To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Broadly speaking, clinical neuropsychology is an applied science concerned with the behavioral expression of brain dysfunction. A thorough clinical interview aimed at understanding previous and current functioning, as well as current factors that may influence the patient’s performance on testing, is the foundation of a neuropsychological evaluation.1 Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments aim to identify the patient’s cognitive strengths and weaknesses, as well as to evaluate the status of overall brain function, different brain regions, and networks. Although there is no standard neuropsychological test battery, the following domains are typically assessed: performance validity, premorbid and intellectual functioning, attention and working memory, processing speed, language abilities, visuospatial skills, verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, executive functioning, and motor abilities. Objective measures of personality and affective functioning are also commonly administered.
Parasitism can affect every aspect of wildlife ecology, from predator avoidance and competition for food to migrations and reproduction. In the wild, these ecological effects can have implications for host fitness and parasite dynamics. In contrast, domestic environments are typically characterised by high host densities, low host diversity, and veterinary interventions, and are not subject to processes like predation, competition, and migration. When wild and domesticated hosts interact via shared parasite populations, understanding and predicting the outcomes of parasite ecology and evolution for wildlife conservation and sustainable farming can be a challenge. We describe the ecology and evolution of ectoparasitic sea lice that are shared by farmed and wild salmon and the insights that experiments, fieldwork, and mathematical modelling have generated for theory and applied problems of host–parasite interactions over the course of a long-term study in Pacific Canada. The salmon–sea lice host–parasite system provides a rich case study to examine the ecological context of host–parasite interactions and to shed light on the principal challenges of parasite management for wildlife health and conservation.
A 32-year-old female is admitted to the emergency department following rescue from a house fire. She is unconscious and her face is covered in soot. There is no evidence of traumatic injury and her blood pressure is normal. Her oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry (SpO2) reads 98% and she is receiving supplementary oxygen via a non-rebreathe oxygen mask. On blood gas analysis, she has a pH of 7.1 with a lactate of 10 mmol l–1, her PO2 is 70 kPa and her PCO2 is 3.5 kPa. Her arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) is 100%, whilst her fractional oxyhaemoglobin content (FO2Hb) is 90%.
Campfire sessions are springing up at conferences and educational institutes as an alternative to PowerPoint presentation workshops. As an educational tool, the campfire session is presented as innovative pedagogy, yet sitting around an open fire, telling stories, talking and ‘yarning’ has long been practised in Indigenous societies. This paper reflects on story-telling as an Indigenous educational method with a focus on traditional Māori society in Aotearoa/New Zealand. More specifically, the authors reflect on a campfire session facilitated at the Ako (reciprocal teaching and learning) Aotearoa (Māori name for New Zealand) Conference in Christchurch in November 2018. The campfire session was designed to draw on participants' experiences and stories of biculturalism and their own bicultural journeys. Its intention was to enable participants to explore what it means to be bicultural in Aotearoa/New Zealand and how being bicultural manifests in practices of ako across a range of disciplines and fields of practice. The paper endeavours to be an instructional article for educators interested in experimenting with the Indigenous teaching method of campfire sessions. Detailed explanations and descriptions of the campfire method are provided to assist teachers to design their own campfire sessions. The campfire method was well received by the initial audience, as evidenced by their full engagement and participation. All participants fed back that they felt enabled to design their own campfire sessions. The main benefit of this method is its engagement and appreciation of Indigenous wisdom. The main challenge is its unpredictability as just like fire, it can produce a wonderful warmth and transformation, but also engender inflamed discussions. It requires skilful facilitation and appreciation of potentially diverse views and opinions.
Trauma accounts for nearly half of all deaths of pregnant women.1 Pregnant women have distinct physiologic and anatomic characteristics which complicate their management following major trauma. Furthermore, the presence of a fetus means there are effectively two patients, both of whom require evaluation and potentially treatment. The priority in resuscitation of pregnant trauma patients is maternal stabilization.2
Acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-resistant rice allows quizlaofop-p-ethyl to be applied as a POST control of troublesome grass weeds. A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, LA, to evaluate the influence of a crop oil concentrate (COC), a silicon-based surfactant plus a nitrogen source (SNS), or a high-concentrate COC (HCOC) in overcoming the grass weed control antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl when mixed with bispyribac-Na. Quizalofop-p-ethyl was applied at 120 g ai ha−1, bispyribac-Na was applied at 34 g ai ha−1, and all adjuvants were applied at 1% vol/vol. Antagonistic interactions were observed at 14 d after treatment (DAT) when quizalofop-p-ethyl was mixed with bispyribac-Na with no adjuvant for control of barnyardgrass, the non–ACCase-tolerant rice cultivars ‘CL-111’ and ‘CLXL-745’, and red rice. At 14 DAT, antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl for control of barnyardgrass was observed when mixed with bispyribac-Na plus COC, SNS, or HCOC, with an observed control of 43%, 63%, and 86%, respectively, compared with an expected control of 95% for quizalofop-p-ethyl alone. However, the antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl when mixed with bispyribac-Na plus HCOC for barnyardgrass control at 14 DAT was overcome by 28 DAT, with an observed control of 91%, compared with an expected control of 97%. Synergistic or neutral interactions were observed at 14 and 28 DAT when COC, SNS, or HCOC was added to a mixture of quizalofop-p-ethyl plus bispyribac-Na for CL-111, CLXL-745, and red rice control. According to the results of this study, HCOC is the most effective adjuvant for quizalofop-p-ethyl and bispyribac-Na mixtures for control of weedy rice and barnyardgrass.
Reproduction (playback) is responsible for the presentation of the full spectrum of sound character captured during the recording process. The control of this and the faithfulness to an original sound has informed modern sound aesthetics. Current modes of reproduction, such as streaming, see the listener more interested in an approximate presentation of sound, rather than a broad and more psychoacoustically pleasing one. In the sonic arts, the practice of sound recycling and its associated methodologies, reproduction is re-contextualised, involving material that is borrowed, reworked and often disconnected from its source. Such issues are considered in this article through the examination of sound recycling in 94 diskont (1995), an album produced by the German act Oval. By studying the use of material and medium in the work, an attempt is made to discuss approaches to sound recycling through conceptual frameworks proposed by Bregman, Deleuze, Guattari and Smalley to provide a forum towards the interpretation of sound recycling in wider sonic arts practices.
Studies of product architecture identify a mirroring process between the product and the organisation. Parallel, empirical studies of effectual entrepreneurship show an accumulation of commitments between stakeholders while negotiating the features of the product in a similar fashion to product mirroring. This paper presents a study that looks at the effects of mirroring architectural complexity in early stages of entrepreneurship. The survey asked participants to interpret parametrically generated artefacts with the purpose of starting a new firm. Responses were analysed for complexity in the lexical semantic structure of ideas. Results show that the effects of artefact complexity are not as straightforward as hypothesised and provide evidence that suggests an important role of artefact morphology in entrepreneurial ideation. These findings support a model of product architecture mirroring that is filtered by design morphology.
There are a number of observed gender differences in the frequency of political discussion, perceived levels of expertise, and importantly, openness to persuasion. This article explores the consequences of these differences for political choices. Given the difficulty in separating influence from homophily with observational data, this paper relies on a group-based experiment. Results suggest that when selecting between candidates, women are more likely to accept information from others, even if the information in the signals is not helpful. Men, on the other hand, often ignore outside signals in favor of sticking with their own choices even when outside signals would be helpful to their decision-making. A reanalysis of a previously published experiment on social communication leads to similar gender differences.
How did personal wealth and slaveownership affect the likelihood Southerners fought for the Confederate Army in the American Civil War? On the one hand, wealthy Southerners had incentives to free-ride on poorer Southerners and avoid fighting; on the other hand, wealthy Southerners were disproportionately slaveowners, and thus had more at stake in the outcome of the war. We assemble a dataset on roughly 3.9 million free citizens in the Confederacy and show that slaveowners were more likely to fight than non-slaveowners. We then exploit a randomized land lottery held in 1832 in Georgia. Households of lottery winners owned more slaves in 1850 and were more likely to have sons who fought in the Confederate Army. We conclude that slaveownership, in contrast to some other kinds of wealth, compelled Southerners to fight despite free-rider incentives because it raised their stakes in the war’s outcome.
Invertebrate seed predators (ISPs) are an important component of agroecosystems that help regulate weed populations. Previous research has shown that ISPs' seed preference depends on the plant and ISP species. Although numerous studies have quantified weed seed losses from ISPs, limited research has been conducted on the potential for ISPs to consume cover crop seeds. Cover crops are sometimes broadcast seeded, and because seeds are left on the soil surface, they are susceptible to ISPs. We hypothesized that (1) ISPs will consume cover crop seeds to the same extent as weed seeds, (2) seed preference will vary by plant and ISP species, and (3) seed consumption will be influenced by seed morphology and nutritional characteristics. We conducted seed preference trials with four common ISPs [Pennsylvania dingy ground beetle (Harpalus pensylvanicus), common black ground beetle (Pterostichus melanarius), Allard's ground cricket (Allonemobius allardi) and fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus)] in laboratory no choice and choice feeding assays. We compared seed predation of ten commonly used cover crop species [barley (Hordeum vulgare), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), forage radish (Raphanus sativus), cereal rye (Secale cereale), white mustard (Sinapis alba), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), red clover (Trifolium pratense), triticale (×Triticosecale) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa)] and three weed species [velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi)]. All four ISPs readily consumed cover crop seeds (P < 0.05), but cover crops with hard seed coats and seed hulls such as hairy vetch and barley were less preferred. Our results suggest that farmers should select cover crop species that are avoided by ISPs if they plan on broadcasting the seed, such as with aerial interseeding.
Kinetic treatments of drift tearing modes that match an inner, resonant layer solution to an external magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solution, characterised by
, can fail to match the ideal MHD boundary condition on the parallel electric field,
. In this paper we demonstrate how consideration of ion sound and ion Landau damping effects achieves this, placing the theory on a firm footing. These effects are found to modify the effective critical
for instability of drift tearing modes, in particular for weak electron temperature gradients. The implications for a realistic hot plasma resonant layer model – involving large ion Larmor radius and semi-collisional electron physics (Connor et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, vol. 54, 2012, 035003) – are determined.
With more than 30 million people moving to North America during the Age of Mass Migration (1850–1913), governments feared that Europe was losing its most talented workers. Using new data from Ireland in the early twentieth century, I provide evidence to the contrary, showing that the sons of farmers and illiterate men were more likely to emigrate than their literate and skilled counterparts. Emigration rates were highest in poorer farming communities with stronger migrant networks. I constructed these data using new name-based techniques to follow people over time and to measure chain migration from origin communities to the United States.
Shunt-related adverse events are frequent in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig despite use of acetylsalicylic acid prophylaxis. A higher incidence of acetylsalicylic acid-resistance and sub-therapeutic acetylsalicylic acid levels has been reported in infants. We evaluated whether using high-dose acetylsalicylic acid can decrease shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig.
In this single-centre retrospective cohort study, we included infants ⩽1-year-old who underwent modified Blalock–Taussig placement and received acetylsalicylic acid in the ICU. We defined acetylsalicylic acid treatment groups as standard dose (⩽7 mg/kg/day) and high dose (⩾8 mg/kg/day) based on the initiating dose.
There were 34 infants in each group. Both groups were similar in age, gender, cardiac defect type, ICU length of stay, and time interval to second stage or definitive repair. Shunt interventions (18 versus 32%, p=0.16), shunt thrombosis (14 versus 17%, p=0.74), and mortality (9 versus 12%, p=0.65) were not significantly different between groups. On multiple logistic regression analysis, single-ventricle morphology (odds ratio 5.2, 95% confidence interval of 1.2–23, p=0.03) and post-operative red blood cells transfusion ⩾24 hours [odds ratio 15, confidence interval of (3–71), p<0.01] were associated with shunt-related adverse events. High-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment [odds ratio 2.6, confidence interval of (0.7–10), p=0.16] was not associated with decrease in these events.
High-dose acetylsalicylic acid may not be sufficient in reducing shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig. Post-operative red blood cells transfusion may be a modifiable risk factor for these events. A randomised trial is needed to determine appropriate acetylsalicylic acid dosing in infants with modified Blalock–Taussig.