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The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibility for morphologically controlled polydiacetylene (PDA) nanocrystals (NCs) and PDA nanofibers (NFs) have been determined for the first time by the experimental combination of transient pump-probe spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The figure of the merit of PDA NFs was much superior to PDA NCs and/or PDA bulk crystals, and the excitonic relaxation time was of order of sub-pico second. Namely, this is the first case to reveal the morphological effect on NLO response. PDA NFs having the long effective π-conjugation length are one of the most promising organic third-order NLO nanomaterials toward the photonic device application.
Single photon sources (SPS) are an important building block for realizing quantum technologies for computing, communication, and sensing. For industrialization, electrically controllable color centers acting as SPS are required. We have demonstrated the creation of electrically controllable silicon vacancies (VSis) in the SiC pn junction diode fabricated by proton beam writing (PBW). PBW was successfully used to introduce electrically controllable VSi without degradation of the diode performance. The dependence of the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) intensities from VSi on H+ fluence revealed that the emission efficiency of EL is less than that of PL. For EL, the supply of carriers (electrons and/or holes) was restricted due to the resistive region around each VSi introduced by PBW. The results suggest that further improvement in the VSi creation process without defects acting as majority carrier removal centers (highly resistive region) and nonradiative centers by optimization of PBW conditions are key points to realize highly sensitive quantum sensors using VSi.
Lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a structure of glass/FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) as the transparent top electrodes, followed by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) over-coating were fabricated. The SWNT-based PSCs do not require expensive metal electrodes and hole-transporting materials yet produce a decent power conversion efficiency of 11.8%, owing to the densifying effect of SWNTs by PMMA. The resulting devices demonstrate reduced hysteresis, improved stability, and increased power conversion efficiency.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
Development of an iodine immobilization technique that can fix radioactive iodine in waste form for a long period and constrain its leaching into pore water is necessary in order to secure the long-term safety of geological disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste.
Lead borate glass vitrified at a low temperature is regarded as one of the promising immobilization materials of Iodine-129 which will be removed from spent AgI filters generated from reprocessing plants and may have a significant effect on long term safety of geological disposal.
Leaching experiments in bentonite-equilibrium water have been conducted to understand the lead borate glass dissolution behaviors in possible geological disposal conditions. Boron dissolved with the highest rate in all types of the solutions and was regarded as an index element to represent the glass dissolution rate. On the other hand, lead dissolved with a far slower rate. The chemical species and possible precipitating minerals of lead were examined by a geochemical calculation code for typical underground water. Altered glass surfaces were investigated by SEM, TEM and XRD. XRD analysis showed that the main constituent phase of the altered layer was hydrocerussite, Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2, that was predicted by the geochemical simulation as well.
Medusaceratops lokii Ryan, Russell, and Hartman, 2010 is an enigmatic taxon of ceratopsid represented by partial parietals from the Mansfield bonebed in the Campanian Judith River Formation, Montana. Originally, all ceratopsid material collected from this bonebed was referred to the centrosaurine ceratopsid Albertaceratops, but subsequently two parietals were designated the types of the chasmosaurine, M. lokii, in part, because they were interpreted to have three epiparietals bilaterally. Here we describe new material from the bonebed that allows a systematic revision of the taxon. A revised reconstruction of the frill, informed by newly discovered parietals, reveals that M. lokii had a broad midline ramus and at least five epiparietals (ep) around the margin of the frill, both traits that are characteristic of Centrosaurinae. From medial to lateral, the epiparietal ornamentation consists of a small, variably procurving epiparietal (ep 1), an anterolaterally curving pachyostotic hook (ep 2), a smaller pachyostoic process (ep 3), and two small triangular epiparietals (ep 4 and 5). A phylogenetic analysis of ceratopsids, which is the first to include Medusaceratops, indicates that M. lokii is a unique, early centrosaurine ceratopsid taxon that is more closely related to Centrosaurini and Pachyrhinosaurini than Nasutoceratopsini. No unequivocal chasmosaurine bones or diagnostic material from any other ceratopsid could be identified from the Mansfield bonebed, suggesting that it represents one of the oldest occurrences of a monodominant accumulation of a centrosaurine ceratopsid on record.
Isotopic composition of solid and liquid portions of wet snow was investigated experimentally. The compositions changed with time, δ values of ice becoming heavier than those for water. A simple model was proposed to explain their temporal variation. It predicted, however, a more rapid change of δ values than the trend obtained in the experiments. This suggests the presence of a “diffusion layer” adjacent to growing snow particles, where isotope concentration has dropped at the ice-water interface because of the fractionation during grain coarsening. The slope in δD–δ18O diagram estimated by the model is compatible with the experimental data. It is considered, therefore, that the freezing fraction, the part of the liquid which refreezes to relatively large particles during grain coarsening, could be estimated by measuring the isotope concentration.
Theories of coalition politics in parliamentary democracies have suggested that government formation and survival are jointly determined outcomes. An important empirical implication of these theories is that the sample of observed governments analyzed in studies of government survival may be nonrandomly selected from the population of potential governments. This can lead to serious inferential problems. Unfortunately, current empirical models of government survival are unable to account for the possible biases arising from nonrandom selection. In this study, we use a copula-based framework to assess, and correct for, the dependence between the processes of government formation and survival. Our results suggest that existing studies of government survival, by ignoring the selection problem, overstate the substantive importance of several covariates commonly included in empirical models.
This is a report of a thoracic vertebral fracture in a 79-year-old male survivor of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with chest compressions provided by a LUCAS 2 (Physio-Control Inc.; Lund Sweden) device. This is the first such report in the literature of a vertebral fracture being noted in a survivor of cardiac arrest where an automated compression device was used.
MarshallRT, KotechaH, ChibaT, TennysonJ. Thoracic Spine Fracture in a Survivor of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest with Mechanical CPR. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):684–686.
The generation and maintenance of galactic magnetic fields are considered when the dynamo-acted disk is perturbed by spiral density waves. The periodic change of gaseous density and shear is coupled with the field oscillation as a dynamo wave. We find the conditions for parametric resonance which increases the efficiency of dynamos. Special attention is paid to two-armed spiral galaxies, in which the BSS field structure is possibly the most effectively excited configuration owing to the present mechanism.
The evolution of galactic magnetic fields under the influence of spiral arms is investigated numerically by 2-dimensional simulation. We compute several models, especially when the swing-excitation mechanism works. We consider also the modification of the mean velocity fields driven by the Lorentz force of the growing magnetic fields. The characteristic structure of magnetic fields around the arm in each model is compared with the observations.
Several recent observations indicate that even the low H I column density Lyα absorption lines may not be primordial, as they were previously thought to be. High-resolution observations using the Keck telescope (Cowie et al. 1995; Tytler et al 1995.; Songaila & Cowie 1996) have revealed that a large fraction of Lyα absorption lines with H I column density as low as NHI ~ 1014 cm−2 at redshift z ~ 3 are associated with metal lines (C IV). This fraction, hereafter denoted as fm, is estimated as 0.5-0.75. On the other hand, there is an indication that at low z a large fraction of Lyα absorption lines are directly associated with halos of visible galaxies. This fraction is hereafter denoted as fg. Lanzetta et al. (1995, hereafter LBTW) claimed fg ~ 0.6 at z ≲ 1 (see also Bowen, Pettini & Boyle 1997).
We examine effects of density waves on the local galactic αω-dynamo. Oscillations of the magnetic field and the dynamo parameters due to the density wave perturbation irreversibly couple with the dynamo action to enhance the growth of the magnetic fields.
We describe the basic process of coupling between dynamo and density waves in galaxies. The growth rate of magnetic field as a result of coupling is derived, applying the method of multiple time scales to the marginal state of disk dynamo. It is shown that the 1st-order resonance in a perturbation of density and thus the linear swing excitation, is possible. Moreover, the growth rate of magnetic field is always positive and does not depend on the initial phase difference between the magnetic and density waves. Both the numerical and analytical calculations show that ω = 2ω0 (ω: density-wave freq., ω0: dynamo freq.) is still the best condition for resonance due to the linear effect of swing excitation.
An elongated ERO with R - K′ = 7.5 behind the cluster A851 at z=0.4 was found to lie at z = 1.5 both by the photometric redshift and by a cross correlation method of its H-band SED with local E/SO spectra. the luminosity profile is well represented by a seeing convolved exponential disk, and the lack of redshifted H-alpha emission indicates that it has a dynamically relaxed disk with an old stellar population. Gravitational lensing of the cluster is not strong enough to stretch the image and cannot convert the de Vaucouleurs law into an exponential law.
We present a new estimate of the mass of the Milky Way, making use of a large sample of 955 field horizontal-branch (FHB) stars from the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This sample of stars has been classified on the basis of an automated analysis approach, in combination with other methods, in order to obtain estimates of the physical parameters of the stars, i.e., Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and should be relatively free of contamination from halo blue stragglers. the stars all have measured radial velocities and photometric distance estimates, and the sample includes objects as distant as ~ 75 kpc from the Galactic center. Application of a Bayesian likelihood method, for a specific model of the Galaxy, indicates that the total mass of the Galaxy lies in the range 1.5 − 4.0 × 1012 M⊙. Our sample appears to reveal a clear signature of a dual halo population of FHB stars, with the boundary between the inner and outer halo around 20 kpc, and the possibility of rather striking differences in the rotational properties of the Galaxy at low metallicity.
We propose a method for directly detecting MASsive Compact Objects (MASCOs) in extragalactic halos, using VLBI techniques with extremely high resolution ˜ 0.01 milli-arcsec. If a galactic halo comprising a large number of MASCOs produces multiple images of a background radio-loud QSO by gravitational lensing, then a high-resolution radio map of each macro-lensed image should reveal microlensing effects by MASCOs. Based on the size, position, and magnified or demagnified patterns of images, we shall be able to determine the mass and density profile of an individual MASCO as well as its spatial distribution and abundance in a galactic halo.
We investigate the effects of the observed UV background radiation on galaxy formation. The biasing mechanism by photoionization is examined in detail, and its implication for galaxy number counts is discussed. Photoionization by UV radiation, J, decreases the cooling rate of the gas in halos, so that objects with only large density contrasts can self-shield against the radiation. In the context of the CDM model, we use the criterion that self-shielding is essential for star formation to calculate the mass function of galaxies (see Chiba & Nath 1994, ApJ, 436, 618 for details). We find that the cooling rate in the big (low-density) system, into which smaller objects are merged, is reduced by photoionization. This means that, in a merging dominated region, where the number density at the low-mass end (Mb ≤ 1010M⊙) is usually expected to decrease with time, the trend is reversed (the number of low-mass galaxies is more at lower redshifts z) due to the decreasing UV flux with time after z ∼ 2 (see Figure 1).
Star-forming viscous disk model was proposed by Lin & Pringle (1987) as an ubiquitous mechanism to form the exponential stellar disk of spiral galaxies. To clarify whether the viscous evolution models can explain the chemical properties of general spiral galaxies, we have studied the chemical evolution of star-forming viscous disks under the several physical conditions in relation to the possible processes of the disk formation, and compared with the observed gas and metallicity distributions of spiral galaxy disks.