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Multiple professional societies, nongovernment and government agencies have studied the science of sudden onset disaster mass casualty incidents to create and promote surge response guidelines. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented the health care system with challenges that have limited science to guide the staff, stuff and structure surge response.
This study reviewed the available surge science literature specifically to guide an Emergency Department's surge structural response using a translational science approach to answer the question: How does the concept of sudden onset mass casualty incident (MCI) surge capability apply to the process to expand COVID-19 Pandemic surge structure response?
The available surge structural science literature was reviewed to determine the application to a pandemic response. The on-line ahead of print and print COVID-19 scientific publications, as well as grey, literature were studied to learn the best available COVID-19 surge structural response science. A checklist was created to guide the Emergency Department team's COVID-19 surge structural response.
Increasing literature reported higher rates of psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as of autistic-like features in social and cognitive functioning. However, little attention has been paid to the association between autistic traits (AT) and global functioning in this population. The aim of the present work was to investigate clinical and functional correlates of AT among parents of ASD children, with a specific focus on ruminative thinking.
One hundred and twenty parents of ASD children were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS), the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS).
Subjects with at least 1 psychiatric disorder (39.2%) showed significantly higher AdAS Spectrum and RRS scores. Subjects with a history of school difficulties and with language development alterations scored significantly higher on specific AdAS Spectrum domains. A significant negative correlation was found between SOFAS and AdAS Spectrum scores, as well as between SOFAS and RRS scores. AdAS Spectrum nonverbal communication domain score was identified has a statistically predictive variable for the presence of psychiatric disorders and lower SOFAS scores. Finally, we found a significant indirect effect of AdAS total score on SOFAS score, which was fully mediated by RRS total score.
AT in parents of ASD children seem to be associated with a higher vulnerability toward psychopathology and with a lower global functioning. Ruminative thinking may play a role in the relationship between AT and functional outcome.
In cases of mass-casualty incidents (MCIs), triage represents a fundamental tool for the management of and assistance to the wounded, which helps discriminate not only the priority of attention, but also the priority of referral to the most suitable center.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of different prehospital triage systems based on physiological parameters (Shock Index [SI], Glasgow-Age-Pressure Score [GAP], Revised Trauma Score [RTS], and National Early Warning Score 2 [NEWS2]) to predict early mortality (within 48 hours) from the index event for use in MCIs.
This was a longitudinal prospective observational multi-center study on patients who were attended by Advanced Life Support (ALS) units and transferred to the emergency department (ED) of their reference hospital. Collected were: demographic, physiological, and clinical variables; main diagnosis; and data on early mortality. The main outcome variable was mortality from any cause within 48 hours.
From April 1, 2018 through February 28, 2019, a total of 1,288 patients were included in this study. Of these, 262 (20.3%) participants required assistance for trauma and injuries by external agents. Early mortality within the first 48 hours due to any cause affected 69 patients (5.4%). The system with the best predictive capacity was the NEWS2 with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.891 (95% CI, 0.84-0.94); a sensitivity of 79.7% (95% CI, 68.8-87.5); and a specificity of 84.5% (95% CI, 82.4-86.4) for a cut-off point of nine points, with a positive likelihood ratio of 5.14 (95% CI, 4.31-6.14) and a negative predictive value of 98.7% (95% CI, 97.8-99.2).
Prehospital scores of the NEWS2 are easy to obtain and represent a reliable test, which make it an ideal system to help in the initial assessment of high-risk patients, and to determine their level of triage effectively and efficiently. The Prehospital Emergency Medical System (PhEMS) should evaluate the inclusion of the NEWS2 as a triage system, which is especially useful for the second triage (evacuation priority).
In 1858 an aged and weakened James Stephen, the once-formidable “Over-Secretary of the Colonies” whose influence on the course of British imperial administration included such momentous tasks as drafting the bill to end slavery in the colonies and contributing to much of the administrative–constitutional groundwork for colonial self-government, wrote his son James Fitzjames words of encouragement on his rising writing career: “Time was when I enjoyed a repute as a writer of Edinburgh Reviews and from the bottom of my heart I hope as I sincerely believe that you will eclipse me even more than the elder Mill has been eclipsed by the younger.” For all the power he had exercised in the Colonial Office, and for all the worldly success that Fitzjames might enjoy in the legal profession he had been practicing for a half-decade at that point, there was something unique about literary fame that James wished his son to have.
In this paper, we present the results of the accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS14C) dating campaign performed on samples selected from different levels in Grotta Romanelli (Castro, Italy). Grotta Romanelli is one of the key sites for the chronology of Middle Pleistocene–Holocene in Mediterranean region. After the first excavation campaigns carried out in the first decades of the 1900s, the cave has been systematically re-excavated only since 2015. During the last excavation campaigns different faunal remains were selected and submitted for 14C dating in order to confirm the chronology of the cave with a higher resolution. Isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measurements were also carried out on faunal remains.
Disaster medicine has been identified as a fundamental discipline for health professionals. In Italy, the role of physicians during disaster response is officially recognized by the Italian Code of Medical Ethics and by the Ministry of Education. Nevertheless, few Italian medical schools include this discipline in their curricula.
With the aim of teaching basic knowledge of disaster medicine to Italian medical students, Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine (CRIMEDIM) and Italian Medical Students’ Association (SISM) developed DisasterSISM, a nationwide training project in disaster medicine.
DisasterSISM consists of three courses: Basic, Advanced, and Train-of-Trainers (ToT). The Basic courses are managed by medical students who are trained during the one-week intense ToT. All courses are delivered using innovative training methodologies, such as e-learning, peer education, table-top exercises, and virtual reality simulations.
From 2012 to 2018, a total of 122 courses (111 Basic, 5 Advanced, and 6 ToT) have been delivered. DisasterSISM reached 37 out of 45 Italian medical schools, training more than 2,500 students. A survey conducted after the end of each course showed that participants considered the knowledge in Disaster Medicine essential for their future profession, regardless of the specialty chosen. Students also expressed their appreciation about the blended-learning approach, with a predilection for virtual reality simulations. The comparison between the entrance and the final exam scores showed a significant increase in knowledge.
In six years, DisasterSISM reached the majority of Italian medical schools, providing disaster medicine knowledge to hundreds of undergraduates. Considering the fast growth and diffusion of the project, the significant increase of knowledge, and the positive feedback received from participants, we suggest that the DisasterSISM model be implemented in other countries to widely disseminate information about prevention and disaster preparedness among medical students and health professionals.