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'Free will skepticism' refers to a family of views that all take seriously the possibility that human beings lack the control in action - i.e. the free will - required for an agent to be truly deserving of blame and praise, punishment and reward. Critics fear that adopting this view would have harmful consequences for our interpersonal relationships, society, morality, meaning, and laws. Optimistic free will skeptics, on the other hand, respond by arguing that life without free will and so-called basic desert moral responsibility would not be harmful in these ways, and might even be beneficial. This collection addresses the practical implications of free will skepticism for law and society. It contains eleven original essays that provide alternatives to retributive punishment, explore what (if any) changes are needed for the criminal justice system, and ask whether we should be optimistic or pessimistic about the real-world implications of free will skepticism.
To advance research from Dishion and others on associations between parenting and peer problems across childhood, we used a sample of 177 sibling pairs reared apart since birth (because of adoption of one of the siblings) to examine associations between parental hostility and children's peer problems when children were ages 7 and 9.5 years (n = 329 children). We extended conventional cross-lagged parent–peer models by incorporating child inhibitory control as an additional predictor and examining genetic contributions via birth mother psychopathology. Path models indicated a cross-lagged association from parental hostility to later peer problems. When child inhibitory control was included, birth mother internalizing symptoms were associated with poorer child inhibitory control, which was associated with more parental hostility and peer problems. The cross-lagged paths from parental hostility to peer problems were no longer significant in the full model. Multigroup analyses revealed that the path from birth mother internalizing symptoms to child inhibitory control was significantly higher for birth parent–reared children, indicating the possible contribution of passive gene–environment correlation to this association. Exploratory analyses suggested that each child's unique rearing context contributed to his or her inhibitory control and peer behavior. Implications for the development of evidence-based interventions are discussed.
Building on prior work using Tom Dishion's Family Check-Up, the current article examined intervention effects on dysregulated irritability in early childhood. Dysregulated irritability, defined as reactive and intense response to frustration, and prolonged angry mood, is an ideal marker of neurodevelopmental vulnerability to later psychopathology because it is a transdiagnostic indicator of decrements in self-regulation that are measurable in the first years of life that have lifelong implications for health and disease. This study is perhaps the first randomized trial to examine the direct effects of an evidence- and family-based intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on irritability in early childhood and the effects of reductions in irritability on later risk of child internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Data from the geographically and sociodemographically diverse multisite Early Steps randomized prevention trial were used. Path modeling revealed intervention effects on irritability at age 4, which predicted lower externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 10.5. Results indicate that family-based programs initiated in early childhood can reduce early childhood irritability and later risk for psychopathology. This holds promise for earlier identification and prevention approaches that target transdiagnostic pathways. Implications for future basic and prevention research are discussed.
In analysing matters as diverse as state financing, strategic planning, public benefactions and long-term credit in private business transactions, the historian is faced with an underlying problem about the perceptions of time. One aspect of this problem is the manner in which pictures of a complex future are reflected in the behaviour of agents engaged in these activities. The manner in which actions were (or were not) taken by them suggests a peculiar configuration of future time in the Roman world. It is speculatively argued that perspectives on the future had analogies with the different ways in which a sense of depth was created by artists working on a two-dimensional space and with the contextual ways in which spatial perspective was employed.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance, and in particular multiple-herbicide resistance, poses an ever-increasing threat to food security. A biotype of junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] with resistance to four herbicides, imazamox, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, quinclorac, and propanil, each representing a different mechanism of action, was identified in Sunflower County, MS. Dose responses were performed on the resistant biotype and a biotype sensitive to all four herbicides to determine the level of resistance. Application of a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, malathion, with the herbicides imazamox and quinclorac resulted in increased susceptibility in the resistant biotype. Differential gene expression analysis of resistant and sensitive plants revealed that 170 transcripts were upregulated in resistant plants relative to sensitive plants and 160 transcripts were upregulated in sensitive plants. In addition, 507 transcripts were only expressed in resistant plants and 562 only in sensitive plants. A subset of these transcripts were investigated further using quantitative PCR (qPCR) to compare gene expression in resistant plants with expression in additional sensitive biotypes. The qPCR analysis identified two transcripts, a kinase and a glutathione S-transferase that were significantly upregulated in resistant plants compared with the sensitive plants. A third transcript, encoding an F-box protein, was downregulated in the resistant plants relative to the sensitive plants. As no cytochrome P450s were differentially expressed between the resistant and sensitive plants, a single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis was performed, revealing several nonsynonymous point mutations of interest. These candidate genes will require further study to elucidate the resistance mechanisms present in the resistant biotype.
Numerous authors have attempted to use chemical composition as a means of distinguishing amphibolites derived by isochemical metamorphism of basic igneous intrusives or flows from those of sedimentary parentage. In recent years contributions have come from Engel and Engel (1951, 1953, 1962), Lapadu-Hargues (1953, 1958), Poldervaart (1953), Eckelmann and Poldervaart (1957), Wilcox and Poldervaart (1958), Evans and Leake (1960), and Walker, Joplin, Lovering, and Green (1960).
In the Journal of Roman Studies of 2015, I argued that the evidence in Tacitus for a state-directed punishment of Christians in Rome in 64 ce was too weak to sustain the historical interpretation of it as a persecution. In a reply in this journal last year, Christopher Jones argued that knowledge of Christians under that name could well have reached Rome by the mid-60s, that the vulgus of the city could well have accused such persons, and that the Tacitean account is therefore generally credible. While admitting the justice of some of his criticisms, I attempt in this reply to clarify some of my arguments and to restate my original claim that a persecution of Christians by the emperor Nero in connection with the Great Fire of 64 seems improbable given the context of the relations between officials of the Roman state and Christians over the first century ce.
We present the first results of simultaneous INTEGRAL and RXTE observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. We focus on the analysis of the unique highly variable observation and show that we might have observed a new class of variability. We then study the energetic depenelence of a low frequency QPO from our steady observations.
One of the key problems in the development of morphing aircraft is the morphing structure, which should be able to carry loads and change its geometry simultaneously. This paper investigates a compliant structure, which has the potential to change the dihedral angle of morphing wing-tip devices. The compliant structure is able to induce deformation by unsymmetrical stiffness allocation and carry aerodynamic loads if the total stiffness of the structure is sufficient.
The concept has been introduced by building a simplified model of the structure and deriving the analytical equations. However, a properly designed stiffness asymmetry, which is optimised, can help to achieve the same deformation with a reduced actuation force.
In this paper, round corrugated panels are used in the compliant structure and the stiffness asymmetry is introduced by changing the geometry of the corrugation panel. A new equivalent model of the round corrugated panel is developed, which takes the axial and bending coupling of the corrugated panel into account. The stiffness matrix of the corrugated panel is obtained using the equivalent model, and then the deflections of the compliant structure can be calculated. The results are compared to those from detailed finite element models built in the commercial software Abaqus. Samples with different geometries were manufactured for experimental tests.
After verifying the equivalent model, optimisation is performed to find the optimum geometries of the compliant structures. The actuation force of a single compliant structure is first optimised, and then the optimisation is performed for a compliant structure consisting of multiple units. A case study is used to show the performance improvement obtained.
Maternal trauma is a complex risk factor that has been linked to adverse child outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study, which included adoptive and biological families, examined the heritable and environmental mechanisms by which maternal trauma and associated depressive symptoms are linked to child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Path analyses were used to analyze data from 541 adoptive mother–adopted child (AM–AC) dyads and 126 biological mother–biological child (BM–BC) dyads; the two family types were linked through the same biological mother. Rearing mother's trauma was associated with child internalizing and externalizing behaviors in AM–AC and BM–BC dyads, and this association was mediated by rearing mothers’ depressive symptoms, with the exception of biological child externalizing behavior, for which biological mother trauma had a direct influence only. Significant associations between maternal trauma and child behavior in dyads that share only environment (i.e., AM–AC dyads) suggest an environmental mechanism of influence for maternal trauma. Significant associations were also observed between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing behavior in dyads that were only genetically related, with no shared environment (i.e., BM–AC dyads), suggesting a heritable pathway of influence via maternal depressive symptoms.
An evolution of the low-frequency pulse profile of PSR B2217+47 is observed during a six-year observing campaign with the LOFAR telescope at 150 MHz. The evolution is manifested as a new component in the profile trailing the main peak. The leading part of the profile, including a newly-observed weak component, is steady during the campaign. The transient component is not visible in simultaneous observations at 1500 MHz using the Lovell telescope, implying a chromatic effect. A variation in the dispersion measure of the source is detected in the same timespan. Precession of the pulsar and changes in the magnetosphere are investigated to explain the profile evolution. However, the listed properties favour a model based on turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM). This interpretation is confirmed by a strong correlation between the intensity of the transient component and main peak in single pulses. Since PSR B2217+47 is the fourth brightest pulsar visible to LOFAR, we speculate that ISM-induced pulse profile evolution might be relatively common but subtle and that SKA-Low will detect many similar examples. In this scenario, similar studies of pulse profile evolution could be used in parallel with scintillation arcs to characterize the properties of the ISM.
CCDs make the near-infrared spectral region out to about 1.1 μ observable. A good deal of information on the spectra of AGNs in this range has been published, which we are trying to systematize and extend at Lick. Our original lens-grism spectrograph camera is opaque over the region λ8600-λ10250, no doubt as a result of a coating on one of the elements of the Nikon lens, making this program impossible with it. However our newer “UV-Schmidt” camera is quite effective in this region. With it we have obtained well exposed spectra at moderate resolution (FWHM ≈ 7 Å) of NGC 4151 in three overlapping segments covering the region 7000–11000 Å. Also, for comparison we obtained similar spectra of NGC 1976, the Orion Nebula. The wavelengths and relative line fluxes were measured, and most of the lines were identified. The strongest three lines in both objects are, in order, [S III] λ9532, He I λ10830, and [S III] λ9069. The Orion Nebula spectrum is very helpful for identifying lines in NGC 4151, and for comparison with it. Among the lines identified in NGC 1976, many of them previously known, are [O II], [S II], [Ar III], [Fe II], [Ni II], [Ni III], [Cl II], [C I], in addition to O I λ8446, many H I Paschen lines and He I.
Castor is an industrially important oilseed crop. Vascular wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini is a serious disease of castor. Use of resistant cultivars is the only viable option for management of wilt disease problem in castor production. Excellent sources of resistance to wilt have been found in castor germplasm. In this study, a set of four castor inbred lines (48–1, CI-1, AP42 and AP48) was characterized for inheritance of resistance to wilt by studying segregating populations generated by crossing these inbred lines with eight different susceptible genotypes. An artificial screening method (sick pot) with a new scoring system (days to wilt) was used for evaluation of plant progenies for reaction to the pathogen infection. The reaction of F1s indicated that the nature of resistance in 48–1, CI-1 and AP48 is recessive whereas it was dominant in AP42. Inheritance results from eight F2 populations showed that resistance to wilt is conferred by a single locus in one population and at least two loci, which interact in complementary way, in other seven populations. Different modes of inheritance were also observed when the same resistant source was crossed with different susceptible parents, indicating the possible role of genetic backgrounds in determining resistance. Overall, the results suggested that Mendelian resistance to wilt is predominant in the castor genotypes, which can be exploited for breeding cultivars. Particularly, AP42 with dominant nature of resistance will be of great interest to hybrid breeding.
Glaciofluvial ridges, several hundred kilometres long, are commonly referred to as interlobate moraines because they appear to have formed at the convergence of two distinct ice lobes. Flow convergence is indicated by patterns of striations, streamlined forms and eskers. The so-called interlobate moraines are also thought to have formed asynchronously as the ice margin retreated. By contrast, we argue that the Harricana moraine of northern Quebec, Canada, formed following flow convergence in a regional-scale subglacial outburst flood. Flowlines constructed from streamlined bedforms mapped on the glacial map of Canada, reinterpretation of these streamlined forms as products of meltwater erosion, and field records of erosional marks (S-forms) in bedrock and glaciofluvial deposits to the lee of bedrock highs support this model. The effects of this flow convergence on the ice-sheet topography and drainage controlled the location of the broad conduit in which the Harricana moraine was deposited. Continued flow in this conduit and melting of the conduit walls explain the local patterns of striae, the supply of debris to the conduit, and the morphological and sedimentary characteristics of the moraine itself. From these characteristics, we conclude that the moraine was formed synchronously. This conclusion, if correct, is instructive regarding the deglacial hydrological organization of a large sector of the Laurentide ice sheet.
We propose a taxonomic revision of the dixenous trypanosomatids currently classified as Endotrypanum and Leishmania, including parasites that do not fall within the subgenera L. (Leishmania) and L. (Viannia) related to human leishmaniasis or L. (Sauroleishmania) formed by leishmanias of lizards: L. colombiensis, L. equatorensis, L. herreri, L. hertigi, L. deanei, L. enriettii and L. martiniquensis. The comparison of these species with newly characterized isolates from sloths, porcupines and phlebotomines from central and South America unveiled new genera and subgenera supported by past (RNA PolII gene) and present (V7V8 SSU rRNA, Hsp70 and gGAPDH) phylogenetic analyses of the organisms. The genus Endotrypanum is restricted to Central and South America, comprising isolates from sloths and transmitted by phlebotomines that sporadically infect humans. This genus is the closest to the new genus Porcisia proposed to accommodate the Neotropical porcupine parasites originally described as L. hertigi and L. deanei. A new subgenus Leishmania (Mundinia) is created for the L. enriettii complex that includes L. martiniquensis. The new genus Zelonia harbours trypanosomatids from Neotropical hemipterans placed at the edge of the Leishmania–Endotrypanum-Porcisia clade. Finally, attention is drawn to the status of L. siamensis and L. australiensis as nomem nudums.
A population of junglerice from Sunflower County, MS, exhibited resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. An 11-fold difference in ED50 (the effective dose needed to reduce growth by 50%) values was observed when comparing the resistant population (249 g ae ha–1) with susceptible plants (20 g ae ha–1) collected from a different field. The resistant population was controlled by clethodim and sethoxydim at the field rate. Sequencing of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which encodes the enzyme targeted by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, did not reveal the presence of any known resistance-conferring point mutations. An enzyme assay confirmed that the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase in the resistant population is herbicide sensitive. Further investigations with two cytochrome P450 inhibitors, malathion and piperonyl butoxide, and a glutathione-S-transferase inhibitor, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan, did not indicate involvement of any metabolic enzymes inhibited by these compounds. The absence of a known target-site point mutation and the sensitivity of the ACCase enzyme to herbicide show that fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in this population is due to a non–target-site mechanism or mechanisms.
Early callous–unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for
antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of
callous–unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive
To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and
low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous–unemotional
behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations.
Using an adoption sample (n=561), we examined pathways
from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative
behaviour to child callous–unemotional behaviours via observed child
fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent
observed positive parenting moderated pathways.
Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous–unemotional
behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low
affiliative behaviour predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours,
although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive
parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous–unemotional behaviour
Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits
contribute to the development of callous–unemotional behaviours. Positive
parenting can buffer these risky pathways.