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Reflecting on the global political and ecclesiastical changes of the second half of the twentieth century, Geoffrey Fisher's first biographer, William Purcell, asked: ‘Will there be another quite like him?’ Fisher, Purcell suggested, was a characteristic product of a period when Britain was an imperial power and the see of Canterbury enjoyed a ‘long taken for granted’ primacy within the Anglican Communion. However, by the last years of his life, the British empire had largely gone, the balance of power within worldwide Anglicanism and Christianity more generally was shifting and many traditional theological positions were becoming subject to radical questioning. Consequently, Purcell concluded, Fisher might well be ‘the last of the Archbishops of Canterbury who could deal in certitudes from a position of authority, having behind it the prestige of a materially great power’.
Yet Purcell also noted that Fisher was the first archbishop of the age of television, of press conferences and of fast long-distance air travel. While he was the last archbishop to preside over an Anglican Communion of which large parts were dependent territories of the British empire, within that communion he initiated a programme of dispersal of power from Lambeth to autonomous territorial churches: in most cases this preceded the political decolonization which would change the map of the world so strikingly in the 1950s and 1960s. Within Britain, social change would affect the position and authority of the Church of England. Although claims that Britain underwent a religious revival in the 1950s are disputed,3 there is little doubt that the Church of England was more influential in social and political life in the earlier post-war period than it is today. But as early as 1958, Edward Carpenter, in an introduction to a selection of Fisher's addresses and sermons, argued that the public influence of the archbishop of Canterbury increasingly depended
on the gifts and character of the archbishop himself; on his ability to give effective leadership at the right time, to be sensitive to, and to sympathize with, the mood of the nation, while at the same time lifting it into the rarer atmosphere of the Kingdom of God.
While constant change characterises ecology, subtidal ecologists seem set to take a deep dive in to the biological processes that accelerate and compensate for environmental change. Similar to the technological and collaborative progress that benefited the present generation of authors, continuing progress may assist future generations of subtidal ecologists to figure out why kelp forests are characterised by global mosaics of long-term loss, gain and stasis. Where and how might kelp decline or flourish or simply persist future ocean change? Our review takes a biogeographic perspective to synthesise ecological patterns and the processes that create them. On this basis, we consider the modification of ecological processes by oceans undergoing physical and chemical change and, as a result, consider their future ecology. We find that future oceans will make life beyond the capacity of kelp to exist on many coasts, but not all coasts will be beyond the capacity of a kelp’s life. Consequently, this review provides a sign post for future research into the future decline or persistence or even increase of kelp forests.
This study investigates suicide risk in late childhood and early adolescence in relation to a family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up, for problem behavior delivered in early childhood. At age 2, 731 low-income families receiving nutritional services from Women, Infants, and Children programs were randomized to the Family Check-Up intervention or to a control group. Trend-level main effects were observed on endorsement of suicide risk by parents or teachers from ages 7.5 to 14, with higher rates of suicide risk endorsement in youth in the control versus intervention condition. A significant indirect effect of intervention was also observed, with treatment-related improvements in inhibitory control across childhood predicting reductions in suicide-related risk both at age 10.5, assessed via diagnostic interviews with parents and youth, and at age 14, assessed via parent and teacher reports. Results add to the emerging body of work demonstrating long-term reductions in suicide risk related to family-focused preventive interventions, and highlight improvements in youth self-regulatory skills as an important mechanism of such reductions in risk.
Occupational participation is important for personality disordered offenders (PDOs) because it is integral to health and desistance from offending. What influences occupational participation is unknown for PDOs in the community, limiting effective intervention to affect change. In England and Wales, the Offender Personality Disorder Pathway aims to improve outcomes for people considered highly likely to have a severe personality disorder and who present a high risk of reoffending, who are determined to be PDOs on the basis of a structured assessment. This study identified the influencers of occupational participation for the population who receive this service.
In this critical realist, qualitative study, narrative interviews were conducted with 18 PDOs supervised by probation in England. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to establish influencers of occupational participation.
Four themes describe influencers of occupational participation: function of occupations; influence of the past; external forces; and learning and adaptation. The latter theme reflected understandings of occupational adaptation described by the Model of Human Occupation.
An intervention to increase prosocial occupational participation should be developed and evaluated for PDOs in the community, taking account of occupational participation over the life course.
The focus is largely on the contributions African scholars have made to the development of linguistics in the region. This cannot be done without acknowledging the contributions of non-Africans to this development. Many of the most influential African linguists received their training abroad, while other ‘non’-African linguists spent sufficiently long periods of their careers in Africa as working linguists and training the early generation of African linguists. Language study in West Africa by African scholars predates the colonial period that established the Anglo/Francophone divide, at least in the person of Samuel Ajayi Crowther (1809-1891). Following the discussion of his work, the chapter looks briefly at other aspects of language study in Freetown, where he was situated, then to look at the true beginnings of modern linguistics in West Africa, with the contribution of the West African Language Survey, the establishment of the West African Linguistics Society/Socété Linguistique d‘Afrique Oriental and the growth of linguistics departments, especially, in Ghana and Nigeria.
This paper presents a history of New Zealand's accident compensation scheme as a struggle between two competing normative paradigms that justify the core reform of the replacement of civil actions for victims of personal injury with a comprehensive no-fault scheme. Under ‘community insurance’, the scheme represents the community taking moral and practical responsibility for members who are injured in accidents, while for ‘compulsory insurance’ the scheme is a specific form of compulsory accident insurance. Understanding the history of the scheme in this way helps explain both the persistence of the scheme and important changes made to it by different governments.
Strangely enough, no one has noticed in the life of Niccolò Machiavelli a pattern of engagement with Franciscans. Machiavelli's writings mark a significant shift in the development of Western ideas concerning happiness. It helps us better to understand this shift if we realize that an important part of what Machiavelli proposed was developed in opposition to teachings that were emphasized two centuries earlier by St. Francis of Assisi and that remained influential in Machiavelli's own day.
We can perhaps best illustrate the manner in which Machiavelli responded to the poverello from Assisi by looking at a dramatic passage in the Little Flowers of Saint Francis, a popular collection of stories concerning Francis that was composed in the late fourteenth century and circulated widely in Machiavelli's time – as it still does today. The author of the Little Flowers writes,
One day in winter, as St Francis was going with Brother Leo from Perugia to St Mary of the Angels, and was suffering greatly from the cold, he called to Brother Leo, who was walking on before him, and said to him: ‘Brother Leo, if it were to please God that the Friars Minor should give, in all lands, a great example of holiness and edification, write down, and note carefully, that this would not be perfect joy (letizia)’.
A little further on, St Francis called to him a second time: ‘O Brother Leo, if the Friars Minor were to make the lame to walk, if they should make straight the crooked, chase away demons, give sight to the blind, hearing to the deaf, speech to the dumb, and, what is even a far greater work, if they should raise the dead after four days, write that this would not be perfect joy’.
Shortly after, he cried out again: ‘O Brother Leo, if the Friars Minor knew all languages; if they were versed in all science; if they could explain all Scripture; if they had the gift of prophecy, and could reveal, not only all future things, but likewise the secrets of all consciences and all souls, write that this would not be perfect joy’.
Recent infection testing algorithms (RITA) for HIV combine serological assays with epidemiological data to determine likely recent infections, indicators of ongoing transmission. In 2016, we integrated RITA into national HIV surveillance in Ireland to better inform HIV prevention interventions. We determined the avidity index (AI) of new HIV diagnoses and linked the results with data captured in the national infectious disease reporting system. RITA classified a diagnosis as recent based on an AI < 1.5, unless epidemiological criteria (CD4 count <200 cells/mm3; viral load <400 copies/ml; the presence of AIDS-defining illness; prior antiretroviral therapy use) indicated a potential false-recent result. Of 508 diagnoses in 2016, we linked 448 (88.1%) to an avidity test result. RITA classified 12.5% of diagnoses as recent, with the highest proportion (26.3%) amongst people who inject drugs. On multivariable logistic regression recent infection was more likely with a concurrent sexually transmitted infection (aOR 2.59; 95% CI 1.04–6.45). Data were incomplete for at least one RITA criterion in 48% of cases. The study demonstrated the feasibility of integrating RITA into routine surveillance and showed some ongoing HIV transmission. To improve the interpretation of RITA, further efforts are required to improve completeness of the required epidemiological data.
In this article, we present research on Inka actions in the face of resistance by indigenous peoples on the northern frontier. We link fieldwork at the Pambamarca complex in northern Ecuador with historic documents to provide important context for further examining imperial processes. With its three site types, Pambamarca offers an opportunity to examine the range of tendencies that groups undergo during imperial moments. Its sites show evidence of both direct displays and the materialization of forceful control or takeover, as well as the more passive, nonsettler, decentralized hegemonic narratives also commonly associated with empire. Here we present detailed data for Inka military installations used to confront a prolonged resistance by the País Caranqui, a decentralized confederation of Caranqui-Cayambe peoples. Evidence from surveys and excavations— including architectural planning, distribution of artifacts, and military encounters—at two large sites in the complex, Quitoloma and Campana Pucara, helps expand our current understandings of the Inka invasion in northern Ecuador while broadening our perspective on the imperial narrative in South America.
Lithostratigraphical studies coupled with the development of new dating methods has led to significant progress in understanding the Late Pleistocene terrestrial record in Scotland. Systematic analysis and re-evaluation of key localities have provided new insights into the complexity of the event stratigraphy in some regions and the timing of Late Pleistocene environmental changes, but few additional critical sites have been described in the past 25 years. The terrestrial stratigraphic record remains important for understanding the timing, sequence and patterns of glaciation and deglaciation during the last glacial/interglacial cycle. Former interpretations of ice-free areas in peripheral areas during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are inconsistent with current stratigraphic and dating evidence. Significant challenges remain to determine events and patterns of glaciation during the Early and Middle Devensian, particularly in the context of offshore evidence and ice sheet modelling that indicate significant build-up of ice throughout much of the period. The terrestrial evidence broadly supports recent reconstructions of a highly dynamic and climate-sensitive British–Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS), which apparently reached its greatest thickness in Scotland between 30 and 27ka, before the global LGM. A thick (relative to topography) integrated ice sheet reaching the shelf edge with a simple ice-divide structure was replaced after the LGM by a much thinner one comprising multiple dispersion centres and a more complex flow structure.
Epilepsy and mental illness have a bidirectional association. Psychiatrists are likely to encounter epilepsy as comorbidity. Seizures may present as mental illness. Equally, the management of psychiatric conditions has the potential to destabilise epilepsy. There is a need for structured epilepsy awareness and training amongst psychiatrists. This paper outlines key considerations around diagnosis, treatment and risk while suggesting practical recommendations.
A Riemannian manifold
has higher hyperbolic rank if every geodesic has a perpendicular Jacobi field making sectional curvature
with the geodesic. If, in addition, the sectional curvatures of
lie in the interval
is closed, we show that
is a locally symmetric space of rank one. This partially extends work by Constantine using completely different methods. It is also a partial counterpart to Hamenstädt’s hyperbolic rank rigidity result for sectional curvatures
, and complements well-known results on Euclidean and spherical rank rigidity.
This paper reviews the changing environments, developing landforms and terrestrial stratigraphy during the Early and Middle Pleistocene stages in Scotland. Cold stages after 2.7 Ma brought mountain ice caps and lowland permafrost, but larger ice sheets were short-lived. The late Early and Middle Pleistocene sedimentary record found offshore indicates more than 10 advances of ice sheets from Scotland into the North Sea but only 4–5 advances have been identified from the terrestrial stratigraphy. Two primary modes of glaciation, mountain ice cap and full ice sheet modes, can be recognised. Different zones of glacial erosion in Scotland reflect this bimodal glaciation and the spatially and temporally variable dynamics at glacier beds. Depths of glacial erosion vary from almost zero in Buchan to hundreds of metres in glens in the western Highlands and in basins both onshore and offshore. The presence of tors and blockfields indicates repeated development of patches of cold-based, non-erosive glacier ice on summits and plateaux. In lowlands, chemical weathering continued to operate during interglacials, but gruss-type saprolites are mainly of Pliocene to Early Pleistocene age. The Middle Pleistocene terrestrial stratigraphic record in Scotland, whilst fragmentary and poorly dated, provides important and accessible evidence of changing glacial, periglacial and interglacial environments over at least three stadial–interstadial–interglacial cycles. The distributions of blockfields and tors and the erratic contents of glacial sediments indicate that the configuration, thermal regime and pattern of ice flow during MIS 6 were broadly comparable to those of the last ice sheet. Improved control over the ages of Early and Middle Pleistocene sediments, soils and saprolites and on long-term rates of weathering and erosion, combined with information on palaeoenvironments, ice extent and sea level, will in future allow development and testing of new models of Pleistocene tectonics, isostasy, sea-level change and ice sheet dynamics in Scotland.
This overview explores sustainable development in island contexts. More subtle and complex concepts of sustainable development have become manifest in the Sustainable Development Goals, with tensions between social, economic and environmental objectives at different scales as livelihoods acquire greater flexibility and islands face multiple challenges to development. Islands are part of rapidly changing and wider worlds, while sustainability is complicated by global change, as debates over strategies and time periods are accentuated in constrained island contexts. Development and sustainability have repeatedly acquired new meanings, hence requiring new analytical techniques, planning objectives and effective governance and management. Progress towards sustainable development in islands and island states is hampered by multi-scalar challenges, including limited biodiversity, migration, external interventions and directives, scarce human resources, weak management, inadequate data (and problems of interpretation), social divisions and tensions and simultaneous quests for modernity and conservation. The tourism sector emphasizes how sustainable development is particularly difficult to achieve in small islands where access to adequate livelihoods is important and limited change is possible.