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Aristotle's voluminous writings on animals have often been marginalised in the history of philosophy. Providing the first full-length comprehensive account of Aristotle's biology, its background, content and influence, this Companion situates his study of living nature within his broader philosophy and theology and differentiates it from other medical and philosophical theories. An overview of empiricism in Aristotle's Historia Animalium is followed by an account of the general methodology recommended in the Parts of Animals. An account of the importance of Aristotle's teleological perspective and the fundamental metaphysics of biological entities provides a basis for understanding living capacities, such as nutrition, reproduction, perception and self-motion, in his philosophy. The importance of Aristotle's zoology to both his ethics and political philosophy is highlighted. The volume explores in detail the changing interpretations and influences of Aristotle's biological works from antiquity to modern philosophy of science. It is essential for both students and scholars.
Substantial evidence on the adverse impact of ageing on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT+) populations through the lack of inclusive care services has highlighted the need for education and training of the health and social care workforce to enhance their skills, knowledge and capabilities in this area. We describe a cross-national collaboration across four European Union countries called BEING ME. This collaboration examined the current pedagogic environment within professional, vocational and community-based education to identify what is most valuable for addressing these needs. The World Café method enabled a process of structured learning and knowledge exchange between stakeholders resulting in: (a) identification of best practices in pedagogies, (b) generation of tailored co-produced educational resources, and (c) recommendations on how to improve the knowledge and capabilities of future care professionals in the area of LGBT+ affirmative practices. Combined with themes from the post-Café evaluation, our findings suggest that underpinning professional and vocational education with a person-in-environment perspective facilitates going some way to acknowledging the historical context of older LGBT+ people's lives. Addressing the unique needs of sub-populations within LGBT+ communities and setting these in the context of holistic and person-centred care may better enable the meeting of their unique diverse needs for ageing. Recommendations are made for learning and teaching strategies to support improved LGBT+ aged care.
Background: Each year, the FDA receives more than a million reports of suspected device-associated deaths, serious injuries, and malfunctions. Medical device reports (MDRs) are submitted to the FDA by mandatory reporters (manufacturers, importers, and device user facilities) and voluntary reporters such as healthcare professionals, patients, and consumers. The FDA uses MDRs to monitor device performance, including monitoring reports of infection or device contamination to detect potential device-related safety issues and to share this information in public communications. In this analysis, the FDA presents MDRs for duodenoscopes, which are a type of flexible endoscope that have been associated with infections in patients. Methods: For this analysis, we searched the MDR database for duodenoscope reports submitted between January 2015 and July 1, 2019. MDRs were classified into clinical risk categories based on the MDR’s text narratives as patient infection (indicated the presence of infection in patients potentially transmitted by the device), patient exposure (indicated a contaminated device has been used in a patient, but the MDR lacks clear mention of patient infection), or device contamination (indicated that the device was contaminated, but no mention of device use in patients or patient infection). Results: Overall, 1,115 duodenoscope reports related to a patient infection, patient exposure, or device contamination for devices marketed inside and outside the United States were received from January 2015 to mid-2019. Among them, 79 MDRs were received for deaths in patient infection, patient exposure, or device contamination reports. The number of reported infections decreased from 247 MDRs in 2015 to 55 MDRs in the first half of 2019. Furthermore, the number of reported deaths decreased from 25 MDRs in 2015 to 2 MDRs reported in the first half of 2019. Conclusions: The MDR data indicate a decrease in the number of reported infections. The decrease in infections suggests that efforts to reduce the risk of infection from duodenoscopes have yielded improvements; however, additional improvements are necessary to further decrease the risk of infection.
Differential susceptibility theory (DST) posits that individuals differ in their developmental plasticity: some children are highly responsive to both environmental adversity and support, while others are less affected. According to this theory, “plasticity” genes that confer risk for psychopathology in adverse environments may promote superior functioning in supportive environments. We tested DST using a broad measure of child genetic liability (based on birth parent psychopathology), adoptive home environmental variables (e.g., marital warmth, parenting stress, and internalizing symptoms), and measures of child externalizing problems (n = 337) and social competence (n = 330) in 54-month-old adopted children from the Early Growth and Development Study. This adoption design is useful for examining DST because children are placed at birth or shortly thereafter with nongenetically related adoptive parents, naturally disentangling heritable and postnatal environmental effects. We conducted a series of multivariable regression analyses that included Gene × Environment interaction terms and found little evidence of DST; rather, interactions varied depending on the environmental factor of interest, in both significance and shape. Our mixed findings suggest further investigation of DST is warranted before tailoring screening and intervention recommendations to children based on their genetic liability or “sensitivity.”
This essay reconsiders the character and significance of Edmund Burke's attitude to the seventeenth-century civil wars and interregnum. Burke may have venerated the “revolution principles” of 1688–89 over those of the 1640s, not least in the Reflections on the Revolution in France in which he notoriously compares English dissenting radicals to regicidal Puritans. Yet his response to the first Stuart revolution is more complex than has commonly been allowed and is closely bound up with Burke's earlier parliamentary career as a prominent member of the Rockingham Whig connection. The revival of an anti-Stuart idiom within the extra-parliamentary opposition of the 1760s, together with the mounting conflict with the North American colonies, gave renewed prominence to the memory of the civil wars within English political discourse. The Rockinghamites attempted to exploit this development—without compromising their own, more conservative reading of seventeenth-century history—but they were also its victims. In the years that followed, Burke and his colleagues were repeatedly identified by their political opponents with the spirit of Puritan rebellion and Cromwellian usurpation. These circumstances provide a new perspective on Burke's interpretation of the nation's revolutionary past; they also offer important insights into his writings and speeches in response to the French Revolution.
Reflecting on the global political and ecclesiastical changes of the second half of the twentieth century, Geoffrey Fisher's first biographer, William Purcell, asked: ‘Will there be another quite like him?’ Fisher, Purcell suggested, was a characteristic product of a period when Britain was an imperial power and the see of Canterbury enjoyed a ‘long taken for granted’ primacy within the Anglican Communion. However, by the last years of his life, the British empire had largely gone, the balance of power within worldwide Anglicanism and Christianity more generally was shifting and many traditional theological positions were becoming subject to radical questioning. Consequently, Purcell concluded, Fisher might well be ‘the last of the Archbishops of Canterbury who could deal in certitudes from a position of authority, having behind it the prestige of a materially great power’.
Yet Purcell also noted that Fisher was the first archbishop of the age of television, of press conferences and of fast long-distance air travel. While he was the last archbishop to preside over an Anglican Communion of which large parts were dependent territories of the British empire, within that communion he initiated a programme of dispersal of power from Lambeth to autonomous territorial churches: in most cases this preceded the political decolonization which would change the map of the world so strikingly in the 1950s and 1960s. Within Britain, social change would affect the position and authority of the Church of England. Although claims that Britain underwent a religious revival in the 1950s are disputed,3 there is little doubt that the Church of England was more influential in social and political life in the earlier post-war period than it is today. But as early as 1958, Edward Carpenter, in an introduction to a selection of Fisher's addresses and sermons, argued that the public influence of the archbishop of Canterbury increasingly depended
on the gifts and character of the archbishop himself; on his ability to give effective leadership at the right time, to be sensitive to, and to sympathize with, the mood of the nation, while at the same time lifting it into the rarer atmosphere of the Kingdom of God.
Occupational participation is important for personality disordered offenders (PDOs) because it is integral to health and desistance from offending. What influences occupational participation is unknown for PDOs in the community, limiting effective intervention to affect change. In England and Wales, the Offender Personality Disorder Pathway aims to improve outcomes for people considered highly likely to have a severe personality disorder and who present a high risk of reoffending, who are determined to be PDOs on the basis of a structured assessment. This study identified the influencers of occupational participation for the population who receive this service.
In this critical realist, qualitative study, narrative interviews were conducted with 18 PDOs supervised by probation in England. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to establish influencers of occupational participation.
Four themes describe influencers of occupational participation: function of occupations; influence of the past; external forces; and learning and adaptation. The latter theme reflected understandings of occupational adaptation described by the Model of Human Occupation.
An intervention to increase prosocial occupational participation should be developed and evaluated for PDOs in the community, taking account of occupational participation over the life course.
While constant change characterises ecology, subtidal ecologists seem set to take a deep dive in to the biological processes that accelerate and compensate for environmental change. Similar to the technological and collaborative progress that benefited the present generation of authors, continuing progress may assist future generations of subtidal ecologists to figure out why kelp forests are characterised by global mosaics of long-term loss, gain and stasis. Where and how might kelp decline or flourish or simply persist future ocean change? Our review takes a biogeographic perspective to synthesise ecological patterns and the processes that create them. On this basis, we consider the modification of ecological processes by oceans undergoing physical and chemical change and, as a result, consider their future ecology. We find that future oceans will make life beyond the capacity of kelp to exist on many coasts, but not all coasts will be beyond the capacity of a kelp’s life. Consequently, this review provides a sign post for future research into the future decline or persistence or even increase of kelp forests.
This study investigates suicide risk in late childhood and early adolescence in relation to a family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up, for problem behavior delivered in early childhood. At age 2, 731 low-income families receiving nutritional services from Women, Infants, and Children programs were randomized to the Family Check-Up intervention or to a control group. Trend-level main effects were observed on endorsement of suicide risk by parents or teachers from ages 7.5 to 14, with higher rates of suicide risk endorsement in youth in the control versus intervention condition. A significant indirect effect of intervention was also observed, with treatment-related improvements in inhibitory control across childhood predicting reductions in suicide-related risk both at age 10.5, assessed via diagnostic interviews with parents and youth, and at age 14, assessed via parent and teacher reports. Results add to the emerging body of work demonstrating long-term reductions in suicide risk related to family-focused preventive interventions, and highlight improvements in youth self-regulatory skills as an important mechanism of such reductions in risk.
The focus is largely on the contributions African scholars have made to the development of linguistics in the region. This cannot be done without acknowledging the contributions of non-Africans to this development. Many of the most influential African linguists received their training abroad, while other ‘non’-African linguists spent sufficiently long periods of their careers in Africa as working linguists and training the early generation of African linguists. Language study in West Africa by African scholars predates the colonial period that established the Anglo/Francophone divide, at least in the person of Samuel Ajayi Crowther (1809-1891). Following the discussion of his work, the chapter looks briefly at other aspects of language study in Freetown, where he was situated, then to look at the true beginnings of modern linguistics in West Africa, with the contribution of the West African Language Survey, the establishment of the West African Linguistics Society/Socété Linguistique d‘Afrique Oriental and the growth of linguistics departments, especially, in Ghana and Nigeria.
This paper presents a history of New Zealand's accident compensation scheme as a struggle between two competing normative paradigms that justify the core reform of the replacement of civil actions for victims of personal injury with a comprehensive no-fault scheme. Under ‘community insurance’, the scheme represents the community taking moral and practical responsibility for members who are injured in accidents, while for ‘compulsory insurance’ the scheme is a specific form of compulsory accident insurance. Understanding the history of the scheme in this way helps explain both the persistence of the scheme and important changes made to it by different governments.
Strangely enough, no one has noticed in the life of Niccolò Machiavelli a pattern of engagement with Franciscans. Machiavelli's writings mark a significant shift in the development of Western ideas concerning happiness. It helps us better to understand this shift if we realize that an important part of what Machiavelli proposed was developed in opposition to teachings that were emphasized two centuries earlier by St. Francis of Assisi and that remained influential in Machiavelli's own day.
We can perhaps best illustrate the manner in which Machiavelli responded to the poverello from Assisi by looking at a dramatic passage in the Little Flowers of Saint Francis, a popular collection of stories concerning Francis that was composed in the late fourteenth century and circulated widely in Machiavelli's time – as it still does today. The author of the Little Flowers writes,
One day in winter, as St Francis was going with Brother Leo from Perugia to St Mary of the Angels, and was suffering greatly from the cold, he called to Brother Leo, who was walking on before him, and said to him: ‘Brother Leo, if it were to please God that the Friars Minor should give, in all lands, a great example of holiness and edification, write down, and note carefully, that this would not be perfect joy (letizia)’.
A little further on, St Francis called to him a second time: ‘O Brother Leo, if the Friars Minor were to make the lame to walk, if they should make straight the crooked, chase away demons, give sight to the blind, hearing to the deaf, speech to the dumb, and, what is even a far greater work, if they should raise the dead after four days, write that this would not be perfect joy’.
Shortly after, he cried out again: ‘O Brother Leo, if the Friars Minor knew all languages; if they were versed in all science; if they could explain all Scripture; if they had the gift of prophecy, and could reveal, not only all future things, but likewise the secrets of all consciences and all souls, write that this would not be perfect joy’.
Recent infection testing algorithms (RITA) for HIV combine serological assays with epidemiological data to determine likely recent infections, indicators of ongoing transmission. In 2016, we integrated RITA into national HIV surveillance in Ireland to better inform HIV prevention interventions. We determined the avidity index (AI) of new HIV diagnoses and linked the results with data captured in the national infectious disease reporting system. RITA classified a diagnosis as recent based on an AI < 1.5, unless epidemiological criteria (CD4 count <200 cells/mm3; viral load <400 copies/ml; the presence of AIDS-defining illness; prior antiretroviral therapy use) indicated a potential false-recent result. Of 508 diagnoses in 2016, we linked 448 (88.1%) to an avidity test result. RITA classified 12.5% of diagnoses as recent, with the highest proportion (26.3%) amongst people who inject drugs. On multivariable logistic regression recent infection was more likely with a concurrent sexually transmitted infection (aOR 2.59; 95% CI 1.04–6.45). Data were incomplete for at least one RITA criterion in 48% of cases. The study demonstrated the feasibility of integrating RITA into routine surveillance and showed some ongoing HIV transmission. To improve the interpretation of RITA, further efforts are required to improve completeness of the required epidemiological data.
In this article, we present research on Inka actions in the face of resistance by indigenous peoples on the northern frontier. We link fieldwork at the Pambamarca complex in northern Ecuador with historic documents to provide important context for further examining imperial processes. With its three site types, Pambamarca offers an opportunity to examine the range of tendencies that groups undergo during imperial moments. Its sites show evidence of both direct displays and the materialization of forceful control or takeover, as well as the more passive, nonsettler, decentralized hegemonic narratives also commonly associated with empire. Here we present detailed data for Inka military installations used to confront a prolonged resistance by the País Caranqui, a decentralized confederation of Caranqui-Cayambe peoples. Evidence from surveys and excavations— including architectural planning, distribution of artifacts, and military encounters—at two large sites in the complex, Quitoloma and Campana Pucara, helps expand our current understandings of the Inka invasion in northern Ecuador while broadening our perspective on the imperial narrative in South America.