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Graphitization of 0.5–1.5 mg C, and of smaller samples to a lesser extent, is routinely done at our Facility by reduction over zinc. The method yields low background, good accuracy but offers a limited throughput, requires dedicated equipment and considerable operator time. Sealed-tube graphitization is faster, easier and cost-efficient producing as many graphites as CO2 can be purified in one day with low background, good accuracy and precision, provided precise measurements of δ13C values can be attained by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to correct for isotope fractionation (Xu et al. 2007). We tested sealed-tube graphitization on 0.1 to 1.0 mg C samples and found that while we were able to obtain low backgrounds of >57,000 ±1000 yr BP for ∼1.7 mg C and 41,230 ± 430 yr BP for ∼0.09 mg C (0.0008 ± 0.0001 and 0.0059 ± 0.0003 Fraction Modern, respectively), results were variable for sample sizes <0.5 mg C. Measurements of FIRI Belfast Cellulose and TIRI Barleymash showed 0.3–0.6% precision and 1% accuracy for most sample sizes. We found better results in our laboratory by introducing the following modifications: (1) shorter inner tube (2 cm long), (2) short flame-seal length (∼7–8 cm) and (3) keeping the inner tube with iron separate from the outer tube containing zinc and titanium hydride during cleaning.
The in vitro nematicidal effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Castela tortuosa n-hexane extracts (E-Cham and E-Cato, respectively) on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) and the anthelmintic effect of these extracts against the pre-adult stage of the parasite in gerbils were evaluated using both individual and combined extracts. The in vitro confrontation between larvae and extracts was performed in 24-well micro-titration plates. The results were considered 24 and 72 h post confrontation. The in vivo nematicidal effect was examined using gerbils as a study model. The extracts from the two assessed plants were obtained through maceration using n-hexane as an organic agent. Gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus L3 were treated intraperitoneally with the corresponding extract either individually or in combination. The results showed that the highest individual lethal in vitro effect (96.3%) was obtained with the E-Cham extract at 72 h post confrontation at 40 mg/ml, followed by E-Cato (78.9%) at 20 mg/ml after 72 h. The highest combined effect (98.7%) was obtained after 72 h at 40 mg/ml. The in vivo assay showed that the individual administration of the E-Cato and E-Cham extracts reduced the parasitic burden in gerbils by 27.1% and 45.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the anthelmintic efficacy increased to 57.3% when both extracts were administered in combination. The results of the present study show an important combined nematicidal effect of the two plant extracts assessed against L3 in gerbils.
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.
To describe the results obtained with endolymphatic sac drainage in patients with Ménière's disease.
A retrospective case review study was conducted of 95 Ménière's disease patients who underwent endolymphatic sac drainage in a tertiary care referral centre, after failing a long course of medical management. The main outcome measures were vertigo control and hearing preservation.
In patients with unilateral disease, vertigo control was obtained in 94.3 per cent of patients. A significant improvement in cochlear function was seen in 14 per cent of patients, and hearing was preserved or improved in 88 per cent. For the bilateral group, vertigo control was obtained in 85.7 per cent of patients and cochlear function improved in 28 per cent. Hearing preservation was attained in 71 per cent of these patients.
Endolymphatic sac drainage is a good surgical option for patients with incapacitating endolymphatic hydrops, providing a high percentage of vertigo control and hearing preservation.
The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.
One of the difficulties in reporting accurate radiocarbon results from compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) is the lack of suitable process standard materials to correct for the amount and 14C content of carbon added during extensive sample processing. We evaluated the use of n-alkanes extracted from modern grass material (1.224±0.006 fraction modern) as process standards for CSRA. The n-alkanes were isolated using preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) from two independent chemical extraction methods applied to the grass. Since this was our first assessment of the 14C content of the grass n-alkanes, we corrected for extraneous carbon derived from PCGC isolation using commercially available single compounds of modern and 14C-free content. Results were consistent across the two extraction methods showing that the C29n-alkane has a fraction modern value that is within 1σ of the bulk value of the grass while C31n-alkane and less abundant n-alkanes have values within 2σ of the bulk value of the grass. C29 and C31n-alkanes were the most abundant n-alkanes in the grass and, as such, the more feasible for collection of sufficient amounts of carbon for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. Our results suggest that choosing a grass n-alkane with an elution time closest to that of the unknowns may be advisable due to possibly greater effect from GC column bleed (14C-free) at later elution times. We conclude that C29 and C31n-alkanes in modern grass of known 14C content can be used as in-house standards to correct for the addition of 14C-free carbon during sample preparation for 14C analysis of n-alkanes.
Were synthesized four new hybrid hardener agents type amino tertiary functionalized with allyl groups from : l, 6-Hexanediamine, Diethylenetriamine, Trietilentriamine and Tris (2-aminoethyl) amine, using the basic nucleophilic substitution mechanism, replacing bromide by amino tertiary group in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide as phase transfer agent, producing allyl amine corresponding: ALA-4, ALA-5, ALA-6 and TRIS respectively, which were evaluated as a hardening of epoxy resin DGEBA through photopolymerization process by UV ligth curing, adding a 10, 20 and 40% molar percentage of hybrid materials and the thiol corresponding to carry out the thiol-ene reaction (TMP TMP, PTKMP) with DMPA as initiator. The resinic materials obtained, were evaluated by the technique of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) at a heating rate of 5° C/min in a range from - 50° C to 150° C in nitrogen atmosphere. The formulations with hybrid hardening agent ALA 4- 20% -PTKMP and TRIS 10% -PTKMP were the materials with modulus 2289, 2971 Mpa and tgs of 102,103°C, respectively.
Accurately identifying resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections requires the ability to identify animals with low and high intensities of infection. The pathogenic effects of nematodes depend upon both the length and number of worms, neither of which can be measured in live animals. Indices that predict these quantities are urgently needed. Monthly fecal egg counts, bodyweights, IgA concentrations and pepsinogen concentrations were measured on Scottish Blackface sheep naturally infected with a mixture of nematodes, predominantly Teladorsagia circumcincta. Worm number and average worm length were available on over 500 necropsied lambs. We derived predictive indices for worm length and number using linear combinations of traits measured in live animals. The correlations between the prediction values and the observed values were 0·55 for worm length and 0·51 for worm number. These indices can be used to identify the most resistance and susceptible lambs.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) activity has been associated with reduced growth and fecundity of Teladorsagia circumcincta. IgA is active at the site of infection in the abomasal mucus. However, while IgA activity in abomasal mucus is not easily measured in live animals without invasive methods, IgA activity can be readily detected in the plasma, making it a potentially valuable tool in diagnosis and control. We used a Bayesian statistical analysis to quantify the relationship between mucosal and plasma IgA in sheep deliberately infected with T. circumcincta. The transfer of IgA depends on mucosal IgA activity as well as its interaction with worm number and size; together these account for over 80% of the variation in plasma IgA activity. By quantifying the impact of mucosal IgA and worm number and size on plasma IgA, we provide a tool that can allow more meaningful interpretation of plasma IgA measurements and aid the development of efficient control programmes.
Access to energy is critical to ensuring development in the world’s poorest countries; however, an estimated 1.5 billion people in developing countries have no such access. This problem is most severe in remote areas, where the majority of the population live without electricity. In such instances, access to even a small amount of electricity could lead to life-saving improvements in agricultural productivity, health, education, communications and access to clean water (Grimshaw & Lewis 2010). Almost all developing countries, including Latin America, have enormous solar power potential (WHO, UN Development Program 2009). What is unfortunate is that the countries that receive solar energy support are often also those least able to benefit from the development, due to a lack of knowledge and capacity to take advantage of the solar power and facilitate conversion to electricity (Grimshaw & Lewis 2010).
Renewable energy: Latin America and the Caribbean
In 2007, in Latin American and Caribbean countries, installed capacity for power generation grew at a yearly rate of 3.51 per cent – 0.29 per cent higher than the previous 10 years (OLADE 2007). Most of the region’s power was generated by hydroelectric plants (56.7 per cent) followed by thermoelectric (39.7 per cent). The countries with electricity coverage rates of over 96 per cent and are Chile, Costa Rica, Barbados, Uruguay, Brazil, Suriname and Venezuela, while those with the lowest coverage levels are Honduras (67 per cent) and Haiti (34 per cent) (OLADE 2007). Energy demand in the region has increased by an average of 35 per cent over the last decade and, despite the global recession, it is currently experiencing a positive flow of funding from investors.
Amid declining shark populations because of overfishing, a burgeoning shark watching industry, already well established in some locations, generates benefits from shark protection. We compile reported economic benefits at shark watching locations and use a meta-analytical approach to estimate benefits at sites without available data. Results suggest that, globally, c. 590,000 shark watchers expend > USD 314 million per year, directly supporting 10,000 jobs. By comparison, the landed value of global shark fisheries is currently c. USD 630 million and has been in decline for most of the past decade. Based on current observed trends, numbers of shark watchers could more than double within the next 20 years, generating > USD 780 million in tourist expenditures around the world. This supports optimistic projections at new sites, including those in an increasing number of shark sanctuaries established primarily for shark conservation and enacted in recognition of the ecological and economic importance of living sharks.
The high resolution X ray diffraction (HR-XRD) diagrams have been studied in the GaAs /InxGa1-xAs /In0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs quantum wells with embedded InAs quantum dots (QDs) in dependence on the composition of the capping InxGa1-xAs layers. The parameter x in capping InxGa1-xAs layers varied from the range 0.10-0.25. These technological changes have been accompanied by the variation non-monotonously of InAs QD emission. Numerical simulation of HR-XRD results has shown that the level of elastic strains and the composition of quantum layers vary none monotonously in studied QD structures. Simultaneously it was revealed that the process of Ga/In inter diffusion at the InxGa1-xAs/InAs QD interface are characterized by the dependence non monotonous versus parameter x in capping InxGa1-xAs layers. The physical reasons of the mentioned optical and structural effects in studied structures have been discussed.
Since 2009, a large-scale archaeological field survey – the Ager Segisamonensis Survey Project – has been carried out on the Northern Plateau of the Iberian Peninsula, in the Burgos province (Castilla y León), Spain. The aim of this project is to understand the Iron Age/Roman transition in terms of settlement strategies and landscape exploitation. The field survey has been undertaken in the landscape surrounding an Iron Age settlement and the successive Roman city of Segisamo – modern Sasamón. The goal is not the discovery of new settlements, but the recognition of the so-called ‘dwelling landscape’ and its evolution. In this article, we highlight our field survey methodology based on hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments and the creation of a recording system of ‘aggregation units'.
The photoluminescence (PL), its temperature dependence and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been studied in MBE grown GaAs/AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs /GaAs quantum wells (QWs) with InAs quantum dots embedded in the center of InGaAs layer in the freshly prepared states and after the thermal treatments during 2 hours at 640 or 710 °C. The structures contained two buffer (Al0.3Ga0.7As/In0.15Ga0.85As) and two capping (In0.15Ga0.85As / Al0.3Ga0.7As) layers. The temperature dependences of PL peak positions have been analyzed in the temperature range 10-500K with the aim to investigate the QD composition and its variation at thermal annealing. The experimental parameters of the temperature variation of PL peak position in the InAs QDs have been compared with the known one for the bulk InAs crystals and the QD composition variation due to Ga/Al/In inter diffusion at thermal treatments has been detected. XRD have been studied with the aim to estimate the capping/buffer layer compositions in the different QW layers in freshly prepared state and after the thermal annealing. The obtained emission and XRD data and their dependences on the thermal treatment have been analyzed and discussed.