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First, after some discussion about its ambiguity, the Working Group ultimately decided to retain the phrase ‘de jure or de facto’ as it wanted to ensure consistency with the 1976 UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. The text of article 14 of the Model Law was based on article 13(2) of the Rules, which uses the phrase ‘de jure or de facto’. Like article 14 of the Model Law, article 13(2) of the Rules permits an arbitrator to resign and withdraw from an arbitration proceeding, and allows the parties to terminate the mandate of an arbitrator where it is impossible for him or her to perform his or her functions due to a factual and/or legal impediment.
In the last few decades, the discovery of large ditched enclosures in Iberia has revealed the diversity and complexity of deposition and manipulation of human bone remains. Alongside traditional ritual burials (mainly megalithic tombs and hypogea), fragmented and scattered human bones mixed with other kinds of material culture began to appear in many features. This is the case for Ditch 5 at Marroquíes, which offers an excellent opportunity to explore this ritual behaviour. Based on a multi-proxy approach, three main conclusions can be drawn: 1) the skeletal elements present show deliberate selection of particular categories of bones; 2) depositional episodes included the remains of people who died at different points in time and were subject to different taphonomic processes, and 3) mobility patterns indicate that all individuals, with one possible exception, were local. The movement and manipulations of body parts may reflect the active role of people after death as social and symbolic elements that retain agency and capacity for action.
Carnivores play an important role in ecosystem functioning as apex predators. However, most carnivore species are threatened or have been extirpated in human-dominated landscapes. The Mediterranean region of central Chile is a biodiversity hotspot, but expansion of agricultural areas such as vineyards is degrading wildlife habitat. We estimated the species richness and composition of carnivore communities in remnant fragments of sclerophyllous forest-shrubland in the vineyard landscapes of central Chile to evaluate the effects of human disturbance at different spatial scales. We tested two hypotheses: (1) vineyard landscapes with higher levels of human disturbance support a lower diversity of native carnivores in fragments of remnant native vegetation compared to landscapes with larger areas of natural habitat, and (2) habitat specialists and generalists respond differentially to human influence at the habitat vs landscape spatial scale. We used camera traps at 12 sites across the study area and evaluated the impact of human disturbance indicators on the richness and detection frequency of carnivore species. We found that human population density negatively affected carnivore richness and was associated with a lower detection frequency of the Vulnerable guiña Leopardus guigna. The presence of domestic dogs also had a negative effect on the detection frequency of the guiña and the two native species of foxes, the culpeo Lycalopex culpaeus and South American grey fox Lycalopex griseus. We conclude that protecting remnants of native forest in vineyard landscapes is crucial for carnivore conservation in central Chile.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). It is only recommended for this indication by European and American guidelines. Other indications of FMT are being studied, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and they have shown promising results.
To identify and review published FMT-related economic evaluations (EEs) to assess their quality and the economic impact of FMT in the treatment of these diseases.
The systematic literature research was conducted in both PubMed and Cochrane to identify EEs published before July 1, 2019.
Study eligibility criteria:
Articles were included if they concerned FMT (whatever the disease and its line of treatment), if they reported full or partial EEs, and if they were written in English. Articles were excluded if they did not concern FMT; if they did not report an EE; or if they were a systematic review, editorial, comment, letter to the editor, practice point, or poster.
A measurement tool, AMSTAR, was used to optimize the quality of this systematic review. Based on the CHEERS checklist, data were identified and extracted from articles. The quality of each EE was assessed using the Drummond checklist.
Overall, 9 EEs were included: all EEs were full evaluations and 8 were cost-utility analyses (CUAs). All EEs had a Drummond score ≥ 7, which indicated high quality. All CUAs related to rCDI and IBD concluded that FMT was cost-effective compared with other reference treatments, at a threshold ≤$50,000/QALY. One EE about initial CDI showed that FMT was dominated by metronidazole.
Despite a limited number of EEs, FMT seems to be a promising and cost-effective treatment for rCDI. More EE studies on other diseases like IBD are necessary to address FMT efficiency for new indications. Therefore, our systematic review provides a framework for healthcare decision making.
As a consequence of axenic growth and the elimination of accompanying bacterial flora, Entamoeba histolytica virulence decreases rapidly, and pathogenicity is lost. This paper evaluated the impact of vitamin supplementation on the pathogenicity of E. histolytica. Growth of E. histolytica trophozoites, cultured axenically in PEHPS (a Spanish acronym for the main ingredients – casein peptone, liver, pancreas extract and bovine serum) medium, with or without vitamins, exhibited a similar growth rate. However, the vitamin-enriched PEHPS preparations expressed 2.65 times more haemolytic activity (at 60 min: 98 vs 48%, P < 0.05), 2.5 times more phospholipase A2 activity at 150 min of incubation and generated more hepatic abscesses (88 vs 60%, P = 0.05) than the preparations without vitamins. The haemolytic and phospholipase A2 activity for the PEHPS − V preparations were restored following vitamin supplementation with A and D. These data highlight, for the first time, that vitamins and specifically vitamin A and D were essential for the recovery of amoebic virulence, lost through axenic growth.
Throughout its range in Latin America, the jaguar Panthera onca is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and by conflict as a result of coexistence with people. This Near Threatened species is a top predator, and is often illegally hunted. Understanding people's attitudes and perceptions and the factors that could influence them is crucial for the conservation of this species. In this study we assess how knowledge, attitudes and perceptions among people in northern Argentina regarding jaguars vary depending on their level of education, age and occupation. We interviewed 810 people living in and around 10 protected areas in northern Argentina. Positive perceptions and attitudes towards the jaguar were associated with economic benefits that people may receive from the species’ presence, such as income from tourism. Unexpectedly, higher levels of formal education were not associated with more positive attitudes and perceptions. Negative attitudes and perceptions towards the species were determined by fear; people see jaguars as a threat to their lives. This study shows that the socio-economic factors that affect the level of tolerance towards jaguars are not related only to economic losses. Our findings provide information for the design, implementation and evaluation of jaguar conservation projects in Argentina.
In preceding chapters, we provided a detailed review of the research and practice of four common, evidence-based psychotherapy approaches for older adults: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), and brief dynamic psychotherapy (BDP). However, many other psychological treatments exist and are of potential interest to the clinician treating older adults. These include all the varieties of cognitive and behavioral therapies; third-wave cognitive behavioral treatments such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT); mindfulness-based approaches such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR); combined approaches such as those used to treat substance use disorders in the elderly that involve cognitive and behavioral strategies, motivational interviewing, and a 12-step approach; treatments with unique proposed mechanisms, including life review and reminiscence therapies (RT); and treatments for unique conditions such as complicated grief. In addition, numerous other psychosocial/nonpharmacologic treatments do not act directly on psychological processes but are also of interest to the clinician; these include music and art therapy and even garden therapy.
In this chapter, we present the basics of the physics and phenomenology of FGKM-type stars. This review is based on recent developments in the observational and theoretical domains of stellar physics, including a variety of techniques – spectroscopy, interferometry, photometry and large-scale stellar surveys. We focus on the advances in radiative transfer modelling and spectroscopy of stars across the full metallicity range. To provide the reader with the essential supplementary information, we also give a brief qualitative account of the structure and evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars and of stellar nucleosynthesis. We also provide a brief overview of new models of stellar atmospheres and stellar spectra, with emphasis on non-LTE and hydrodynamics. Lastly, we discuss some of the relevant observational studies of stellar abundances in the context of stellar populations, evolution of metal-poor stars and Galactic archeology.
Radiative transfer, i.e., the transport of radiant energy through a medium, can be described in several alternative ways, either at macroscopic or microscopic level. In order to set a common physical background for the applications of radiative transfer to stellar and planetary atmospheres, presented in the second part of this book, a macroscopic representation of the radiation field derived from radiometry, a microscopic picture based on the kinetics of photons and the transport of radiant energy in terms of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory are discussed.
We consider the fundamental physical processes in stellar atmospheres, together with the basic equations, approximations and techniques used to model them. The coupling of the RT equations with the statistical equilibrium equations is discussed, as well as the role of the atomic properties. The structure equations (equation of state, momentum and energy conservation) that complete the set of equations required to compute a model atmosphere are examined, as well as the broadening mechanisms that change the appearance of the spectral line.
In many cases, the quantitative spectroscopy of early-type stars requires to account for their line-driven winds, and theoretical models of such winds are based on a consistent calculation of the radiative line acceleration. Both topics ask for a thorough understanding of radiative transfer in expanding atmospheres. In this chapter, we concentrate on three issues, and compare, when possible, with corresponding results forplane-parallel, hydrostatic conditions: First, we investigate how sphericity alone affects the radiation field in those cases where Doppler shifts can be neglected (continua). Subsequently, we consider the impact of velocity fields on the line transfer, both by applying the so-called Sobolev approximation,and by presenting the more exact comoving-frame approach. Restrictions and extensions of both methods are discussed. Finally, we concentrate on the coupling between radiation field and occupation numbers via the NLTE rate equations. We illustrate the basic problem within the conventional Lambda Iteration, which is then solved by means of the so-called Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI), and by a "preconditioning" of the rate equations.
In a study of late antique and early medieval monastic rules in the West, one logical starting point is Benedict of Aniane’s early ninth-century Codex regularum. We depend to an enormous degree on the sources that he has provided for us. The Codex (in the Munich manuscript, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 28118) is by far the most extensive early medieval collection of monastic rules: twenty-four rules for monks and six rules for nuns. Many of them would probably have been lost if Benedict of Aniane had not collected and preserved them. He also produced a second work, the Concordia regularum, in which he arranged most of the material of his collection so that it corresponded thematically, chapter by chapter, with what we now think of as the Rule of St. Benedict (RB, and what he thought of as the work of the sixth-century Benedict of Nursia). Both works, the Codex and the Concordia, formed part of his endeavor to promote the RB as a rule for all Frankish monasteries. He wanted to show that the RB formed the culmination of a rich tradition of monastic norms (not excluding exemplars from the East).
This chapter considers a selection of numerical methods developed since 1960s for solving radiative transfer (RT) problems in stellar atmospheres and in all other diluted media where non-LTE effects are important. Special emphasis is put on the solution of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) when the source function is given, because its so-called formal solution constitutes a necessary step in any iterative procedure for the solution of more general RT problems. The application of different methods to the spectral line formation the line(s) radiation field and the statistical equilibrium (SE) equation(s) for the atomic-level populations involved is discussed for both linear and nonlinear problems.
By absorbing and scattering both incident and emergent radiation, an atmosphere regulates a planet's thermal, chemical and cloud structure, and cooling through time. The photons transmitted through or scattered by an atmosphere provide one of our primary sources of information about planetary composition. Therefore, any effort to fully characterize an extrasolar planet must incorporate atmospheric models that attempt to fully describe the relevant processes and thereby predict a planet's reflected and emitted spectra. Brown dwarfs, ultracool substellar objects with atmospheric composition similar to those of many gas giant planets, provide a tractable training ground to test our ideas and models about atmospheric processes under conditions more exotic than found in the Solar System. This chapter aims to concisely summarize the various ingredients that must be included in any model and the overall process of atmospheric model creation for ultracool dwarfs and extrasolar planets. These considerations include the basic atmospheric structure equations, radiative transfer, atmospheric chemistry, clouds and various disequilibrium processes. Each of these topics is worthy of in-depth treatments, and pointers to appropriate review articles are provided for those wishing to understand each component in more detail.