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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the variety of healthcare data captured across numerous sources. However, mechanisms to leverage these data sources to support scientific investigation have remained limited. In 2013 the Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, developed the Integrated CARdiac Data and Outcomes (iCARD) Collaborative with the goals of leveraging available data sources to aid in efficiently planning and conducting PHN studies; supporting integration of PHN data with other sources to foster novel research otherwise not possible; and mentoring young investigators in these areas. This review describes lessons learned through the development of iCARD, initial efforts and scientific output, challenges, and future directions. This information can aid in the use and optimisation of data integration methodologies across other research networks and organisations.
Prior work has robustly suggested that social processes in the neighborhood (i.e. informal social control, social cohesion, norms) influence child conduct problems (CP) and related outcomes, but has yet to consider how these community-level influences interact with individual-level genetic risk for CP. The current study sought to do just this, evaluating neighborhood-level social processes as etiologic moderators of child CP for the first time.
We made use of two nested samples of child and adolescent twins within the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR): 5649 families who participated in in the Michigan Twins Project (MTP) and 1013 families who participated in the Twin Study of Behavioral and Emotional Development (TBED-C). The neighborhood social processes of informal social control, social cohesion, and norms were assessed using neighborhood sampling techniques, in which residents of each twin family's neighborhood reported on the social processes in their neighborhood. Standard biometric GxE analyses evaluated the extent to which they moderated the etiology of CP.
The ‘no moderation’ model provided the best fit to the data in nearly all cases, arguing against neighborhood social processes as etiologic moderators of youth CP.
The neighborhood social processes evaluated here do not appear to exert their effects on child CP via etiologic moderation. The documented links between neighborhood social processes and child CP are thus likely to reflect a different etiologic process. Possibilities include environmental main effects of neighborhood social processes on child CP, or genotype-environment correlations.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
Optimising short- and long-term outcomes for children and patients with CHD depends on continued scientific discovery and translation to clinical improvements in a coordinated effort by multiple stakeholders. Several challenges remain for clinicians, researchers, administrators, patients, and families seeking continuous scientific and clinical advancements in the field. We describe a new integrated research and improvement network – Cardiac Networks United – that seeks to build upon the experience and success achieved to-date to create a new infrastructure for research and quality improvement that will serve the needs of the paediatric and congenital heart community in the future. Existing gaps in data integration and barriers to improvement are described, along with the mission and vision, organisational structure, and early objectives of Cardiac Networks United. Finally, representatives of key stakeholder groups – heart centre executives, research leaders, learning health system experts, and parent advocates – offer their perspectives on the need for this new collaborative effort.
We present a model for the force acting to fragment a biofilm-seeded microbial aggregate in shear flow, which we derive by coupling an existing model for the shape and orientation of a deforming ellipsoid with one for the surface force density on a solid ellipsoid. The model can be used to simulate the motion, shape, surface force density, and breakage of colloidal aggregates in shear flow. We apply the model to the case of exhaustive fragmentation of microbial aggregates in order to compute a post-fragmentation density function, indicating the likelihood of a fragmenting aggregate yielding daughter aggregates of a certain size.
Understanding the influence of the weather on the energy requirements of horses living outdoors during winter is essential when estimating feed requirements. Measurements of heat production from live horses have only been made at different air temperatures. The influences of other weather parameters, such as precipitation and wind speed, which are known to increase the rate of heat loss in other domestic stock, have not been researched for horses. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of wetting the upper body surface of Shetland ponies in winter coat on their rate of heat production (W/kg) and on their skin and body temperatures (°C ).
Two mature Shetland pony stallions (178 and 200 kg liveweight) in full winter coat (coat parameters over the back; mean depth 2.38 cm; mean length 3.25 cm; mean density 79.25 mg/cm2), and in good body condition (condition score 2; Pollock, 1980), were housed at ambient temperature (range 2 - 9.5 °C) in an open-sided shed and fed meadow hay at maintenance energy requirements (NRC, 1989).
Gastrointestinal infection caused by pathogenic bacteria and viruses are an important cause of diarrhoea and ill-thrift in human and animal neonates (Guerrant et al., 1986, Radostits et al., 1994). Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Rotavirus are both important causes of neonatal diarrhoea, in addition E.coli is an important factor in the post-weaning diarrhoea syndrome seen in early weaned piglets (Radostits et al., 1994). Neonates reared on maternal milk are protected by antibodies (IgA in humans and pigs, IgG in ruminants) which act passively in the gut against organisms which cause gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the protective effect of egg antibodies (Lohmann Animal Health) against E.coli and Rotavirus challenge in neonatal piglets. The eggs were sourced from hens vaccinated against E.coli and Rotavirus.
Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3–4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12–350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 < z ≲ 6–7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.
The μ–z diagram (Figure 1) plots the observed internal proper motion μ versus redshift z for 32 extragalactic radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei. The observed points fall below an upper bound which decreases with redshift; there is a statistically significant anticorrelation between redshift and internal proper motion.
We have conducted a systematic study of the milliarcsecond structure of a complete, flux-density limited sample of strong radio sources selected at 5 GHz. We have made 5 GHz maps at two epochs of the 45 compact sources in the sample, and third-epoch observations are in progress. Our intention was to explore the full range of morphologies exhibited by compact radio sources, to search for new superluminal sources, and to determine how widespread such phenomena as parsec-scale jets, alignment of parsec-scale and kiloparsec-scale jets, and superluminal motion are. In addition, we hoped to use this well-defined sample for statistical tests of the beaming theories.
Multiple isotopic systems (C, N, O, S, Sr, Pb) are applied to investigate diet and mobility amongst the Middle Neolithic populations at Schipluiden and Swifterbant (Netherlands). A review of carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of European Mesolithic and Neolithic populations shows a shift in diet from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic, but also great variety in Neolithic diets, several of which incorporate fish. At Swifterbant (c. 4300–4000 BC) the population had a diet largely based on terrestrial and freshwater resources, despite proximity to tidal waters. Only one individual (of 10) showed evidence for migration. In contrast at Schipluiden (c. 3600–3400 BC) there were migrants who had a diet lower in marine resources than those without evidence for migration. The faunal spectrum and isotopic similarities with sites in the Iron Gates Gorge suggest that sturgeon may have been important. There is some evidence that migrants at Schipluiden were not accorded the formal burial given to locally born people.
Since 1977 we have been engaged on a project to survey the milliarcsecond structure and internal motions of a complete, unbiased sample of 65 radio sources (Pearson and Readhead 1984). One of the goals of the project was to discover more superluminal sources and find out how common they are. The sample contains three established superluminal sources (3C 179, 3C 345, and BL Lacertae); so far we have discovered three new superluminal quasars (0850+581, 1642+690, and 1928+738), and a fourth (3C 216) that may be superluminal. Thus at least six out of the 65 sources are superluminal, and we expect to find more as our observations proceed.
High-precision measurement of dendrochronologically dated Irish oak at bi-decade/decade intervals has continued in the Belfast laboratory, extending the 14C data base from ca AD 1840 to 5210 BC. The dendrochronology is now considered absolute (see Belfast dendrochronology this conference) (Brown et al, 1986) and a continuous detailed curve is presented, showing the natural variations in the atmospheric concentration of 14C over >7000 years. Each data point has a precision of <2.5., and some 4500 years have now been compared with Seattle, giving excellent agreement. Discussion of this data base and the justification of the claimed accuracy is given together with a comparison of other chronologies. Some of the advantages and limitations of the above are discussed.
The East Mediterranean Radiocarbon (inter-)Comparison Project (EMRCP) has measured the 14C ages of a number of sets of tree rings from the Gordion Area dendrochronology from central Anatolia at the Heidelberg Radiocarbon Laboratory. In several cases, multiple measurements were made over a period from the 1980s to 2009. This paper presents the final data set from this work (128 high-precision measurements), and considers (i) the relationship of these data against the standard Northern Hemisphere 14C calibration data set (IntCal09), and (ii) the optimum calendar dating of this floating tree-ring record on the basis of the final set of high-precision 14C data. It finds good agreement between the Anatolian data and IntCal09 in some important intervals (e.g. ∼1729 to 1350 cal BC) and observes one period (9th–8th centuries BC) where there appears to be some indication of a regional/growing season signal, and another period (later 14th–13th centuries BC) where IntCal09 may not best reflect the real 14C record. The scale of the typical growing-season-related regional 14C offset (ΔR) between the Aegean/Anatolian region and IntCal09 is also assessed (for the mid-2nd millennium BC and mid-2nd millennium AD), and found to be usually minor (at times where there are no major additional forcing factors and/or issues with the IntCal09 data set): of the order of 2–4 ± 2–4 yr.
We report the direct detection of cyclic diameter variations in the Mira variable χ Cygni. Interferometric observations made between 1997 July and 1998 September, using the Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope (COAST) indicate periodic changes in the apparent angular diameter with amplitude 45 per-cent of the smallest value.
The measurements were made in a 50 nm bandpass centred on 905 nm, which is only moderately contaminated by molecular absorption features. To assess the effects of atmospheric stratification on the apparent diameter measured in this band, we have also measured near-infrared diameters for a sample of five Miras, in both the J-band (1.3 μm) and Wing's (1971) 1.04 μm band, which is expected to isolate essentially pure continuum emission. We present J-band visibility curves which indicate that the intensity profiles of the stars in the sample differ greatly from each other.
We are using the VSOP space VLBI mission to observe a complete sample of Pearson-Readhead survey sources at 4.8 GHz to determine core brightness temperatures and pc-scale jet properties. To date we have imaged 27 of the 31 objects in our sample. Our preliminary results show that the majority of objects contain strong core components that remain unresolved on baselines of 30,000 km. The brightness temperatures of several cores significantly exceed 1012 K, which is indicative of highly relativistically beamed emission. We also find that core brightness temperature is correlated with intraday variability in compact AGNs.