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Forensic pathologists are increasingly faced with challenges when it comes to geriatric cases, due to an aging population and increased co-morbidities in the elderly. This text provides an up-to-date guide to all facets of geriatric forensic pathology, with contributions from experts from a variety of disciplines. Packed with color illustrations and case examples, chapters cover inflicted, self-inflicted and accidental trauma, as well as natural conditions leading to unexpected death. In addition, specific chapters cover a wide range of difficult and topical areas, from elder abuse, dementias and nutrition to pharmacology and toxicology issues, long-term care facilities and scene investigation. Topics such as euthanasia are also explored to provide the reader with a rich, contemporary understanding of medicolegal issues. This is an invaluable resource not only for pathologists, but also for medical practitioners and lawyers dealing with geriatric cases. The book comes packaged with online access to the text and high-resolution images.
Though the Beatles are nowadays considered national treasures, this book shows how and why they inspired phobia as well as mania in 1960s Britain. As symbols of modernity in the early sixties, they functioned as a stress test for British institutions and identities, at once displaying the possibilities and establishing the limits of change. Later in the decade, their credentials as artists and revolutionaries became the subject of intense controversy. The ambivalent attitudes contemporaries displayed towards the Beatles are not captured in hackneyed ideas of the 'swinging sixties', the 'permissive society' and the all-conquering 'Fab Four'. Drawing upon a wealth of contemporary sources, The Beatles and Sixties Britain offers a new understanding of the band as existing in creative tension with postwar British society: their disruptive presence inciting a wholesale re-examination of social, political and cultural norms.
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke sit together in the canon of political thought but are rarely treated in common historical accounts. This book narrates their intertwined careers during the Restoration period, when the two men found themselves in close proximity and entangled in many of the same political conflicts. Bringing new source material to bear, In the Shadow of Leviathan establishes the influence of Hobbesian thought over Locke, particularly in relation to the preeminent question of religious toleration. Excavating Hobbes's now forgotten case for a prudent, politique toleration gifted by sovereign power, Jeffrey Collins argues that modern, liberal thinking about toleration was transformed by Locke's gradual emancipation from this Hobbesian mode of thought. This book investigates those landmark events – the civil war, Restoration, the popish plot, the Revolution of 1688 – which eventually forced Locke to confront the limits of politique toleration, and to devise an account of religious freedom as an inalienable right.
When presidents take positions on pending Supreme Court cases or criticize the Court's decisions, they are susceptible to being attacked for acting as bullies and violating the norm of judicial independence. Why then do presidents target Supreme Court decisions in their public appeals? In this book, Paul M. Collins, Jr and Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha argue that presidents discuss the Court's decisions to demonstrate their responsiveness to important matters of public policy and to steer the implementation of the Court's decisions. Using data from Washington to Trump, they show that, far from being bullies, presidents discuss cases to promote their re-election, policy goals, and historical legacies, while attempting to affect the impact of Court decisions on the bureaucracy, Congress, the media, and the public.
Labour Law offers a comprehensive and critical account of the subject by a team of prominent labour lawyers, and includes both collective labour rights and individual employment rights. By placing the law in its social, economic and political contexts, and showing how the law works in practice through case-studies, students will acquire not only a good knowledge of the law but also an appreciation of its importance and the complexity of the issues. Fully updated with recent developments in the field, the text's clear structure, logical chapter organisation, and uncluttered text design combine to make it a truly accessible way into the subject. Suitable for undergraduates and postgraduates studying UK Labour and Employment law, this book is a must-read for those wishing to excel in the field.
Near the start of her fascinating new book The Lost History of Liberalism, Helena Rosenblatt dryly observes that “available histories of liberalism are seldom helpful” (2). The point is well taken: the historiography of liberalism—largely written as intellectual history—is not particularly coherent, and has only sporadically adopted sound historical methodology. The genre emerged relatively late. The proliferation of the language of liberalism in the nineteenth century, not least in party politics, did not produce theoretically informed historical accounts of particular note. A historiography of liberalism really only developed in response to the perceived “crisis of liberalism” of the early twentieth century. Guido de Ruggiero's 1925 The History of European Liberalism was written in a Hegelian idealist tradition, according to which liberalism was an “organic development of freedom coinciding with the organization of human society and its progressively higher and more spiritual forms.” Coming from a different direction was Harold Laski's The Rise of European Liberalism: An Essay in Interpretation, published in 1936. Laski's liberalism was as much a “habit of mind” as a set of doctrines, with a complex history making both “clarity difficult” and “precision unattainable.” An essentialized understanding of liberalism was nevertheless still at work. Laski's liberalism was that the individualist, utilitarian mode of thought necessary to an emerging capitalist society. “The liberal creed, in a word,” he wrote, “is a doctrine woven from the texture of bourgeois need.”
Food insecurity, or self-reports of inadequate food access due to limited financial resources, remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We examined the impact of food insecurity on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence within an integrated care programme that provides services to PLHIV, including two meals per day.
Adjusted OR (aOR) were estimated by generalized estimating equations, quantifying the relationship between food insecurity (exposure) and cART adherence (outcome) with multivariable logistic regression.
We drew on survey data collected between February 2014 and March 2016 from the Dr. Peter Centre Study based in Vancouver, Canada.
The study included 116 PLHIV at baseline, with ninety-nine participants completing a 12-month follow-up interview. The median (quartile 1–quartile 3) age was 46 (39–52) years at baseline and 87 % (n 101) were biologically male at birth.
At baseline, 74 % (n 86) of participants were food insecure (≥2 affirmative responses on Health Canada’s Household Food Security Survey Module) and 67 % (n 78) were adherent to cART ≥95 % of the time. In the adjusted regression analysis, food insecurity was associated with suboptimal cART adherence (aOR = 0·47, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·93).
While food provision may reduce some health-related harms, there remains a relationship between this prevalent experience and suboptimal cART adherence in this integrated care programme. Future studies that elucidate strategies to mitigate food insecurity and its effects on cART adherence among PLHIV in this setting and in other similar environments are necessary.
Anecdotal evidence suggests the use of bolus tube feeding is increasing in long term home enteral tube feed (HETF) patients. A cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of bolus tube feeding and to characterise these patients was undertaken. Dietitians from 10 centres across the UK collected data on all adult HETF patients on the dietetic caseload receiving bolus tube feeding, (n=604, 60% male, age 58years). Demographic data, reasons for tube and bolus feeding, tube and equipment types, feeding method and patients’ complete tube feeding regimens were recorded. Over a third of patients receiving HETF used bolus feeding (37%). Patients were long-term tube fed (4.1years tube feeding, 3.5years bolus tube feeding), living at home (71%) and sedentary (70%). The majority were head and neck cancer patients (22%) who were significantly more active (79%) and lived at home (97%), while those with cerebral palsy (12%) were typically younger (age 31years) but sedentary (94%). Most patients used bolus feeding as their sole feeding method (46%), because it was quick and easy to use, as a top up to oral diet or to mimic meal times. Importantly, oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were used for bolus feeding in 85% of patients, with 51% of these being compact-style ONS (2.4kcal/ml, 125ml). This survey shows that bolus tube feeding is common amongst UK HETF patients, is used by a wide variety of patient groups and can be adapted to meet the needs of a variety of patients, clinical conditions, nutritional requirements and lifestyles.
The reported associations between birth weight and childhood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been inconsistent. In this study, we investigated the relationship between birth weight and CVD risk factors at 11 years of age. This study used longitudinally linked data from three cross-sectional datasets (N = 22,136) in West Virginia; analysis was restricted to children born full-term (N = 19,583). The outcome variables included resting blood pressure [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP)] and lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)]. Multiple regression analyses were performed, adjusting for child’s body mass index (BMI), sociodemographics, and lifestyle characteristics. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant association between birth weight and SBP, DBP, HDL, and TG. When adjusted for the child’s BMI, the association between birth weight and HDL [b = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.18) mg/dl per 1000 g increase] and between birth weight and TG [b = –0.007 (–0.008, –0.005) mg/dl per 1000 g increase] remained statistically significant. In the fully adjusted model, low birth weight was associated with higher LDL, non-HDL, and TGs, and lower HDL levels. The child’s current BMI at 11 years of age partially (for HDL, non-HDL, and TG) and fully mediated (for SBP and DBP) the relationship between birth weight and select CVD risk factors. While effects were modest, these risk factors may persist and amplify with age, leading to potentially unfavorable consequences in later adulthood.