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As image analysis expands into clinical and basic applications it is important that users be aware of opportunities and limitations. A common image analysis workflow involves the digitization of stained tissue sections into a red-green-blue (RGB) colour model for quantitative interpretation. Upstream of the digital image, quality and variability can be degraded at each step (tissue handling, fixation, sectioning, staining, image acquisition). Digital image analysis presents additional steps where variables can affect data quality. Image analysis platforms are not uniform. Aside from interface preferences, some introduce unintended variability due to their processing architecture that may not be obvious to the end-user. One important component of this is colour space representation: hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) vs. colour deconvolution (CD). A potential weakness of analyses within the HSI colour space is the mis-identification of darkly stained pixels, particularly when more than one stain is present. We were interested to discover whether HSI or CD provided greater fidelity in a typical immunoperoxidase/hematoxylin dataset.
Fifty-nine samples were processed using HSI- and CD-based analyses. Processed image pairs were compared with the original sample to determine which processed image provided a more accurate representation. CD proved superior to HSI in 94.9% of the analyzed image pairs. Where the option exists, CD-based image analysis is strongly recommended.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.To describe differences between HSI and CD colour spaces
2.To explain limitations in the use of HSI-based analyses
3.To be aware of recent developments in CD-based platforms
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been used in many epidemiological studies to assess adolescent mental health problems, but cross-country comparisons of the self-report SDQ are scarce and so far failed to find a good-fitting, common, invariant measurement model across countries. The present study aims to evaluate and establish a version of the self-report SDQ that allows for a valid cross-country comparison of adolescent self-reported mental health problems.
Using the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, the measurement model and measurement invariance of the 20 items of the self-report SDQ measuring adolescent mental health problems were evaluated. Nationally representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year old adolescents (n = 33 233) from seven countries of different regions in Europe (Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia) were used.
In order to establish a good-fitting and common measurement model, the five reverse worded items of the self-report SDQ had to be removed. Using this revised version of the self-report SDQ, the SDQ-R, partial measurement invariance was established, indicating that latent factor means assessing conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationships problems and hyperactivity-inattention problems could be validly compared across the countries in this study. Results showed that adolescents in Greece scored relatively low on almost all problem subscales, whereas adolescents in Poland scored relatively high on almost all problem subscales. Adolescents in the Netherlands reported the most divergent profile of mental health problems with the lowest levels of conduct problems, low levels of emotional symptoms and peer relationship problems, but the highest levels of hyperactivity-inattention problems.
With six factor loadings being non-invariant, partial measurement invariance was established, indicating that the 15-item SDQ-R could be used in our cross-country comparison of adolescent mental health problems. To move the field of internationally comparative research on adolescent mental health forward, studies should test the applicability of the SDQ-R in other countries in- and outside Europe, continue to develop the SDQ-R as a cross-country invariant measure of adolescent mental health, and examine explanations for the found country differences in adolescent mental health problems.
X.R.F. analysis of steelmaking slags has been done routinely since the 1960s. Fused buttons or pressed powdered pellets are used.
Under certain conditions steelmaking slags may contain appreciable amounts of free lime and metallic iron droplets. These can cause gross inaccuracies in the result of the X.R.F. analysis as the normal correction procedures used in X-ray fluorescence techniques can not compensate for them.
A special sample preparation technique as well as appropriate analytical procedures will be discussed. Examples of slags with different levels of free lime and metallic iron will be shown.
Using a fast numerical technique, we investigate a large database of investors’ suboptimal nonexercise of short-maturity American call options on dividend-paying stocks listed on the Dow Jones. The correct modeling of the discrete dividend is essential for a correct calculation of the early exercise boundary, as confirmed by theoretical insights. Pricing with stochastic volatility and jumps instead of the Black–Scholes–Merton benchmark cuts the amount lost by investors through suboptimal exercise by one-quarter. The remaining three-quarters are largely unexplained by transaction fees and may be interpreted as an opportunity cost for the investors to monitor optimal exercise.
We report on the formation of gamma phase cuprous iodide (CuI) thin films of various film thickness with high (111) orientation deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of powders attained through a cost-saving extraction method. The study investigated the dependence of structural and optoelectronic properties of the thin films on film thickness. Structural characterisation of the films revealed an increase in crystallite size and a decrease in dislocation density with film thickness which indicated an improvement in the crystallographic microstructure. There was a strong orientation towards (111) growth. The Scanning Electron Microscope images of the CuI thin films showed a compact morphology with an increase in larger grains as film thickness increased. The thin films showed a mean optical transmittance of around 70 % in the visible region with a decreasing trend as thickness increased. There was an observed red shift of the transmittance spectra with film thickness. All thin films also showed good electrical conductivity. However, the figure of merit improved with decreasing thickness. The good optical transmittance and relatively low resistivity qualify the CuI thin films as candidates for electro-optical device applications.
The aim of this article is to describe the rise and fall of the workhouse system in connection with the developments that took place in economic thought in the transition from mercantilism to the Classical tradition. By examining the economic debate about wages, efficiency, labor market, workers’ mobility, and unemployment, we discuss whether the social policy shift epitomized by institutional reforms like the Gilbert Act (1782), the Rose Act (1793), and the Speenhamland system (1795) was accompanied and eventually inspired by a change in the perception of major political economy issues. In doing so, we review the writings of Jacob Vanderlint (d. 1740), George Berkeley (1685–1753), Malachy Postlethwayt (1707?–1767), Josiah Tucker (1713–1799), David Hume (1711–1776), and Adam Smith (1723-1790), among others. Although a direct influence by these writers cannot be proven, the originality of the present work rests on the effort to put into perspective the arguments elaborated by economic thinkers and the proposals made by social reformers so as to identify possible connections between economic theorizing and social legislation.
Monitoring of nesting beaches is often the only feasible and low-cost approach for assessing sea turtle populations. We investigated spatio-temporal patterns of sea turtle nesting activity monitored over 17 successive years in the Lamu archipelago, Kenya. Community-based patrols were conducted on 26 stretches of beach clustered in five major locations. A total of 2,021 nests were recorded: 1,971 (97.5%) green turtle Chelonia mydas nests, 31 (1.5%) hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata nests, 8 (0.4%) olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea nests and 11 (0.5%) unidentified nests. Nesting occurred year-round, increasing during March–July, when 74% of nests were recorded. A stable trend in mean annual nesting densities was observed in all locations. Mean clutch sizes were 117.7 ± SE 1 eggs (range 20–189) for green turtles, 103 ± SE 6 eggs (range 37–150) for hawksbill turtles, and 103 ± SE 6 eggs (range 80–133) for olive ridley turtles. Curved carapace length for green turtles was 65–125 cm, and mean annual incubation duration was 55.5 ± SE 0.05 days. The mean incubation duration for green turtle nests differed significantly between months and seasons but not locations. The hatching success (pooled data) was 81.3% (n = 1,841) and was higher for in situ nests (81.0 ± SE 1.5%) compared to relocated nests (77.8 ± SE 1.4%). The results highlight the important contribution of community-based monitoring in Kenya to sustaining the sea turtle populations of the Western Indian Ocean region.
This paper explores John Commons’s views toward Jews in order to assess whether his published writings contain assertions that today would be stigmatized as anti-Semitic. The evidence we provide shows that Commons’s racial characterization of Jews was framed within a broad and indiscriminate xenophobic framework. With other leading Progressive Era social scientists, in fact, Commons shared the idea that the new immigration from eastern and southern Europe would increase competition in the labor market, drive down wages, and lead Anglo-Saxon men and women to have fewer children, since they would not want them to compete with those who survive on less. Within this general xenophobic context, Commons developed assertions regarding immigrant Jews that show traces of explicit anti-Semitic accusations.
In Left Turn: How Liberal Bias Distorts The American Mind, Tim Groseclose argues that media effects play a crucial role in American politics. His case rests on three arguments: (1) that journalists tend overwhelmingly to be liberal rather than conservative; (2) that their innate political bias slants their views in empirically measurable ways; and (3) that this bias fundamentally shapes American politics, by bringing US citizens further to the left than they would naturally be. According to Groseclose, in a world where media bias did not exist, American citizens would on average hold views close to those of Ben Stein or Bill O'Reilly. In such a world, John McCain would have defeated Barack Obama by a popular vote margin of 56%—42% in the 2008 presidential election.
In making these claims, Groseclose draws on his own research, and on recent media scholarship by both political scientists and economists, making the broader claim that peer-reviewed social science—which seeks to deal with problems such as endogeneity and selection bias—should be the starting point for public arguments about the role of the media. His book, then, is clearly an effort to bring social scientific arguments into mainstream debates. Groseclose makes no secret of his conservative political leanings—but recent books from left-leaning political scientists such as Jacob Hacker and Paul Pierson are equally unapologetic. It is at least plausible that political scientists' typical unwillingness to engage directly in political arguments has weakened the discipline's capacity for public engagement.
In this symposium a diverse group of contributors have been invited to engage with Groseclose's arguments in ways that bring together specific empirical and/or theoretical points and arguments aimed at the broader “political science public sphere” that Perspectives on Politics seeks to nurture. Contributors were asked to consider these five questions: (1): How do we best measure media effects? (2): If media bias exists, what are its plausible sources? (3): Can one use work on media effects to determine what people's views would be in the absence of such bias? (4): Do you agree that American politics is insufficiently representative, and if so what do you consider the primary sources of this problem? (5): What kinds of political and/or media institutions or practices might enhance democratic discourse?—Henry Farrell, Associate Editor
Certain metals (such as Al) are known to cause bone pathologies in humans and animals. While little is known about the mechanism of action of metals on either the formation of bone or on the physical-chemical properties of the mineral phase, there is considerable evidence that (1) Al and Cd directly affect the formation and properties of HA and thus are a causative factor in metal-related defective bone formation—in addition to any cellular effects which they may induce; (2) that other transition metals (such as Cr, V, Ti, Ni, Co), which are used in joint prostheses, significantly affect HA formation; and (3) gallium, the most effective antihypercalcemic agent, affects apatite formation and solubility.
Within the last four years, a number of high profile reports outlining new strategies for pulling African agriculture out of its current impasse have emerged. These include the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme of NEPAD, and the InterAcademy Council Report commissioned by UN Secretary General Koffi Annan. Whilst these strategies are a welcome improvement on those that have characterised African agriculture in the past, it is argued here that like their predecessors, they fail to focus on business-competitive approaches as an integral part of the reform package needed to stimulate African agricultural productivity and development. This paper draws on innovation, business and organisation literature to highlight some of these approaches. It focuses on three concepts: value innovation, lead user focus and organisational value logic.
The objective of this study was to compare length of gestation, fetal growth, and birthweight by race/ethnicity and pregravid weight groups in twin pregnancies. Three thousand and thirty-six twin pregnancies of 28 weeks or more gestation were divided by race/ethnicity (White, Black and Hispanic), and pregravid body mass index (BMI) groups (less than 25.0 vs. 25.0 or more). Outcomes were modeled using multiple regression, controlling for confounders, with White non-Hispanic women as the reference group. Hispanic women had the highest average birthweight and the longest gestation, as well as the lowest proportions of low birthweight, very low birthweight, preterm and early preterm births of the 3 race/ethnicity groups. In the multivariate analyses, Hispanic women had significantly longer gestations (by 7.8 days) and faster rates of fetal growth midgestation (20 to 28 weeks, by 17.4 g/week) and late gestation (after 28 weeks, by 5.3 g/week), whereas Black women had significantly slower rates of fetal growth (by 5.7 g/week and by 4.5 g/week, respectively). These findings in twins reflect the racial and ethnic disparities previously shown in singletons, including the Hispanic paradox of longer gestations and higher rates of fetal growth.
The glaucomas are neurodegenerative diseases involving death of
retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head excavation. A major risk
factor for this neurodegeneration is a harmfully elevated intraocular
pressure (IOP). Human glaucomas are typically complex, progressive
diseases that are prevalent in the elderly. Family history and genetic
factors are clearly important in human glaucoma. Mouse studies have proven
helpful for investigating the genetic and mechanistic basis of complex
diseases. We previously reported inherited, age-related progressive
glaucoma in DBA/2J mice. Here, we report our updated findings from
studying the disease in a large number of DBA/2J mice. The period when
mice have elevated IOP extends from 6 months to 16 months, with 8–9
months representing an important transition to high IOP for many mice.
Optic nerve degeneration follows IOP elevation, with the majority of optic
nerves being severely damaged by 12 months of age. This information should
help with the design of experiments, and we present the data in a manner
that will be useful for future studies of retinal ganglion cell
degeneration and optic neuropathy.
The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that changes in arm anthropometry can be used to determine the risk of faltering growth in twin gestations. Serial data on midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and maternal weight gain were collected from a sample of 156 mothers. Changes in MUAC were monitored from 20 to 34 weeks. Women with a large loss of MUAC (greater than 1.5 cm), particularly when it occurred within two to four weeks of delivery, were significantly heavier, had higher pregravid Body Mass Indexes (BMIs), but gained less weight than mothers with no change in MUAC. In analysis of covariance models adjusting for length of gestation, black ethnicity, males per twin pair, monochorionicity, and baseline MUAC at 20 weeks, a large loss of MUAC was associated with significantly lower birthweight (2263 g vs. 2499 g) and birthweight z-score (–0.92 SDU vs. –0.39 SDU). Changes in MUAC from 20 to 34 weeks, and especially near delivery, are significantly associated with fetal growth in twin pregnancies. A positive change may indicate that the mother has adequate dietary intake or nutrient stores to continue to accrue lean body mass and support fetal growth, while a loss of MUAC indicates that dietary intake or nutrient stores may be inadequate. This simple, relatively precise, measure of change in maternal body composition during pregnancy may be useful in identifying twin pregnancies at risk for faltering intrauterine growth, particularly among overweight or obese women.
The positions Ross & Spurrett (R&S) take on issues of information, causality, functionalism, and emergence are actually implicit in the theory and practice of statistical physics, specifically in the way it relates macroscopic collective coordinates to microscopic physics. The reasons for taking macroscopic physical variables like temperature or magnetization to be real apply equally to mental properties like pain.
Decapod crustacean specimens from the middle Eocene San Juan Formation in central Chiapas represent the first record of Eocene decapods in southern México. New taxa include: Dardanus mexicanus new species (Diogenidae), Lophoranina cristaspina new species, Notopus minutus new species (Raninidae); Verrucoides stenohedra new genus and new species (Xanthidae); Stoaplax nandachare new genus and new species (Goneplacidae); and Viapinnixa alvarezi new species (Pinnotheridae). Verrucoides verrucoides new genus and new combination from the Paleocene of Greenland represents a new combination. In addition, the fauna includes Callianassa sensu lato sp., Laeviranina sp., Calappilia cf. C. hondoensis Rathbun, 1930, Eriosachila sp., and indeterminate calappid and xanthoid taxa. This assemblage bears close relationship with coeval faunas in the Tethyan region of southern Europe and southern North America and with Paleocene faunas of Greenland, strengthening the evidence for previously described patterns of dispersal within the Decapoda.
Evaluation of physician practice is necessary, both to provide feedback for self-improvement and to guide department heads during yearly evaluations.
To develop and implement a peer-based performance evaluation tool and to measure reliability and physician satisfaction.
Each emergency physician in an urban emergency department evaluated their peers by completing a survey consisting of 21 questions on effectiveness in 4 categories: clinical practice, interaction with coworkers and the public, nonclinical departmental responsibilities, and academic activities. A sample of emergency nurses evaluated each emergency physician on a subset of 5 of the questions. Factor analysis was used to assess the reliability of the questions and categories. Intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to determine inter-rater reliability. After receiving their peer evaluations, each physician rated the process’s usefulness to the individual and the department.
225 surveys were completed on 16 physicians. Factor analysis did not distinguish the nonclinical and academic categories as distinct; therefore, the survey questions fell into 3 domains, rather than the 4 hypothesized. The overall intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.43 for emergency physicians, indicating moderate, but far from perfect, agreement. This suggests that variability exists between physician evaluators, and that multiple reviewers are probably required to provide a balanced physician evaluation. The intra-class correlation coefficient for emergency nurses was 0.11, suggesting poor reliability. Overall, 11 of 15 physicians reported the process valuable or mostly valuable, 3 of 15 were unsure and 1 of 15 reported that the process was definitely not valuable.
Physician evaluation by a single individual is probably unreliable. A useful physician peer evaluation tool can be developed. Most physicians view a personalized, broad-based, confidential peer review as valuable.