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Perfectionism is a transdiagnostic risk factor across psychopathology. The Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ) was developed to assess change in order to provide clinical utility, but currently the psychometric properties of the CPQ with adolescents is unknown.
To assess the factor structure and construct validity of the CPQ in female adolescents.
The CPQ was administered to 267 females aged 14–19 years of age. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the validity of the two-factor model and a second-order factor model. Pearson correlations were used to evaluate the relationships between the CPQ and a wide range of measures of perfectionism, psychopathology and personality traits.
The study demonstrated internal consistency, construct validity and incremental validity of the CPQ in a sample of female adolescents. The CFA in the present study confirmed the two-factor model of the CPQ with Factor 1 relating to perfectionistic strivings and Factor 2 representing perfectionistic concerns. The second-order two factor model indicated no deterioration in fit.
The two-factor model of the CPQ fits with the theoretical definition of clinical perfectionism where the over-dependence of self-worth on achievement and concern over mistakes are key elements. The CPQ is suitable for use with female adolescents in future research that seeks to better understand the role of perfectionism in the range of mental illnesses that impact youth.
The use of transdiagnostic mental health treatments in low resource settings has been proposed as a possible aid in scaling up mental health services. Modular, multi-problem transdiagnostic treatments can be used to treat a range of mental health problems and are designed to handle comorbidity. Two randomized controlled trials have been completed on one treatment – the Common Elements Treatment Approach, or CETA – delivered by lay counsellors in Iraq and Thailand. This paper utilizes data from two clinical trials to explore the delivery of CETA by lay providers, examining fidelity and flexibility of element use. Data were collected at every therapy session. Clients completed a short symptom assessment and providers described the clinical elements delivered during sessions. Analyses included descriptive statistics of delivery including selection and sequencing of treatment elements, and the variance in element dose, clustering at the counsellor level, using multi-level models. Results indicate that lay providers in low resource settings (with supervision) demonstrated fidelity to the recommended CETA elements, order and dose, and occasionally added in elements and flexed dosage based on client presentation (i.e. flexibility). This modular approach did not result in significantly longer treatment duration. Our analysis suggests that lay providers were able to learn decision-making processes of CETA based on client presentation and adjust treatment as needed with supervision. As modular multi-problem transdiagnostic treatments continue to be explored in low resource settings, research should continue to focus on ‘unpacking’ lay counsellor delivery of these interventions, decision-making processes, and the level of supervision required.
Two large earthquakes in 2015 caused widespread destruction in Nepal. This study aimed to examine frequency of common mental health and psychosocial problems and their correlates following the earthquakes.
A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling design was employed to randomly select 513 participants (aged 16 and above) from three earthquake-affected districts in Nepal: Kathmandu, Gorkha and Sindhupalchowk, 4 months after the second earthquake. Outcomes were selected based on qualitative preparatory research and included symptoms of depression and anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25); post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist-Civilian); hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT-C); symptoms indicating severe psychological distress (WHO-UNHCR Assessment Schedule of Serious Symptoms in Humanitarian Settings (WASSS)); suicidal ideation (Composite International Diagnostic Interview); perceived needs (Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale (HESPER)); and functional impairment (locally developed scale).
A substantial percentage of participants scored above validated cut-off scores for depression (34.3%, 95% CI 28.4–40.4) and anxiety (33.8%, 95% CI 27.6–40.6). Hazardous alcohol use was reported by 20.4% (95% CI 17.1–24.3) and 10.9% (95% CI 8.8–13.5) reported suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent reported that ‘distress’ was a serious problem in their community. Anger that was out of control (symptom from the WASSS) was reported by 33.7% (95% CI 29.5–38.2). Fewer people had elevated rates of PTSD symptoms above a validated cut-off score (5.2%, 95% CI 3.9–6.8), and levels of functional impairment were also relatively low. Correlates of elevated symptom scores were female gender, lower caste and greater number of perceived needs. Residing in Gorkha and Sindhupalchowk districts and lower caste were also associated with greater perceived needs. Higher levels of impaired functioning were associated with greater odds of depression and anxiety symptoms; impaired functioning was less strongly associated with PTSD symptoms.
Four months after the earthquakes in Nepal, one out of three adults experienced symptoms of depression and distressing levels of anger, one out of five engaged in hazardous drinking, and one out of ten had suicidal thoughts. However, posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment were comparatively less frequent. Taken together, the findings suggest that there were significant levels of psychological distress but likely low levels of disorder. The findings highlight the importance of indicated prevention strategies to reduce the risk of distress progressing to disorder within post-disaster mental health systems of care.
This report discusses the approach to teaching undergraduate radiation therapy students in New Zealand using the Virtual Environment for the Radiotherapy Training (VERT) system. In conjunction with VERT being used to teach clinical skills, integration of conceptual knowledge occurs across all 3 years of the programme; this report gives examples of how this is achieved in practice.
Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotics are treatment alternatives to oral agents.
To assess the efficacy of aripiprazole once-monthly compared with oral aripiprazole for maintenance treatment of schizophrenia.
A 38-week, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study; randomisation (2:2:1) to aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg, oral aripiprazole (10–30 mg/day) or aripiprazole once-monthly 50mg (a dose below the therapeutic threshold for assay sensitivity). (Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00706654.)
A total of 1118 patients were screened, and 662 responders to oral aripiprazole were randomised. Kaplan–Meier estimated impending relapse rates at week 26 were 7.12% for aripiprazole once-monthly 400mg and 7.76% for oral aripiprazole. This difference (−0.64%, 95% CI −5.26 to 3.99) excluded the predefined non-inferiority margin of 11.5%. Treatments were superior to aripiprazole once-monthly 50mg (21.80%, P⩽0.001).
Aripiprazole once-monthly 400mg was non-inferior to oral aripiprazole, and the reduction in Kaplan–Meier estimated impending relapse rate at week 26 was statistically significant v. aripiprazole once-monthly 50 mg.
The current study considers the distribution of a small sample of 138 Bulinus snails, across 28 localities within eight Nigerian states. Snails were identified using a combination of molecular methods involving both DNA sequencing of a partial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) fragment and restriction profiles obtained from ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (its) amplicons. The results showed that the majority of Bulinus samples tested belonged to the species Bulinus truncatus while only two were Bulinus globosus. The use of RsaI restriction endonuclease to cleave the ribosomal its of Bulinus, as a method of species identification, was adopted for the majority of samples, this being a quicker and cheaper method better suited to small laboratory environments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the schistosome Dra1 repeat within each of the collected Bulinus samples was employed to determine the extent and distribution of infected snails within the sample areas. Successful amplification of the Dra1 repeat demonstrated that 29.7% of snails were infected with schistosomes. Sequencing of the partial schistosome its from a small subset of snail samples suggested that some snails were either penetrated by both Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma bovis miracidia or hybrid miracidia formed from the two species.
The partial contributions of reductions in fetal nutrition and oxygenation to slow fetal growth and a developmental origin of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. By combining high altitude with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of high-altitude hypoxia on growth. This study isolated the direct effects of high-altitude hypoxia on cardiovascular development. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high-altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. High altitude promoted embryonic growth restriction, cardiomegaly and aortic wall thickening, effects which could be prevented by incubating eggs from high-altitude hens at sea level or by incubating eggs from sea-level hens at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. Embryos from high-altitude hens showed reduced effects of altitude incubation on growth restriction but not on cardiovascular remodeling. The data show that: (1) high-altitude hypoxia promotes embryonic cardiac and vascular disease already evident prior to hatching and that this is associated with growth restriction; (2) the effects can be prevented by increased oxygenation; and (3) the effects are different in embryos from sea-level or high-altitude hens.
Commercially available kits for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were evaluated in American Samoa during a public health programme to eliminate the transmission of hepatitis B. The first 19184 serum specimens obtained, representing 68% of the total cooperating population, were initially tested for anti-HBs, and those without detectable antibody were tested for HBsAg. All the antigen-positive serum samples, and a selection of the antigen-and antibody-negative specimens were tested by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection of both markers. Compared with the standard tests, the EIA kits for anti-HBs and HBsAg performed well; sensitivity and specificity were 90·3 and 96·0%, respectively, for antibody, and 97·8 and 97·9% respectively for antigen. Substantial disagreement between the EIA and RIA tests for HBsAg was found only for specimens considered weakly reactive by EIA. Few differences were found between three EIA method options for follow-up HBsAg testing of weakly reactive serum specimens; each option contributed about equally to improved test specificity for these ‘borderline’ specimens. Based on their demonstrated equivalence to the standard RIA tests, we conclude that the EIA kits for anti-HBs and HBsAg detection are suitable for use in hepatitis B control programmes in open populations.
The NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) is a general purpose stellar archive with the aim of providing support for NASA's planet finding and characterization goals, stellar astrophysics, and the planning of NASA and other space missions. There are two principal components of NStED: a database of (currently) 140,000 nearby stars and exoplanet-hosting stars, and an archive dedicated to high precision photometric surveys for transiting exoplanets. We present a summary of the NStED stellar database, functionality, tools, and user interface. NStED currently serves the following kinds of data for 140,000 stars (where available): coordinates, multiplicity, proper motion, parallax, spectral type, multiband photometry, radial velocity, metallicity, chromospheric and coronal activity index, and rotation velocity/period. Furthermore, the following derived quantities are given wherever possible: distance, effective temperature, mass, radius, luminosity, space motions, and physical/angular dimensions of habitable zone. Queries to NStED can be made using constraints on any combination of the above parameters. In addition, NStED provides tools to derive specific inferred quantities for the stars in the database, cross-referenced with available extra-solar planetary data for those host stars. NStED can be accessed at http://nsted.ipac.caltech.edu.
The NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) is a general purpose stellar archive with the aim of providing support for NASA's planet finding and characterization goals, stellar astrophysics, and the planning of NASA and other space missions. There are two principal components of NStED: a database of (currently) 140,000 nearby stars and exoplanet-hosting stars, and an archive dedicated to high-precision photometric surveys for transiting exoplanets. We present a summary of the latter component: the NStED Exoplanet Transit Survey Service (NStED-ETSS), along with its content, functionality, tools, and user interface. NStED-ETSS currently serves data from the TrES Survey of the Kepler Field as well as dedicated photometric surveys of four stellar clusters. NStED-ETSS aims to serve both the surveys and the broader astronomical community by archiving these data and making them available in a homogeneous format. Examples of usability of ETSS include investigation of any time-variable phenomena in data sets not studied by the original survey team, application of different techniques or algorithms for planet transit detections, combination of data from different surveys for given objects, statistical studies, etc. NStED-ETSS can be accessed at http://nsted.ipac.caltech.edu.
Competition between parasite species has been predicted to be an important force shaping parasite and host ecology and evolution, although empirical data are often lacking. Using the Mus musculus-Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma rodhaini host-parasite systems we characterized mate choice and inter-specific competition between these two schistosome species. Simultaneous infections revealed species-specific mate preferences for both species as well as suggesting mating competition, with male S. rodhaini appearing dominant over male S. mansoni. S. rodhaini homologous pairs were also shown to have increased reproduction per paired female in the presence of a competitor in simultaneous infections. Overall total reproductive success was, however, similar between the two species under conditions of direct competition due to the greater initial infectivity of S. mansoni in comparison to S. rodhaini. Inter-specific competition was also implicated as increased parasite virulence to the host. The potential effects of such interactions on parasite and host ecology and evolution in nature are discussed.
Despite the high prevalence of cannabis use in schizophrenia, few studies
have examined the potential relationship between cannabis exposure and
brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia.
To investigate prefrontal grey and white matter regions in patients
experiencing a first episode of schizophrenia with an additional
diagnosis of cannabis use or dependence (n=20) compared
with similar patients with no cannabis use (n=31) and
healthy volunteers (n=56).
Volumes of the superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus and
orbital frontal lobe were outlined manually from contiguous magnetic
resonance images and automatically segmented into grey and white
Patients who used cannabis had less anterior cingulate grey matter
compared with both patients who did not use cannabis and healthy
A defect in the anterior cingulate is associated with a history of
cannabis use among patients experiencing a first episode of schizophrenia
and could have a role in poor decision-making and in choosing more risky
The WASP consortium is conducting an ultra-wide field survey of stars between 8–15 mag from both hemispheres. Our primary science goal is to detect extra-solar ‘hot-Jupiter’-type planets that eclipse (or transit) bright host stars and for which further detailed investigation will be possible. We summarize the design of the SuperWASP instruments and describe the first results from our northern station SW-N, sited in La Palma, Canary Islands. Our second station, which began operations this year, is located at the South African Astronomical Observatory. Between April and September, 2004, SW-N continuously observed ~6.7 million stars. The consortium's custom-written, fully automated data reduction pipeline has been used to process these data, and the information is now stored in the project archive, held by the Leicester database and archive service (LEDAS). We have applied a sophisticated, automated algorithm to identify the low-amplitude (~0.01 mag), brief (~few hours) signatures of transiting exoplanets. In addition, we have assessed each candidate in the light of all available catalogue information in order to reject data artefacts and astrophysical false positive detections. The highest priority candidates are currently being subjected to further observations in order to select the true planets. Once the exoplanets are confirmed, a host of exciting opportunities are open to us. In this paper, we describe two techniques that exploit the transits in order to detect other objects within the same system. The first involves determining precise epochs for a sequence of transit events in order to detect the small timing variations caused by the gravitational pull of other planets in the same system. The second method employs ultra-high precision photometry of the transits to detect the deviations caused by the presence of exoplanetary moons. Both of these techniques are capable of detecting objects the size of terrestrial planets.
Mobile lice levels of two species of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, were examined on two samples of Atlantic salmon from the west coast of Ireland. The samples examined were taken two weeks apart from salmon caught by drift net in June 2003 at two different locations off the west coast of Ireland, one in the north-west and one in the west. Both samples of salmon caught were comparable in terms of numbers of total lice counted. No significant differences in male, female and ovigerous L. salmonis levels between the two samples were recorded, however, a significant difference was recorded between juvenile L. salmonis levels. Morphometric comparisons of male and ovigerous L. salmonis examined for each of the two salmon samples examined revealed some differences. There was a significant difference in male L. salmonis in terms of cephalothorax length between the samples. In the females significant differences were found between cephalothorax length, overall total length and egg length. Significant positive correlations within samples were also observed, between total female body length and both total egg number and egg string length in one of the samples examined.
PLANET, the Probing Lensing Anomaly NETwork, is an international team
conducting observations of on-going gravitational microlensing
events from five sites in the southern hemisphere. Our primary goal is to
detect or to put constraints on sub-stellar companions of M dwarfs from the galactic disk.
We report the current status and discuss the future prospects.
A 2 m robotic telescope at Dome C which would benefit from continuous coverage and dream like seeing
(median of 0.27 arcsec) is currently the best option for a
ground based aggressive search for Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone.
Due to their extremely small luminosity compared to the stars they orbit, planets outside our own Solar System are extraordinarily difficult to detect directly in optical light. Careful photometric monitoring of distant stars, however, can reveal the presence of exoplanets via the microlensing or eclipsing effects they induce. The international PLANET collaboration is performing such monitoring using a cadre of semi-dedicated telescopes around the world. Their results constrain the number of gas giants orbiting 1–7 AU from the most typical stars in the Galaxy. Upgrades in the program are opening regions of “exoplanet discovery space” – toward smaller masses and larger orbital radii – that are inaccessible to the Doppler velocity technique.
Two recognized strains of Schistosoma intercalatum, one from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), formerly Zaire, and the other from Cameroon, have been investigated using DNA sequences from 3 mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (nad6) and the small ribosomal RNA gene (rrnS). In addition, partial DNA sequences from the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (lsrDNA) were included within the study. Although partial lsrDNA alone reveals little taxonomic information, phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial data demonstrates a clear dichotomy between the 2 purported strains and it is proposed that they should be treated as distinct taxa. The ‘original’ S. intercalatum now falls relatively basal in the S. haematobium group, while the proposed new species is more derived and sister taxon to S. bovis and S. curassoni.
In this work, we report on the material properties of ZnO doped with Mn, Co, and Fe grown by a modified melt growth technique. X-ray diffraction measurements show that transition metals can be incorporated on Zn sites; an increase in the lattice parameter is apparent with increasing doping level. UV-visible transmission and reflectance measurements have also been performed. Absorption bands in the visible regime are distinctive to the individual transition metal dopants. A noticeable shift in the optical band edge has been observed from these Mn/Co/Fe-doped ZnO crystals in comparison with the undoped material. ZnO may also provide a suitable platform for the incorporation of transition metal elements through high temperature near equilibrium growth processes; however, further work is required in order to employ these materials for spintronic applications.