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Shakespeare's tragic characters have often been seen as forerunners of modern personhood. It has been assumed that Shakespeare was able to invent such lifelike figures in part because of his freedom from the restrictions of classical form. Curtis Perry instead argues that characters such as Hamlet and King Lear have seemed modern to us in part because they are so robustly connected to the tradition of Senecan tragedy. Resituating Shakespearean tragedy in this way - as backward looking as well as forward looking - makes it possible to recover a crucial political dimension. Shakespeare saw Seneca as a representative voice from post-republican Rome: in plays such as Coriolanus and Othello he uses Senecan modes of characterization to explore questions of identity in relation to failures of republican community. This study has important implications for the way we understand character, community, and alterity in early modern drama.
We can see the central reality of metals at all scales of the war. Young American men jumping into the frigid ocean off Omaha Beach on the morning of June 6, 1944, to give one of the more well-known battlefield examples, faced waves of machine-gun fire and pulses of artillery. They were keenly aware of the deadly, hurling metal all around them. “When I landed on Omaha Beach and hit that sand, I got behind any obstacle I could,” remembered Felix Branham. “Guys would try to get behind stones as big as coconuts, anything you could get behind, maybe even as small as a baseball. You’d try to keep the bullets away. They were firing at us with everything. I dare say we were on the beach an hour and a half with bullets flying. Bullets nicked off of my helmet. One went through my ammo belt.”1 Almost 1,500 Americans were killed at Omaha Beach that morning, and twice as many were wounded, bodies pierced by high speed metal and explosive minerals. At Omaha, the most storied of the five beachheads, almost everything went wrong that morning, leaving most of the first two waves of soldiers sitting ducks for the well-armed German defenses. “Men burdened with equipment and explosives were excellent targets for enemy fire as they unloaded in water often several feet deep,” reported the army on the tragedy six months later. The surviving American soldiers experienced the terror described by Branham, the primal fear of machine guns pinning them down in open territory – metal spraying like rain across vast stretches of space. Once these soldiers secured the beach, they began to reverse the flow of metals, in the form of the tanks, machines, and armaments unloaded onto the beach ready for service.2
People with severe mental illness (SMI) have numerous risk factors that may predispose them to food insecurity (FI), however the prevalence of FI and its effects on health are under-researched in this population. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of FI and its relationship to lifestyle factors in with SMI. This cross-sectional study recruited people with SMI receiving long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medication from community services at three sites in Sydney, Australia. Assessments were completed on physical health and lifestyle factors. Chi square tests, independent samples t-tests and binary logistic regression analyses were calculated to examine relationships between lifestyle factors and FI. 233 people completed the assessments: 154 were male (66%), mean age 44.8 ± 12.7 years, and the majority (70%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. FI was present in 104 (45%). People with FI were less likely to consume fruit (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.74, p = 0.003), vegetables (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.69, p = 0.001) and protein-based foods (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.83, p = 0.011) at least once daily, engaged in less moderate to vigorous physical activity (minutes) (OR = 0.997 (95% CI 0.993 to 1.000), p = 0.044), and were more likely to smoke (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.32, p = 0.026). FI is highly prevalent among people with SMI receiving LAI antipsychotic medications. Food-insecure people with SMI engage in less healthy lifestyle behaviours, increasing the risk of future non-communicable disease.
Conferences are designed for knowledge translation, but traditional conference evaluations are inadequate. We lack studies that explore alternative metrics to traditional evaluation metrics. We sought to determine how traditional evaluation metrics and Twitter metrics performed using data from a conference of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP).
This study used a retrospective design to compare social media posts and tradition evaluations related to an annual specialty conference. A post (“tweet”) on the social media platform Twitter was included if it associated with a session. We differentiated original and discussion tweets from retweets. We weighted the numbers of tweets and retweets to comprise a novel Twitter Discussion Index. We extracted the speaker score from the conference evaluation. We performed descriptive statistics and correlation analyses.
Of a total of 3,804 tweets, 2,218 (58.3%) were session-specific. Forty-eight percent (48%) of all sessions received tweets (mean = 11.7 tweets; 95% CI of 0 to 57.5; range, 0–401), with a median Twitter Discussion Index score of 8 (interquartile range, 0 to 27). In the 111 standard presentations, 85 had traditional evaluation metrics and 71 received tweets (p > 0.05), while 57 received both. Twenty (20 of 71; 28%) moderated posters and 44% (40 of 92) posters or oral abstracts received tweets without traditional evaluation metrics. We found no significant correlation between Twitter Discussion Index and traditional evaluation metrics (R = 0.087).
We found no correlation between traditional evaluation metrics and Twitter metrics. However, in many sessions with and without traditional evaluation metrics, audience created real-time tweets to disseminate knowledge. Future conference organizers could use Twitter metrics as a complement to traditional evaluation metrics to evaluate knowledge translation and dissemination.
Intelligent control of friction and adhesion has attracted much attention for use in soft robotics, human-sensor interfaces, and bionics. Here we introduce a shape memory photonic crystal (SMPC) polymer that can be programmed and recovered by solvent to realize switchable surface friction. Micro sliding test show that the friction coefficient on this SMPC in the programmed and recovered state can vary by three times. We also show that the mechanism behind this switchable friction coefficient is the surface roughness related adhesion.
This article begins with a simple question: How did white evangelicals respond to the civil rights movement? Traditional answers are overwhelmingly political. As the story goes, white evangelicals became Republicans. In contrast, this article finds racial meaning in the places white evangelicals, themselves, insisted were most important: their churches. The task of evangelization did not stop for a racial revolution. What white evangelicals did with race as they tried to grow their churches is the subject of this article. Using the archives of the leading evangelical church growth theorists, this article traces the emergence and transformation of the Church Growth Movement (CGM). It shows how evangelistic strategies created in caste-conscious India in the 1930s came to be deployed in American metropolitan areas decades later. After first resisting efforts to bring these missionary approaches to the United States, CGM founder Donald McGavran embraced their use in the wake of the civil rights movement. During the 1970s, the CGM defined white Americans as “a people” akin to castes or tribes in the Global South. Drawing on the revival of white ethnic identities in American culture, church growth leaders imagined whiteness as pluralism rather than hierarchy. Embracing a culture of consumption, they sought to sell an appealing brand of evangelicalism to the white American middle class. The CGM story illuminates the transnational movement of people and ideas in evangelicalism, the often-creative tension between evangelical practices and American culture, and the ways in which racism inflected white evangelicals’ most basic theological commitments.
This paper presents the results of the work of the new field initiative launched by the British Museum at the Darband-i Rania pass in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The pass is located at the northeastern corner of Lake Dokan, where, though now subsumed into the lake, the Lower Zab flows from the Peshdar into the Rania Plain. It is a strategic location on a major route from Mesopotamia into Iran, and control of both the road and the river must always have been important. The aim of the work, which commenced in autumn of 2016, is to explore a cluster of sites that commanded the pass, with a particular focus on the first millennium b.c. Excavation is being carried out principally at two sites: Qalatga Darband, a large fortified site at the western end of the pass, and Usu Aska, a fort inside the pass itself. The occupations of these two sites are predominantly Parthian and Assyrian respectively. Smaller operations have also been carried out at Murad Rasu, a multi-period site situated on a headland across the waters on the southern shore of Lake Dokan. The results have included the discovery at Qalatga Darband of a monumental complex built of stone and roofed with terracotta roof tiles containing the smashed remains of Hellenistic statuary. Other features indicative of Hellenistic material culture are Mediterranean-type oil-presses and Corinthian column bases and capitals. At Usu Aska remains are being uncovered of an Assyrian fortification of massive proportions.
Potential yield losses in grain sorghum due to weed interference based on quantitative data from the major grain sorghum-growing areas of the United States are reported by the WSSA Weed Loss Committee. Weed scientists and extension specialists who researched weed control in grain sorghum provided data on grain sorghum yield loss due to weed interference in their region. Data were requested from up to 10 individual experiments per calendar year over 10 yr between 2007 and 2016. Based on the summarized information, farmers in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Texas would potentially lose an average of 37%, 38%, 30%, 56%, 61%, and 60% of their grain sorghum yield with no weed control, and have a corresponding annual monetary loss of US $19 million, 302 million, 7 million, 32 million, 25 million, and 314 million, respectively. The overall average yield loss due to weed interference was estimated to be 47% for this grain sorghum-growing region. Thus, US farmers would lose approximately 5,700 million kg of grain sorghum valued at approximately US $953 million annually if weeds are not controlled. With each dollar invested in weed management (based on estimated weed control cost of US $100 ha−1), there would be a return of US $3.80, highlighting the return on investment in weed management and the importance of continued weed science research for sustaining high grain sorghum yield and profitability in the United States.
Italian ryegrass is one of the most troublesome weeds worldwide because of the rapid evolution of herbicide resistance in this species. Oregon tall fescue seed production requires high seed purity, demanding good control of Italian ryegrass. The necessity to control herbicide-resistant Italian ryegrass and maintain tall fescue seed purity created interest in new chemical management options. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed viability of Italian ryegrass biotypes and the feasibility of this management strategy for use in tall fescue seed production. Eight treatments of synthetic auxin herbicides were applied to Italian ryegrass and tall fescue at two growth stages (boot and anthesis): dicamba (1.0 and 2.2 kg ae ha−1), 2,4-D (1.1 and 2.2 kg ae ha−1), aminopyralid (0.5 kg ae ha−1), dicamba + 2.4-D (0.8 + 1.1 kg ae ha−1), 2.4-D + clopyralid (1.1 + 0.3 kg ae ha−1), and halauxifen-methyl + florasulam (0.4 kg ae ha−1 + 0.4 kg ai ha−1). Aminopyralid applied at boot and anthesis stages of Italian ryegrass reduced seed viability. Aminopyralid treatments reduced seed viability and weight of Italian ryegrass more than 50% compared to the control. Four biotypes from different locations in western Oregon with different types of herbicide resistance were sprayed, and differences in aminopyralid effect among Italian ryegrass biotypes were documented. Aminopyralid reduced the speed of germination by 1 to 2 d. Aminopyralid treatments had a greater effect when applied at the anthesis stage and had a greater negative impact on tall fescue. Tall fescue plants were more susceptible to aminopyralid, so this management practice is not feasible for tall fescue seed production. Future studies are needed to understand the physiological mechanisms involved in the reduced seed viability and to define an optimum aminopyralid rate for different Italian ryegrass biotypes.
We first published on the subject of pregnancy management via fetal reduction (FR) 30 years ago . Dramatic changes have occurred in medical technology, outcomes, and patient choices – large demographic and cultural shifts that have driven the pace and direction of progress and research [2, 3].
In a tertiary-care hospital and affiliated long-term care facility, a stewardship intervention focused on patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) was associated with a significant reduction in unnecessary non-CDI antibiotic therapy. However, there was no significant reduction in total non-CDI therapy or in the frequency of CDI recurrence.
Currently, there is limited knowledge on the impact of father-only sessions or parenting programs supporting impending fatherhood. This research explored an antenatal dads program aimed at fathers to assess the benefits of such interventions.
Literature regarding parenting programs and early childhood education initiatives, especially those aimed at children and families in disadvantaged circumstance, have been demonstrated to act as a buffer to poorer health and lifestyle outcomes in later life.
A qualitative research approach was used to explore the experiences of 16 fathers and 6 staff of a community-based parenting program with sessions focusing on fatherhood.
Four main themes were identified from the data regarding the experiences of groups engaged with the Antenatal Dads and First Year Families program. The first theme ‘Knowledge and Capacity Building’ stated that the information provided in the program helped fathers to be better informed and prepared for their impending fatherhood. The second theme was ‘Mental Health Awareness’ and identified the importance of raising awareness of depression and suicide in fathers, including where and how to get help. The third theme was ‘Soft-Entry’ and highlighted how the attendance at one service helped participants to learn about additional services through word of mouth and targeted promotion. The final theme was ‘Feeling Connected’, which helped fathers to feel more connected with the process of childbirth and development including playing and engaging with their children. Overall, the fathers found that the male-only sessions assisted them by supporting frank discussions on fatherhood. Additionally, the study helped identify the advantages of fathers meeting other fathers through attendance in the program, or even other couples in similar situations that helped fathers to feel less lonely regarding their situation.
Sink drainage systems are not amenable to standard methods of cleaning and disinfection. Disinfectants applied as a foam might enhance efficacy of drain decontamination due to greater persistence and increased penetration into sites harboring microorganisms.
To examine the efficacy and persistence of foam-based products in reducing sink drain colonization with gram-negative bacilli.
During a 5-month period, different methods for sink drain disinfection in patient rooms were evaluated in a hospital and its affiliated long-term care facility. We compared the efficacy of a single treatment with 4 different foam products in reducing the burden of gram-negative bacilli in the sink drain to a depth of 2.4 cm (1 inch) below the strainer. For the most effective product, the effectiveness of foam versus liquid-pouring applications, and the effectiveness of repeated foam treatments were evaluated.
A foam product containing 3.13% hydrogen peroxide and 0.05% peracetic acid was significantly more effective than the other 3 foam products. In comparison to pouring the hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid disinfectant, the foam application resulted in significantly reduced recovery of gram-negative bacilli on days 1, 2, and 3 after treatment with a return to baseline by day 7. With repeated treatments every 3 days, a progressive decrease in the bacterial load recovered from sink drains was achieved.
An easy-to-use foaming application of a hydrogen peroxide- and peracetic acid-based disinfectant suppressed sink-drain colonization for at least 3 days. Intermittent application of the foaming disinfectant could potentially reduce the risk for dissemination of pathogens from sink drains.
Experimental data for turbulent solid–liquid flow in a vertical pipe were collected for glass beads with diameters from 0.5 mm to 5 mm, at concentrations up to 2 % v/v, and Reynolds numbers from 200 000 to 350 000. In addition, data for crushed glass, steel shot and two sizes of stainless-steel cylinders were also collected. The experiments span from the intermediate to the inertia-dominated regimes, and the results include direct measurements for the pressure drops, the solids concentration and the three velocity components for each of the phases using laser Doppler velocimetry and phase Doppler anemometry. In addition, the results include the Reynolds stresses, the granular temperature, the kinetic energy and calculations for the turbulence modulation. The results show augmentation of turbulence for all the conditions studied. The velocity fluctuations for the solid and the liquid are reduced with increasing Reynolds numbers at all conditions. The Reynolds number dictates the behaviour of the relative velocity with concentration: for the Reynolds number of 350 000, the relative velocity increases with increasing concentrations, which can be explained by a decrease in the solid shear and an increase in the solid-phase pressure with rising concentration. In contrast, for the Reynolds number of 200 000, the relative velocity decreases with increasing concentrations, which can be attributed to an increase in drag force at higher concentration. The unique dataset presented begins to close the gap in knowledge for two-phase flow experimentation at concentrations above 0.7 % v/v and Reynolds numbers above 30 000.