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Mindfulness based art therapy induces emotional relaxation in cancer patients and is a treatment known to improve psychological stability. The objective of this research was to evaluate the treatment effects of MBAT for breast cancer patients.
Twenty-four breast cancer patients were selected as subjects of the study. Two groups, the MBAT group and control group with 12 patients each, were randomly assigned. The patients in the MBAT group were given 12 sessions of treatments. To measure depression and anxiety, low scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was used. Health-related quality of life was evaluated using the European organization for research and treatment of cancer quality of life questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30). The treatment results were analyzed using Ancova and two-way repeated measures Anova.
The results showed that depression and anxiety decreased significantly and health-related quality of life improved significantly in the MBAT group. In the control group, however, there was no significant change.
MBAT can be seen as an effective treatment method that improves breast cancer patients’ psychological stability and quality of life. Evaluation of treatment effects using program development and large-scale research for future clinical application is needed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Malformed data-structures can lead to runtime errors such as arbitrary memory access or corruption. Despite this, reasoning over data-structure properties for low-level heap manipulating programs remains challenging. In this paper we present a constraint-based program analysis that checks data-structure integrity, w.r.t. given target data-structure properties, as the heap is manipulated by the program. Our approach is to automatically generate a solver for properties using the type definitions from the target program. The generated solver is implemented using a Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) extension of built-in heap, integer and equality solvers. A key property of our program analysis is that the target data-structure properties are shape neutral, i.e., the analysis does not check for properties relating to a given data-structure graph shape, such as doubly-linked-lists versus trees. Nevertheless, the analysis can detect errors in a wide range of data-structure manipulating programs, including those that use lists, trees, DAGs, graphs, etc. We present an implementation that uses the Satisfiability Modulo Constraint Handling Rules (SMCHR) system. Experimental results show that our approach works well for real-world C programs.
Streaks are a common feature of disturbed boundary-layer flows. They play a central role in transient growth mechanisms and are a building block of self-sustained structures. Most theoretical work has focused on streaks that are periodic in the spanwise direction, but in this work we consider a single spatially localised streak embedded into a Blasius boundary layer. For small streak amplitudes, we show the perturbation can be described in terms of a set of eigenmodes that correspond to an isolated streak/roll structure. These modes are new, and arise from a bi-global eigenvalue calculation; they decay algebraically downstream and may be viewed as the natural three-dimensional extension of the classical two-dimensional Libby & Fox (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 17 (3), 1963, pp. 433–449) solutions. Despite their bi-global nature, we show that a subset of these eigenmodes (including the slowest decaying) is fundamentally related to the solutions first presented by Luchini (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 327, 1996, pp. 101–116), as derived for spanwise-periodic disturbances (at small spanwise wavenumber). This surprising connection is made by an analysis of the far-field decay of the bi-global state. We also address the fully non-parallel downstream development of nonlinear streaks, confirming that the aforementioned eigenmodes are recovered as the streak/roll decays downstream. Encouraging comparisons are made with available experimental data.
Lee Daniels’ The Butler (2013) might seem an unlikely candidate for intervening in Hollywood's civil rights genre, given both its nationalistic ending and its recuperation of iconic styles and images. This paper argues, however, that the film's pastiche interrogates past cinematic tropes for race and space; in this sense, it proves counterhistorical, a term indicating not a lack of accuracy but a commitment to illuminating the role of visual media in shaping contemporary understandings of history and to encouraging fresh perspectives on the past. Examining the many forms of constraint produced by iconic images of black and gendered personhood, the film also takes on the spatial icon with which many of these figures are associated – the southern plantation. Both exposing and challenging the ways in which spectacular accounts of southern racism occlude the geographic and political reach of African American movements against oppression, the film inconsistently insists on the importance of thinking across conventional demarcations of space and time. At these moments, it suggests possibilities for how even commercial cinema might contribute to new conceptions of black political history and possibility.
We present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of liquid imbibition through paper. The Washburn equation is widely used to describe the dynamics of capillary flow through paper, but this classical model has limited accuracy, which often makes it difficult to use in developing analytic systems such as paper-based microfluidic devices. We here report that the internal cavity of the cellulose fibres composing paper is significantly responsible for the limited accuracy of the Washburn equation. Our experiments demonstrated that liquid can be absorbed in the internal cavity of the cellulose fibres as well as in the inter-fibre pores formed by the fibre network. We developed a mathematical model for liquid imbibition by considering the flow through the intra-fibre pores based on experimental measurements of the intra-structure of cellulose fibres. The model markedly improves the prediction of the liquid absorption length, compared with the results of the Washburn equation, thus revealing the physics behind the limits of the Washburn equation. This study suggests that the accurate description of capillary imbibition through paper require parameters characterizing the internal pores of the cellulose fibres comprising the paper. Our results not only provide a new insight into porous media flows with different sized pores, but also provide a theoretical background for flow control in paper-based microfluidic systems.
This theoretical and numerical study presents three-dimensional boundary-layer solutions for laminar incompressible flow adjacent to a semi-infinite flat plate, subject to a uniform free-stream speed and injection through the plate surface. The novelty in this case arises from a fully three-dimensional formulation, which also allows for slot injection over a spanwise length scale comparable to the boundary-layer thickness. This approach retains viscous effects in both the spanwise and transverse directions, and effectively results in a parabolised Navier–Stokes system (sometimes referred to as the ‘boundary-region equations’). Any injection profile can be described in this approach, but we restrict attention to three-dimensional states driven by a finite-width slot aligned with the flow direction and self-similar in their downstream development. The classical two-dimensional states are known to only exist up to a critical (‘blow off’) injection amplitude, but the three-dimensional solutions here appear possible for any injection velocity. These new states take the form of low-speed streamwise-aligned streaks whose geometry depends on the amplitude of injection and the spanwise width of the injection slot; intriguingly, although very low wall shear is typically obtained, streamwise flow reversal is not observed, however hard the blowing. Asymptotic descriptions are provided in the limit of increasing slot width and fixed injection velocity, which allow for classification of the solutions according to two bounding injection rates.
This paper is concerned with the high Reynolds number flow over a spanwise-periodic array of roughness elements with interelement spacing of the order of the local boundary-layer thickness. While earlier work by Goldstein et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 644, 2010, pp. 123–163) and Goldstein et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 668, 2011, pp. 236–266) was mainly concerned with smaller roughness heights that produced relatively weak distortions of the downstream flow, the focus here is on extending the analysis to larger roughness heights and streamwise elongated planform shapes that together produce a qualitatively different, nonlinear behaviour of the downstream wakes. The roughness scale flow now has a novel triple-deck structure that is somewhat different from related studies that have previously appeared in the literature. The resulting flow is formally nonlinear in the intermediate wake region, where the streamwise distance is large compared to the roughness dimensions but small compared to the downstream distance from the leading edge, as well as in the far wake region where the streamwise length scale is of the order of the downstream distance from the leading edge. In contrast, the flow perturbations in both of these wake regions were strictly linear in the earlier work by Goldstein et al. (2010, 2011). This is an important difference because the nonlinear wake flow in the present case provides an appropriate basic state for studying the secondary instability and eventual breakdown into turbulence.
The Bronze Age was the first epoch in which societies became irreversibly linked in their co-dependence on ores and metallurgical skills that were unevenly distributed in geographical space. Access to these critical resources was secured not only via long-distance physical trade routes, making use of landscape features such as river networks, as well as built roads, but also by creating immaterial social networks, consisting of interpersonal relations and diplomatic alliances, established and maintained through the exchange of extraordinary objects (gifts). In this article, we reason about Bronze Age communication networks and apply the results of use-wear analysis to create robust indicators of the rise and fall of political and commercial networks. In conclusion, we discuss some of the historical forces behind the phenomena and processes observable in the archaeological record of the Bronze Age in Europe and beyond.
This paper reports the successive occurrence of Ptychagnostus sinicus Lu, 1957 and Ptychagnostus atavus (Tullberg, 1880) from the lower part of the Machari Formation, Yeongwol Group, Korea. Morphometric approaches of using the landmark and principal component analyses make it possible to differentiate P. sinicus from P. atavus with clarity: pygidia of P. sinicus have a relatively narrow M1, a transverse F2, and a weakly developed M2 tubercle, whereas those of P. atavus are characterized by a broadly arching M1, a chevron-shaped F2, and a prominent M2 tubercle. Recognition of P. atavus, for the first time in Korea, allows the determination of the base of the Drumian Stage in Korea and aids correlation with other parts of the world.
Loneliness is a significant concern among the elderly, particularly in societies with rapid growth in aging populations. Loneliness may influence cognitive function, but the exact nature of the association between loneliness and cognitive function is poorly understood. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize current findings on the association between loneliness and cognitive function in older adults.
A comprehensive, electronic review of the literature was performed. Criteria for inclusion were original quantitative or qualitative research, report written in English, human participants with a mean age ≥ 60 years, and published from January 2000 through July 2013. The total number of studies included in this systematic review was ten.
Main findings from the ten studies largely indicate that loneliness is significantly and negatively correlated with cognitive function, specifically in domains of global cognitive function or general cognitive ability, intelligence quotient (IQ), processing speed, immediate recall, and delayed recall. However, some initial correlations were not significant after controlling for a wide range of demographic and psychosocial risk factors thought to influence loneliness.
Greater loneliness is associated with lower cognitive function. Although preliminary evidence is promising, additional studies are necessary to determine the causality and biological mechanisms underlying the relationship between loneliness and cognitive function. Findings should be verified in culturally diverse populations in different ages and settings using biobehavioral approaches.
To determine the influence of early pain relief for patients with suspected appendicitis on the diagnostic performance of surgical residents.
A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted for patients with suspected appendicitis. The patients were randomized to receive placebo (normal saline intravenous [IV]) infusions over 5 minutes or the study drug (morphine 5 mg IV). All of the clinical evaluations by surgical residents were performed 30 minutes after administration of the study drug or placebo. After obtaining the clinical probability of appendicitis, as determined by the surgical residents, abdominal computed tomography was performed. The primary objective was to compare the influence of IV morphine on the ability of surgical residents to diagnose appendicitis.
A total of 213 patients with suspected appendicitis were enrolled. Of these patients, 107 patients received morphine, and 106 patients received placebo saline. The negative appendectomy percentages in each group were similar (3.8% in the placebo group and 3.2% in the pain control group, p=0.62). The perforation rates in each group were also similar (18.9% in the placebo group and 14.3% in the pain control group, p=0.75). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the overall diagnostic accuracy in each group was similar (the area under the curve of the placebo group and the pain control group was 0.63 v. 0.61, respectively, p=0.81).
Early pain control in patients with suspected appendicitis does not affect the diagnostic performance of surgical residents.
We investigate three-dimensional (laminar) boundary layers that include a spanwise scale comparable to the boundary-layer thickness. A forcing of short spanwise scales requires viscous dissipation to be retained in the two-dimensional cross-section, perpendicular to the external flow direction, and in this respect the flows are related to previous work on corner boundary layers. We use two examples to highlight the main features of this category of boundary layer: (i) a flat plate of narrow (spanwise) width, and (ii) a narrow (spanwise) gap cut into an otherwise infinite flat plate; in both cases the plate is aligned with a uniform oncoming stream. We find that a novel feature arises in connection with the external flow; the presence of a narrow gap/plate (or indeed any comparable short-scale feature of long streamwise extent) necessarily modifies the streamwise mass flux in that vicinity, which in turn induces an associated boundary-layer transpiration on the same short spanwise length scale. This (short-scale) transpiration region leads to a half-line-source/sink correction to the outer inviscid, irrotational flow. Crucially, the volumetric flux associated with this line-source/sink must be explicitly included as part of the computational procedure for the leading-order boundary layer, and as such there is a weak interaction between the outer (inviscid) flow and the boundary layer. This is a generic feature of boundary layers that are forced through the presence of short-scale spanwise variations.
This paper considers the role of costless decisions relating to the extraction of a non-renewable resource in the presence of uncertainty. We begin by deriving a size scale of the extractable resource, above which the solution to the valuation and optimal control strategy can be described by analytic solutions; we produce solutions for a general form of operating cost function. Below this critical resource size level the valuation and optimal control strategy must be solved by numerical means; we present a robust numerical algorithm that can solve such a class of problem. We also allow for the embedding of an irreversible investment decision (abandonment) into the optimisation. Finally, we conduct experimentation for each of these two approaches (analytical and numerical), and show how they are consistent with one another when used appropriately. The extensions of this paper's techniques to renewable resources are explored.
We consider the application of Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) for the specification of type inference systems, such as that used by Haskell. Confluence of CHR guarantees that the answer provided by type inference is correct and consistent. The standard method for establishing confluence relies on an assumption that the CHR program is terminating. However, many examples in practice give rise to non-terminating CHR programs, rendering this method inapplicable. Despite no guarantee of termination or confluence, the Glasgow Haskell Compiler (GHC) supports options that allow the user to proceed with type inference anyway, e.g. via the use of the UndecidableInstances flag. In this paper we formally identify and verify a set of relaxed criteria, namely range-restrictedness, local confluence, and ground termination, that ensure the consistency of CHR-based type inference that maps to potentially non-terminating CHR programs.
The Order Asaphida was grouped by the presence of a ventral median suture and a globular protaspis. The Superfamily Trinucleoidea has been assigned to the Order Asaphida, based on the recognition of a globular protaspis in the Ordovician representatives of the group, and the presence of a ventral median suture in the middle Cambrian genus Liostracina which has been regarded as a primitive sister-group to the post-Cambrian trinucleoideans. Recent studies demonstrate that the ventral median suture and the globular protaspis could have evolved multiple times in the trilobite evolutionary history, casting doubt on the traditional concept of the Order Asaphida. Inclusion of the Trinucleoidea into the Order Asaphida, therefore, has to be tested. It has recently been revealed that Liostracina simesi Jago and Cooper, 2005 did not possess a ventral median suture, implying that there could have been variable types of ventral suture within the genus Liostracina. Here we report the ontogeny of Liostracina tangwangzhaiensis n. sp. from the Cambrian Series 3 (middle Cambrian) strata of Shandong Province of North China. The material for this study includes protaspides, which are of flat, benthic morphology, contrasting to the globular protaspid morphology of the Ordovician trinucleoideans. The benthic protaspid morphology of L. tangwangzhaiensis indicates an independent evolution of the globular protaspis within the Superfamily Trinucleoidea. Together with the variable types of ventral suture within the genus Liostracina, the benthic protaspid morphology of Liostracina leads us to propose that the Superfamily Trinucleoidea be excluded from the Order Asaphida.