 24 rooms (33%). In total, 72 preflush and 72 postflush samples were collected; 9 of the preflush samples (13%) and 19 of the postflush samples (26%) were culture positive for healthcare-associated bacteria. The predominant species cultured were Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and C. difficile. Compared to the preflush samples, the postflush samples showed significant increases in the concentrations of the 2 large particle-size categories: 5.0 µm (P = .0095) and 10.0 µm (P = .0082).
Bioaerosols produced by toilet flushing potentially contribute to hospital environmental contamination. Prevention measures (eg, toilet lids) should be evaluated as interventions to prevent toilet-associated environmental contamination in clinical settings.
Psychotropic prescription rates continue to increase in the United States (USA). Few studies have investigated whether social-structural factors may play a role in psychotropic medication use independent of mental illness. Food insecurity is prevalent among people living with HIV in the USA and has been associated with poor mental health. We investigated whether food insecurity was associated with psychotropic medication use independent of the symptoms of depression and anxiety among women living with HIV in the USA.
We used cross-sectional data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a nationwide cohort study. Food security (FS) was the primary explanatory variable, measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. First, we used multivariable linear regressions to test whether FS was associated with symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CESD] score), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7 score) and mental health-related quality of life (MOS-HIV Mental Health Summary score; MHS). Next, we examined associations of FS with the use of any psychotropic medications, including antidepressants, sedatives and antipsychotics, using multivariable logistic regressions adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education and alcohol and substance use. In separate models, we additionally adjusted for symptoms of depression (CESD score) and anxiety (GAD-7 score).
Of the 905 women in the sample, two-thirds were African-American. Lower FS (i.e. worse food insecurity) was associated with greater symptoms of depression and anxiety in a dose–response relationship. For the psychotropic medication outcomes, marginal and low FS were associated with 2.06 (p < 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36–3.13) and 1.99 (p < 0.01; 95% CI = 1.26–3.15) times higher odds of any psychotropic medication use, respectively, before adjusting for depression and anxiety. The association of very low FS with any psychotropic medication use was not statistically significant. A similar pattern was found for antidepressant and sedative use. After additionally adjusting for CESD and GAD-7 scores, marginal FS remained associated with 1.93 (p < 0.05; 95% CI = 1.16–3.19) times higher odds of any psychotropic medication use. Very low FS, conversely, was significantly associated with lower odds of antidepressant use (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42; p < 0.05; 95% CI = 0.19–0.96).
Marginal FS was associated with higher odds of using psychotropic medications independent of depression and anxiety, while very low FS was associated with lower odds. These complex findings may indicate that people experiencing very low FS face barriers to accessing mental health services, while those experiencing marginal FS who do access services are more likely to be prescribed psychotropic medications for distress arising from social and structural factors.
Sink drainage systems are not amenable to standard methods of cleaning and disinfection. Disinfectants applied as a foam might enhance efficacy of drain decontamination due to greater persistence and increased penetration into sites harboring microorganisms.
To examine the efficacy and persistence of foam-based products in reducing sink drain colonization with gram-negative bacilli.
During a 5-month period, different methods for sink drain disinfection in patient rooms were evaluated in a hospital and its affiliated long-term care facility. We compared the efficacy of a single treatment with 4 different foam products in reducing the burden of gram-negative bacilli in the sink drain to a depth of 2.4 cm (1 inch) below the strainer. For the most effective product, the effectiveness of foam versus liquid-pouring applications, and the effectiveness of repeated foam treatments were evaluated.
A foam product containing 3.13% hydrogen peroxide and 0.05% peracetic acid was significantly more effective than the other 3 foam products. In comparison to pouring the hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid disinfectant, the foam application resulted in significantly reduced recovery of gram-negative bacilli on days 1, 2, and 3 after treatment with a return to baseline by day 7. With repeated treatments every 3 days, a progressive decrease in the bacterial load recovered from sink drains was achieved.
An easy-to-use foaming application of a hydrogen peroxide- and peracetic acid-based disinfectant suppressed sink-drain colonization for at least 3 days. Intermittent application of the foaming disinfectant could potentially reduce the risk for dissemination of pathogens from sink drains.
Dissipation of S-metolachlor, a soil-applied herbicide, on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida was evaluated using field studies in 2013 to 2016. S-metolachlor was applied PRE at 2,270 g ha−1 on organic and mineral soils with 75% and 1.6% organic matter, respectively. The rate of dissipation of S-metolachlor was rapid on mineral soils compared with organic soils. Dissipation of S-metolachlor on organic soils followed a negative linear trend resulting in half-lives (DT50) ranging from 50 to 126 d. S-metolachlor loss on organic soils was more rapid under high soil-moisture conditions than in corresponding low soil-moisture conditions. On mineral soils, dissipation of S-metolachlor followed an exponential decline. The DT50 of S-metolachlor on mineral soils ranged from 12 to 24 d. The short persistence of S-metolachlor on mineral soils was likely attributed to low organic matter content with limited adsorptive capability. The results indicate that organic matter content and soil moisture are important for persistence of S-metolachlor on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida.
An improved understanding of diagnostic and treatment practices for patients with rare primary mitochondrial disorders can support benchmarking against guidelines and establish priorities for evaluative research. We aimed to describe physician care for patients with mitochondrial diseases in Canada, including variation in care.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians involved in the diagnosis and/or ongoing care of patients with mitochondrial diseases. We used snowball sampling to identify potentially eligible participants, who were contacted by mail up to five times and invited to complete a questionnaire by mail or internet. The questionnaire addressed: personal experience in providing care for mitochondrial disorders; diagnostic and treatment practices; challenges in accessing tests or treatments; and views regarding research priorities.
We received 58 survey responses (52% response rate). Most respondents (83%) reported spending 20% or less of their clinical practice time caring for patients with mitochondrial disorders. We identified important variation in diagnostic care, although assessments frequently reported as diagnostically helpful (e.g., brain magnetic resonance imaging, MRI/MR spectroscopy) were also recommended in published guidelines. Approximately half (49%) of participants would recommend “mitochondrial cocktails” for all or most patients, but we identified variation in responses regarding specific vitamins and cofactors. A majority of physicians recommended studies on the development of effective therapies as the top research priority.
While Canadian physicians’ views about diagnostic care and disease management are aligned with published recommendations, important variations in care reflect persistent areas of uncertainty and a need for empirical evidence to support and update standard protocols.