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The history of socialism has, without a doubt, been met with renewed interest in France in recent years. Several publishers have republished nineteenth-century texts (by Proudhon, Saint-Simon, Marx, Jaurès, etc.) and, particularly in the fields of history, philosophy, and political science there have been a series of scholarly research projects following various approaches (including the history of the diversity of Europe's socialist movements). All this is testament to a renewal of scholarly approaches, moving away from the more ideological approaches that had previously been predominant. The fact that this renewed interest comes twenty years after the disappearance of “actually-existing socialism” shows how far approaches have changed from the studies that were being published thirty years ago.
Terrorist attacks occurred in Paris in January 2015.
To assess the mental health impact and the access to psychomedical care of people exposed to the attacks.
We implemented an open-cohort design 6 and 18 months after the attacks. Exposed civilians and rescue workers were included according to the exposure criteria A for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5. A face-to-face questionnaire conducted by trained psychologists was used to collect sociodemographic characteristics, exposure level, scores on psychometric scales, an international neuropsychiatric interview and access to care.
Six months after the attacks, 18% of civilians reported symptoms of PTSD, 31% had anxiety disorders and 11% depression. Among rescue workers, 3% reported symptoms of PTSD and 14% anxiety disorders. During the 48 h following the attacks, 53.2% of civilian had access to psychomedical care v. 35% of rescue and police staff.
We found severe psychological consequences, even in people who were less exposed.
The suitability of a single mid-season targeted selective treatment (TST) for gastrointestinal nematodes control, based on flexible average daily weight gain (ADWG) thresholds, was investigated in 23 groups of first grazing season calves. In each group, animals were weighed three times: before turnout, at mid-season and at housing. Just after the first weighing, each group was divided in two homogenous sub-groups in terms of age, breed and weight, and randomly allocated to one of two sub-groups intented for two different mid-season anthelmintic treatment strategies: (1) a treatment of all calves composing the sub-group (whole-group treatment (WT)) or (2) a targeted selective weight gain-based treatment (TST) of the animals showing an individual pre-treatment ADWG inferior to the mean pre-treatment ADWG of the corresponding WT sub-group. Anthelmintic treatment (levamisole 7.5 mg/kg BW) was performed 3 to 4 months after turnout. At housing, two parasitological parameters (the anti-Ostertagia ostertagi antibody level-Ostertagia optical density ratio (ODR) and the pepsinogen level) and a clinical parameter (the breech soiling score) were assessed at individual level in each group. Then, the high exposed groups to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) were defined as groups for which untreated animals exhibited a mean Ostertagia ODR ⩾0.7 and among these groups, the ones characterized by high abomasal damage due to Ostertagia for which untreated animals exhibited a mean pepsinogen level ⩾2.5 U Tyr were also identified. Among TST sub-groups, the treatment ADWG thresholds varied from 338 to 941 g/day and the percentage of treated animals from 28% to 75%. Pre- and post-treatment ADWG as well as parasitological and clinical parameters measured at housing were similar between TST and WT sub-groups including the 17 high exposed groups to GIN. Within these 17 groups, the treatment allowed to significantly improve post-treatment ADWG compared with untreated animals. In the six high exposed groups showing mean pepsinogen level ⩾2.5 U Tyr, the average effect of treatment on post-treatment ADWG was the highest and estimated up to 14 kg after a grazing duration of 4 months. In contrast, in six other groups showing mean Ostertagia ODR<0.7 in untreated animals, no effect of treatment was seen suggesting an absence of production losses related to a low level of GIN infection. This study highlighted the suitability of a convenient mid-season TST strategy for first grazing season calves, based on the use of flexible thresholds of ADWG, allowing similar growth compared with a whole-group treatment while keeping a GIN population in refugia.
Recent improvements in archaeomagnetism applied to archaeological baked clay, in France and Bulgaria, are presented in this paper. After reviewing the historical development of the method in France and Bulgaria, and the principles of the method, we present sampling techniques for in situ structures (kilns and hearths) and sets of displaced materials (bricks or tiles). In the analysis protocol, we stress the importance of correcting the magnetic anisotropic effects especially for bricks. We also show how the problem of brittle specimens can be solved by induration. After a review of the published archaeomagnetic data currently available for France and Bulgaria, we present different smoothing techniques applied to data obtained in these countries. Finally, we present the usage of the variation curves of the geomagnetic elements in the past to calculate the archaeomagnetic dates. One of these techniques is based on a Bayesian approach, similar to the case of the dendro-chronological calibration of radiocarbon ages. The main goal of the paper is to highlight for the archaeologists the possibilities of archaeomagnetism for dating purposes and for other problems in archaeology, on the basis of the experience of the laboratories in France and Bulgaria. The developments of selected archaeomagnetic studies in other European countries are quoted and referenced.
The recently installed Adaptive Optics system NAOS now offers diffraction limited images at the VLT. Together with the CONICA camera, NAOS provides the possibility to perform high dynamical range observations in the near IR domain. We present here NAOS-CONICA (hereafter NACO) capabilities as well as the first images of binaries obtained during NACO commissioning.
With the development of high contrast imaging techniques and instruments, vast efforts have been devoted during the past decades to detect and characterize lighter, cooler and closer companions to nearby stars, and ultimately image new planetary systems. Complementary to other planet-hunting techniques, this approach has opened a new astrophysical window to study the physical properties and the formation mechanisms of brown dwarfs and planets. In this review, I will briefly describe the different observing techniques and strategies used, the main samples of targeted nearby stars, finally the main results obtained so far about exoplanet discoveries characterization of their physical properties, and study of their occurrence and possible formation and evolution mechanisms.
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a key component of the molecular chaperone complex essential for activating many signalling proteins involved in the development and progression of pathogenic cellular transformation. A Hsp90 gene (BQHsp90) was cloned and characterized from Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan), an ovine Babesia isolate belonging to Babesia motasi-like group, by screening a cDNA expression library and performing rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of BQHsp90 is 2399 bp with an open reading frame of 2154 bp encoding a predicted 83 kDa polypeptide with 717 amino acid residues. It shows significant homology and similar structural characteristics to Hsp90 of other apicomplex organisms. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the HSP90 amino acid sequences, showed that the Babesia genus is clearly separated from other apicomplexa genera. Five Chinese ovine Babesia isolates were divided into 2 phylogenetic clusters, namely Babesia sp. Xinjiang (previously designated a new species) cluster and B. motasi-like cluster which could be further divided into 2 subclusters (Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan)/Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. BQ1 (Ningxian)/Babesia sp. Hebei). Finally, the antigenicity of rBQHSP90 protein from prokaryotic expression was also evaluated using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
For very high intensity accelerators, not only beam power but also space charge is a concern. Both aspects should be taken into consideration for any analysis of accelerators aiming at comparing their performances and pointing out the challenging sections. As high beam power is an issue from the lowest energy, careful and exhaustive beam loss predictions have to be done. High space charge implies lattice compactness making the implementation of beam diagnostics very problematic, so a clear strategy for beam diagnostic has to be defined. Beam halo is no longer negligible. Its dynamics is different from that of the core and plays a significant role in the particle loss process. Therefore, beam optimization must take the halo into account and beam characterization must be able to describe the halo part in addition to the core one. This paper presents the advanced concepts and methods for beam analysis, beam loss prediction, beam optimization, beam diagnostic, and beam characterization especially dedicated to very high intensity accelerators. Examples of application of these concepts are given in the case of the IFMIF accelerators.
For a Megawatt class accelerator, classical safety measures may not be sufficient. Precise knowledge of beam loss location and power deposition in the most various scenarios is crucial for the definition of appropriate protection systems. In this work, the case of the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator is studied, where, due to its very high continuous wave beam intensity, the high power part concerns almost the whole accelerator. Beam dynamics simulations are performed to allow the ability to estimate beam losses in all the different situations of the accelerator lifetime: starting from scratch, beam commissioning, tuning or exploration, routine operation, sudden failures. All the results of these studies are given, establishing the catalogue of losses. Recommendations for hot point protection, beam stop speed, beam power limitation are given accordingly.
For the purpose of material studies for future nuclear fusion reactors, the IFMIF deuteron beams present a simultaneous combination of unprecedentedly high intensity (2 × 125 mA CW), power (2 × 5 MW) and space charge. Special considerations and new concepts have been developed in order to overcome these challenges. The global strategy for beam dynamics design of the 40 MeV IFMIF accelerators is presented, stressing on the control of micro-losses, and the possibility of online fine tuning. Start-to-end simulations without and with errors are presented for the prototype accelerator. Considerations about conflicts between halo and emittance minimization are then discussed in this very high space charge context.
In order to investigate further the interest of using the Chilean gene pool in potato breeding programmes, the genetic diversity and population structure of a collection of Solanum tuberosum L. genotypes including 350 worldwide varieties or breeders' lines (referred to as the modern group) and 30 Chiloé Island landraces were examined using simple sequence repeat markers. The close genetic proximity of the Chiloé Island landraces to the modern group was confirmed using several structure analysis methods: principal coordinate analysis; hierarchical clustering analysis; analysis of molecular variance; Bayesian model-based clustering analysis. The latter analysis, in particular, revealed no clear genetic structure between the modern group and the Chiloé Island landraces. The Chiloé Island germplasm appears to represent an interesting gene pool that could be exploited in potato breeding programmes using an association mapping approach.
The young (12+8−4 Myr) and nearby (19.44±0.05 pc) star β Pictoris is considered one of the best laboratories for the study of early phases of planetary systems formation since the identification of an extended debris disk surrounding the star in 1984. In 2009, we imaged at 3.8 μm with NaCo at VLT a gas giant planet around β Pictoris, roughly along the disk mid-plane, with a semi-major axis between 8 and 14 AU. We present here the first images of the planet in the J (1.265 μm), H (1.66 μm), and M' (4.78 μm) bands obtained between 2011 and 2012. We used these data to build the 1-5 μm spectral energy distribution (SED) of the companion, and to consolidate previous semi-major axis (8-10 AU) estimates. We compared the SED to seven atmospheric models to derive Teff = 1700 ± 100 K. We used the temperature and the luminosity of β Pictoris b to estimate new masses for the companion. We compared these masses to independent constraints set by the orbital parameters and the radial velocities and use them to discuss the formation history of the object.
Spectral differential imaging (SDI) is part of the observing strategy of current and on-going high-contrast imaging instruments on ground-based telescopes. Although it improves the star light rejection, SDI attenuates the signature of off-axis companions to the star, just like angular differential imaging (ADI). However, the attenuation due to SDI has the peculiarity of being dependent on the spectral properties of the companions. To date, no study has investigated these effects. Our team is addressing this problem based on data from a direct imaging survey of 16 stars combining the phase-mask coronagraph, the SDI and the ADI modes of VLT/NaCo. The objective of the survey is to search for cool (Teff<1000-1300 K) giant planets at separations of 5-10 AU orbiting young, nearby stars (<200 Myr, <25 pc). The data analysis did not yield any detections. As for the estimation of the sensivity limits of SDI-processed images, we show that it requires a different analysis than that used in ADI-based surveys. Based on a method using the flux predictions of evolutionary models and avoiding the estimation of contrast, we determine directly the mass sensivity limits of the survey for the ADI processing alone and with the combination of SDI and ADI. We show that SDI does not systematically improve the sensitivity due to the spectral properties and self-subtraction of point sources.
Here we present the installation and successful commissioning of an L'-band Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM) coronagraph on VLT/NACO. The AGPM is a vector vortex coronagraph made from diamond subwavelength gratings tuned to the L' band. The vector vortex coronagraph enables high contrast imaging at very small inner working angle (here 0″.09, the diffraction limit of the VLT at L'), potentially being the key to a new parameter space. During technical and science verification runs, we discovered a late-type companion at two beamwidths from an F0V star (Mawet et al. 2013), and imaged the inner regions of β Pictoris down to the previously unexplored projected radius of 1.75 AU. The circumstellar disk was also resolved from ≃ 1″ to 5″ (see J. Milli et al., these proceedings). These results showcase the potential of the NACO L-band AGPM over a wide range of spatial scales.
We present the results of two three-year surveys of young and nearby stars to search for wide orbit giant planets. On the one hand, we focus on early-type and massive, namely β Pictoris analogs. On the other hand, we observe late type and very low mass stars, i.e., M dwarfs. We report individual detections of new planetary mass objects. According to our deep detection performances, we derive the observed frequency of giant planets between these two classes of parent stars. We find frequency between 6 to 12% but we are not able to assess a/no correlation with the host-mass.
Over the past decade, a growing number of deep imaging surveys have started to provide meaningful constraints on the population of extrasolar giant planets at large orbital separation. Primary targets for these surveys have been carefully selected based on their age, distance and spectral type, and often on their membership to young nearby associations where all stars share common kinematics, photometric and spectroscopic properties. The next step is a wider statistical analysis of the frequency and properties of low mass companions as a function of stellar mass and orbital separation. In late 2009, we initiated a coordinated European Large Program using angular differential imaging in the H band (1.66 μm) with NaCo at the VLT. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive and statistically significant study of the occurrence of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs at large (5-500 AU) orbital separation around ~150 young, nearby stars, a large fraction of which have never been observed at very deep contrast. The survey has now been completed and we present the data analysis and detection limits for the observed sample, for which we reach the planetary-mass domain at separations of ≳50 AU on average. We also present the results of the statistical analysis that has been performed over the 75 targets newly observed at high-contrast. We discuss the details of the statistical analysis and the physical constraints that our survey provides for the frequency and formation scenario of planetary mass companions at large separation.