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All canine hookworms are known to be zoonotic, causing infections ranging from transient skin irritations to prolonged ‘creeping eruptions’, eosinophilic enteritis and even patent intestinal infections. There is little information on canine hookworm species and their public health significance in sub-Saharan Africa. This study determined the prevalence and species of hookworms in dogs from different climatic zones of Kenya. Dog faecal samples were collected from the environment, and hookworm eggs were isolated by zinc chloride flotation and subjected to DNA extraction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA of Ancylostoma spp. and Uncinaria stenocephala were performed, and hookworm species were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or DNA sequencing. Hookworm eggs were detected by microscopy in 490/1621 (30.23%, 95% CI 28.01–32.54) faecal samples. Estimates of faecal prevalence were high in counties receiving higher rainfall (Narok 46.80%, Meru 44.88%) and low in those with a more arid climate (Isiolo 19.73%, Turkana 11.83%). In a subset of 70 faecal samples, Ancylostoma caninum (n = 59) was the most common species, followed by A. braziliense (n = 10) and A. cf. duodenale (n = 1). This study reports for the first time the detection of A. cf. duodenale in dog faeces and zoonotic hookworm species in Kenyan dogs. These findings emphasize the need for control measures such as enforcing laws for restraining stray dogs, regular deworming of dogs, and public health awareness programmes aimed at informing communities on outdoor use of footwear.
Tree-ring series were collected for radiocarbon analyses from the vicinity of Paks nuclear power plant (NPP) and a background area (Dunaföldvár) for a 10-yr period (2000–2009). Samples of holocellulose were prepared from the wood and converted to graphite for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C measurement using the MICADAS at ETH Zürich. The 14C concentration data from these tree rings was compared to the background tree rings for each year. The global decreasing trend of atmospheric 14C activity concentration was observed in the annual tree rings both in the background area and in the area of the NPP. As an average of the past 10 yr, the excess 14C emitted by the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) NPP to the atmosphere shows only a slight systematic excess (∼6′) 14C in the annual rings. The highest 14C excess was 13′ (in 2006); however, years with the same 14C level as the background were quite frequent in the tree-ring series.
Pain is the most common symptom bringing a patient to a physician's attention. Physicians training in pain medicine may originate from different disciplines and approach the field with varying backgrounds and experience. This book captures the theory and evidence-based practice of behavioral, psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological treatments in modern pain medicine. The book's contributors span the fields of psychiatry, psychology, anesthesia, neurology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and nursing. Thus the structure and content of the book convey the interdisciplinary approach that is the current standard for the successful practice of pain management. The book is designed to be used as a text for training fellowships in pain medicine, as well as graduate courses in psychology, nursing, and other health professions.