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This paper presents the results of the work of the new field initiative launched by the British Museum at the Darband-i Rania pass in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The pass is located at the northeastern corner of Lake Dokan, where, though now subsumed into the lake, the Lower Zab flows from the Peshdar into the Rania Plain. It is a strategic location on a major route from Mesopotamia into Iran, and control of both the road and the river must always have been important. The aim of the work, which commenced in autumn of 2016, is to explore a cluster of sites that commanded the pass, with a particular focus on the first millennium b.c. Excavation is being carried out principally at two sites: Qalatga Darband, a large fortified site at the western end of the pass, and Usu Aska, a fort inside the pass itself. The occupations of these two sites are predominantly Parthian and Assyrian respectively. Smaller operations have also been carried out at Murad Rasu, a multi-period site situated on a headland across the waters on the southern shore of Lake Dokan. The results have included the discovery at Qalatga Darband of a monumental complex built of stone and roofed with terracotta roof tiles containing the smashed remains of Hellenistic statuary. Other features indicative of Hellenistic material culture are Mediterranean-type oil-presses and Corinthian column bases and capitals. At Usu Aska remains are being uncovered of an Assyrian fortification of massive proportions.
Potential yield losses in grain sorghum due to weed interference based on quantitative data from the major grain sorghum growing areas of the United States of America are reported by the WSSA Weed Loss Committee. Weed scientists and extension specialists who researched weed control in grain sorghum provided data on grain sorghum yield loss due to weed interference in their region. Data were requested from up to 10 individual experiments per calendar year over 10 years between 2007 and 2016. Based on the summarized information, farmers in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Texas would potentially lose an average of 37, 38, 30, 56, 61, and 60% of their grain sorghum yield with no weed control, and have a corresponding annual monetary loss of US$ 19, 302, 7, 32, 25, and 314 million, respectively. The overall average yield loss due to weed interference was estimated to be 47% for this grain sorghum growing region. Thus, farmers in the USA would lose approximately 5.7 million tonnes of grain sorghum valued at approximately US$ 953 million annually if weeds are not controlled. With each dollar invested in weed management (based on estimated weed control cost of US$ 100 ha-1), there would be a return of US$ 3.80, highlighting the return on investment in weed management and the importance of continued weed science research for sustaining high grain sorghum yield and profitability in the USA.
Italian ryegrass is one of the most troublesome weeds worldwide because of the rapid evolution of herbicide resistance in this species. Oregon tall fescue seed production requires high seed purity, demanding good control of Italian ryegrass. The necessity to control herbicide-resistant Italian ryegrass and maintain tall fescue seed purity created interest in new chemical management options. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed viability of Italian ryegrass biotypes and the feasibility of this management strategy for use in tall fescue seed production. Eight treatments of synthetic auxin herbicides were applied to Italian ryegrass and tall fescue at two growth stages (boot and anthesis): dicamba (1.0 and 2.2 kg ae ha−1), 2,4-D (1.1 and 2.2 kg ae ha−1), aminopyralid (0.5 kg ae ha−1), dicamba + 2.4-D (0.8 + 1.1 kg ae ha−1), 2.4-D + clopyralid (1.1 + 0.3 kg ae ha−1), and halauxifen-methyl + florasulam (0.4 kg ae ha−1 + 0.4 kg ai ha−1). Aminopyralid applied at boot and anthesis stages of Italian ryegrass reduced seed viability. Aminopyralid treatments reduced seed viability and weight of Italian ryegrass more than 50% compared to the control. Four biotypes from different locations in western Oregon with different types of herbicide resistance were sprayed, and differences in aminopyralid effect among Italian ryegrass biotypes were documented. Aminopyralid reduced the speed of germination by 1 to 2 d. Aminopyralid treatments had a greater effect when applied at the anthesis stage and had a greater negative impact on tall fescue. Tall fescue plants were more susceptible to aminopyralid, so this management practice is not feasible for tall fescue seed production. Future studies are needed to understand the physiological mechanisms involved in the reduced seed viability and to define an optimum aminopyralid rate for different Italian ryegrass biotypes.
We first published on the subject of pregnancy management via fetal reduction (FR) 30 years ago . Dramatic changes have occurred in medical technology, outcomes, and patient choices – large demographic and cultural shifts that have driven the pace and direction of progress and research [2, 3].
In a tertiary-care hospital and affiliated long-term care facility, a stewardship intervention focused on patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) was associated with a significant reduction in unnecessary non-CDI antibiotic therapy. However, there was no significant reduction in total non-CDI therapy or in the frequency of CDI recurrence.
Currently, there is limited knowledge on the impact of father-only sessions or parenting programs supporting impending fatherhood. This research explored an antenatal dads program aimed at fathers to assess the benefits of such interventions.
Literature regarding parenting programs and early childhood education initiatives, especially those aimed at children and families in disadvantaged circumstance, have been demonstrated to act as a buffer to poorer health and lifestyle outcomes in later life.
A qualitative research approach was used to explore the experiences of 16 fathers and 6 staff of a community-based parenting program with sessions focusing on fatherhood.
Four main themes were identified from the data regarding the experiences of groups engaged with the Antenatal Dads and First Year Families program. The first theme ‘Knowledge and Capacity Building’ stated that the information provided in the program helped fathers to be better informed and prepared for their impending fatherhood. The second theme was ‘Mental Health Awareness’ and identified the importance of raising awareness of depression and suicide in fathers, including where and how to get help. The third theme was ‘Soft-Entry’ and highlighted how the attendance at one service helped participants to learn about additional services through word of mouth and targeted promotion. The final theme was ‘Feeling Connected’, which helped fathers to feel more connected with the process of childbirth and development including playing and engaging with their children. Overall, the fathers found that the male-only sessions assisted them by supporting frank discussions on fatherhood. Additionally, the study helped identify the advantages of fathers meeting other fathers through attendance in the program, or even other couples in similar situations that helped fathers to feel less lonely regarding their situation.
Sink drainage systems are not amenable to standard methods of cleaning and disinfection. Disinfectants applied as a foam might enhance efficacy of drain decontamination due to greater persistence and increased penetration into sites harboring microorganisms.
To examine the efficacy and persistence of foam-based products in reducing sink drain colonization with gram-negative bacilli.
During a 5-month period, different methods for sink drain disinfection in patient rooms were evaluated in a hospital and its affiliated long-term care facility. We compared the efficacy of a single treatment with 4 different foam products in reducing the burden of gram-negative bacilli in the sink drain to a depth of 2.4 cm (1 inch) below the strainer. For the most effective product, the effectiveness of foam versus liquid-pouring applications, and the effectiveness of repeated foam treatments were evaluated.
A foam product containing 3.13% hydrogen peroxide and 0.05% peracetic acid was significantly more effective than the other 3 foam products. In comparison to pouring the hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid disinfectant, the foam application resulted in significantly reduced recovery of gram-negative bacilli on days 1, 2, and 3 after treatment with a return to baseline by day 7. With repeated treatments every 3 days, a progressive decrease in the bacterial load recovered from sink drains was achieved.
An easy-to-use foaming application of a hydrogen peroxide- and peracetic acid-based disinfectant suppressed sink-drain colonization for at least 3 days. Intermittent application of the foaming disinfectant could potentially reduce the risk for dissemination of pathogens from sink drains.
Experimental data for turbulent solid–liquid flow in a vertical pipe were collected for glass beads with diameters from 0.5 mm to 5 mm, at concentrations up to 2 % v/v, and Reynolds numbers from 200 000 to 350 000. In addition, data for crushed glass, steel shot and two sizes of stainless-steel cylinders were also collected. The experiments span from the intermediate to the inertia-dominated regimes, and the results include direct measurements for the pressure drops, the solids concentration and the three velocity components for each of the phases using laser Doppler velocimetry and phase Doppler anemometry. In addition, the results include the Reynolds stresses, the granular temperature, the kinetic energy and calculations for the turbulence modulation. The results show augmentation of turbulence for all the conditions studied. The velocity fluctuations for the solid and the liquid are reduced with increasing Reynolds numbers at all conditions. The Reynolds number dictates the behaviour of the relative velocity with concentration: for the Reynolds number of 350 000, the relative velocity increases with increasing concentrations, which can be explained by a decrease in the solid shear and an increase in the solid-phase pressure with rising concentration. In contrast, for the Reynolds number of 200 000, the relative velocity decreases with increasing concentrations, which can be attributed to an increase in drag force at higher concentration. The unique dataset presented begins to close the gap in knowledge for two-phase flow experimentation at concentrations above 0.7 % v/v and Reynolds numbers above 30 000.
Vestibular impairment (VI) and cognitive impairment (CI) are risk factors for senior falls. We tested the feasibility of a self-directed 12-week vestibular rehabilitation (VR) program in Memory Clinic patients (65 years+) with a fall, CI and VI. We assessed recruitment, exercise adherence and ability to complete questionnaires/assessments. Twelve patients with CI and falls were screened and 8/12 (75% – prevalence) had VI. All patients completed the screening tests/questionnaires (100% – completeness); 7/8 patients were recruited (87.5% – recruitment); 1/7 (85.7% – attrition) patient attended follow-up. VI is prevalent in patients with CI experiencing falls but traditional VR is not feasible, so a novel delivery of VR must be explored.
For simplicity’s sake, standard population genetic models of host–parasite coevolution often exclude ecological and epidemiological detail. In particular, they assume that each host is exposed to a single infectious propagule, regardless of the parasite’s prevalence. On the other hand, standard epidemiological models usually assume that all hosts are equally susceptible to infection. Here, we summarise models in which we relax these simplifying assumptions, thereby allowing for feedbacks between evolution, ecology, and epidemiology. One major result from these models is that, under certain general conditions, a parasite’s potential for disease spread (R0) decreases as genetic diversity for resistance increases in the host population. Moreover, R0 can increase if we allow the parasite population to track common host genotypes. Feedbacks between ecology and evolution mean that as a common genotype comes to dominate the host population, the parasite population adapts to preferentially infect this genotype, increasing the prevalence of infection and the mean number of parasite exposures per host. We further connect these findings to the major evolutionary hypothesis that coevolving parasites can favour sexual reproduction.
Sarcosine, which is freely sold as a dietary supplement, has pharmacological activity to boost functioning of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and hence it is a biologically rational treatment for schizophrenia. The small number of studies carried out to date provide some evidence for its efficacy and psychiatrists could consider suggesting its use to their patients.
In Canada, recreational use of cannabis was legalized in October 2018. This policy change along with recent publications evaluating the efficacy of cannabis for the medical treatment of epilepsy and media awareness about its use have increased the public interest about this agent. The Canadian League Against Epilepsy Medical Therapeutics Committee, along with a multidisciplinary group of experts and Canadian Epilepsy Alliance representatives, has developed a position statement about the use of medical cannabis for epilepsy. This article addresses the current Canadian legal framework, recent publications about its efficacy and safety profile, and our understanding of the clinical issues that should be considered when contemplating cannabis use for medical purposes.