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Populations of Critically Endangered White-rumped Gyps bengalensis and Slender-billed G. tenuirostris Vultures in Nepal declined rapidly during the 2000s, almost certainly because of the effects of the use in livestock of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, which is nephrotoxic to Gyps vultures. In 2006, veterinary use of diclofenac was banned in Nepal and this was followed by the gradual implementation, over most of the geographical range of the two vulture species in Nepal, of a Vulture Safe Zone (VSZ) programme to advocate vulture conservation, raise awareness about diclofenac, provide vultures with NSAID-free food and encourage the veterinary use in livestock of a vulture-safe alternative NSAID (meloxicam). We report the results of long-term monitoring of vulture populations in Nepal before and after this programme was implemented, by means of road transects. Piecewise regression analysis of the count data indicated that a rapid decline of the White-rumped Vulture population from 2002 up to about 2013 gave way to a partial recovery between about 2013 and 2018. More limited data for the Slender-billed Vulture indicated that a rapid decline also gave way to partial recovery from about 2012 onwards. The rates at which populations were increasing in the 2010s exceeded the upper end of the range of increase rates expected in a closed population under optimal conditions. The possibility that immigration from India is contributing to the changes cannot be excluded. We present evidence from open and undercover pharmacy surveys that the VSZ programme had apparently become effective in reducing the availability of diclofenac in a large part of the range of these species in Nepal by about 2011. Hence, community-based advocacy and awareness-raising actions, and possibly also provisioning of safe food, may have made an important contribution to vulture conservation by augmenting the effects of changes in the regulation of toxic veterinary drugs.
Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine tolerance of blueberry to saflufenacil. Greenhouse studies included five saflufenacil rates (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 g ai ha−1) and three southern highbush blueberry cultivars (‘Legacy’, ‘New Hanover’, and ‘O’Neal’) and one rabbiteye blueberry cultivar (‘Columbus’). Saflufenacil treatments were soil applied into each pot when blueberry plants were approximately 30-cm tall. Visible injury (purpling/reddening of foliage and leaf abscission) ranged from 3% to 12%, 3% to 42%, 0% to 43%, and 0% to 29% with saflufenacil from 50 to 400 g ha−1 in Columbus, Legacy, New Hanover, and O’Neal, respectively, at 28 d after treatment. Regardless of injury, plant growth (change in height), soil plant analysis development, and whole-plant dry biomass of all cultivars did not differ among saflufenacil rates. Field studies were conducted in Burgaw, NC, to determine the tolerance of nonbearing (<3-yr-old and not mature enough to produce fruit) and bearing (>3-yr-old and mature enough to produce fruit) southern highbush blueberry (‘Duke’) to saflufenacil application at pre-budbreak or during the vegetative growth stage. Treatments included three rates of saflufenacil (50, 100, and 200 g ha−1), glyphosate (870 g ae ha−1), glufosinate (1096 g ai ha−1), glyphosate (870 g ha−1) + saflufenacil (50 g ha−1), glufosinate (1096 g ha−1) + saflufenacil (50 g ha−1), and hexazinone (1,120 g ai ha−1), applied POST-directed to the soil surface beneath blueberry plants in a 76-cm band on both sides of the blueberry planting row. The maximum injury from treatments containing saflufenacil was ≤11% in both nonbearing and bearing blueberry. No negative effects on plant growth or fruit yield were observed from any treatments. Results from both greenhouse and field studies suggest that saflufenacil applied at 50 (1X commercial use rate) and 100 g ha−1 is safe to use in blueberry.
The antiphase boundary in a superlattice has been defined as the boundary between two neighboring zones which are out ofsphase with each other. This difference in phase is usually represented by a translation vector. In long-period superlattices, however, antiphase boundaries of the above mentioned type occur with regular spacings, thereby introducing another element of order which shows up as satellite peaks in the diffraction pattern. A second kind of antiphase boundaries may be defined in a one-dimensional long-period superlattice as the boundary between two neighboring zones which have different directions of repetition of the antiphase boundaries of the first kind. A theory of X-ray diffraction to obtain the size of the domains of the second kind in a one-dimensional long-period superlattice has been developed. An application of this theory to the ordered alloy Ag3Mg, known to have a one-dimensional long-period superlattice, is described and the results of the X-ray measurements are compared with those obtained by transmission electron microscopy.
The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region harbours some of the richest and most diverse ecosystems on the planet that are now facing substantial threats through changes in climate, land use and human population growth, with serious consequences for the biodiversity in this mountainous region. In this paper we evaluated the effects of climate change on the distribution of the tripartite epiphytic macrolichen Lobaria pindarensis, considered to be endemic to the Himalayas. To predict the current and future distribution of this species we applied the Random Forest modelling algorithm and climatic variables with a post-processing of projected distributions using a map of habitat types in the study region. We calibrated models based on 1397 species presences within an altitudinal range of 2036–4000 m and extrapolated them according to two IPCC scenarios of climate change (RCP 2·6 and RCP 8·5). Based on the results of ensemble modelling, two new localities where L. pindarensis might potentially occur were predicted. Our simulations predicted a range expansion of this epiphytic lichen to the north-east and to higher altitudes in response to climate change, although the species’ low dispersal abilities and the local availability of trees as a substratum will considerably limit latitudinal and altitudinal shifts. By contrast, assuming the species can migrate to previously unoccupied areas, and depending on different future climate scenarios, our models forecasted a habitat loss of 30–70% for L. pindarensis. The main reason for the simulated habitat loss is the expected increase in mean annual temperature (by 1·5–3·7 °C) and total annual precipitation (by 56–125 mm). Our results contribute further evidence for the high sensitivity of tripartite macrolichens, especially those from mountain areas, to climate change and particularly emphasize the vulnerability of L. pindarensis. Thus, we stress the need to develop and formulate conservation measures and strategies for the protection of this endemic species in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To examine the rate of medical and social service referral utilization among community members who are enrolled in HealthStreet - a community engagement initiative at University of Florida. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: HealthStreet utilizes the CHW model to conduct health needs assessment, provide referrals to medical and social services and link them to health research at UF. Across two follow-up schedules, these participants are contacted to assess their rate of referral utilization. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: From October 2011-October 2018, HealthStreet completed 10,829 health needs assessments and provided a total of 15,723 medical and/or social service referrals with an average of 1.48 referrals per person. About a third of people completed first and second follow-up respectively (n=3,461; 32.0% and n=3,477; 32.1%), and another third (n=3,891; 35.9%) completed neither. The total number of follow up attempts was 40,863, with an average of 3.85 attempts per person. The overall service utilization rate was 17.02%. The top barriers to utilization included, could not schedule an appointment (26.3%), busy on the date of appointment (21.9%), transportation (9.4%), and already received the service from elsewhere (4.7%). Others (28.3%) did not identify a specific barrier for non-utilization. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Findings show that those who need services are still hampered by barriers to care that CHWs and other service providers could help them overcome. Facilitating the appointment and providing transportation would assist over a third of those needing services.
Delusional parasitosis, or Ekbom syndrome, is a fixed false belief of being infested by parasites [Bellanger 2009]. With easy accessibility of the internet, serving as a vital tool in acquiring myriad information, these delusions typically arise and can be fueled by external sources as self-research [Bell2005]. For instance, garlic (allium sativum) has been reported to exhibit anthelmintic activity against cestodes (tapeworms), proving to be a natural treatmentoption [Abdel-Ghaffar 2010]. Without proper instructions, guidelines, or control of such information, psychopathological manifestations may be derived.
A young adult male presented with severe psychosis. He reports responding to an internal stimuli, non-command auditory hallucinations, and paranoid ideations specifically in regards to his body and health for several weeks. Prior to presentation, he experienced abdominal pain and constipation for five days, but attributed it to the belief of having tapeworms. He stated that he researched cures for several days using the internet and found garlic as a treatment option. He attempted to alleviate his symptoms by ingested 197 pills of 1,000 milligram (mg) garlic supplements, two 100mg bisacodyl laxatives, and five 100mg docusate stool softeners in one day. He denies any suicidal/homicidal ideations, illicit substance abuse, deja-vu, and jamais-vu.
Psychiatric examination is as follows: Mental Status Examination: awake, alert, and oriented x3. General Appearance: disheveled. Speech: soft, mumbling, and minimally non-responsive. Psychomotor Activity: moderately sedated. Eye Contact: poor. Mood: dysphoric. Affect: flat. Thought Process: flight of ideas. Thought Content: preoccupied. Judgement/Insight: poor. Immediate/Recent Recall: poor. Remote Memory: poor.
Delusional parasitosis and somatic parasitic infestation has dire consequences in which one's health can become compromised. For those suffering from parasitosis, addition of garlic in food as well as garlic supplements of 50mg/kg body weight has been reported as a possible naturopathic treatment option in Cryptosporidiosis and Schistosoma mansoni [Gaafar 2012; Nahed 2009]. In addition, it was found that a dose of 1.2mg for three days was efficient, safe, and shortens the duration of treatment for parasites [Soffar 1991]. However, this patient ingested 197,000mg of garlic supplements without experiencing symptoms of overdose. This may include burning sensation of the mouth or stomach, flatulence, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, thrombocytopenia, and anaphylaxis [Bayan 2014]. The efficacy of garlic for treatment of true parasitosis is unknown, but can be found in common practice especially those who practice naturopathic medicine. In this case, it is unlikely to have a positive effect, especially when delusional in nature. The use of homeopathic medication in those with true parasitosis and delusional parasitosis should be queried.
Funding Acknowledgements: Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation
In this paper, a miniaturized open-ended dual-band band-pass filter with stepped series capacitance and shunt meandered line inductance for microwave frequency applications has been designed and discussed. In order to offer ease of fabrication and uniplanar configuration, coplanar waveguide feeding arrangement has been used. Zeroth order resonance, a special phenomenon of composite right/left handed transmission line has been utilized to miniaturize the filter size. The designed filter structure offers miniaturization with overall footprint size of 0.26λg × 0.19λg, where λg is the guided wavelength at the center frequency of 1.46 GHz. It offers 58.90% (1.03–1.89 GHz) and 25.93% (2.55–3.31 GHz) measured −3 dB fractional bandwidth with respect to the center frequencies of 1.46 and 2.93 GHz, respectively. Dispersion plot has been utilized to discuss the metamaterial properties for the proposed dual-band band-pass filter. In addition to above, the proposed filter structure presents almost flat group delay curve within both passbands. The proposed filter structure can be suitably utilized for distinct wireless applications, for example global navigation satellite system (1.559–1.610 GHz), GSM1800 (1.7–1.8 GHz), Wi-MAX (2.5–2.7 GHz), and naval radar and air traffic control (2.7–2.9 GHz).
Field research was conducted in 2012 and 2013 in Georgia, New York, and North Carolina to evaluate the effect of trifluralin PPI on turnip root production. Treatments included trifluralin PPI at 0, 0.42, 0.56, 0.84, 1.12, 1.68, 2.24, and 3.36 kg ai ha−1. Aboveground injury to turnip varied by location and increased from 0% to 85% as trifluralin rate increased from 0.42 to 3.36 kg ha−1. Trifluralin at 0.42 to 0.84 kg ha−1 caused ≤7% injury, except at Clayton, NC, and Freeville, NY, where injury ≤32%. Trifluralin at 0.42 to 0.84 kg ha−1 reduced turnip root yield ≤11% at all locations, except Clinton, NC, where yield was reduced 29% and 43% by 0.56 and 0.84 kg ha−1, respectively. Turnip roots were not injured internally by trifluralin. Our research results suggest that up to 0.84 kg ha−1 trifluralin PPI is safe to use in turnip roots.
The investigation of potential herbicides for weed control in sweetpotato is critical due to the limited number of registered herbicides and the development of populations of herbicide- resistant weeds. Therefore, field studies were conducted at the Horticultural Crops Research Station, Clinton, NC and the Pontotoc Ridge–Flatwoods Branch Experiment Station, Pontotoc, MS to determine the effect of oryzalin application rate and timing on sweetpotato tolerance. Oryzalin at 0.6, 1.1, 2.2, 3.4, and 4.5 kg ai ha–1 was applied immediately after transplanting or 14 d after sweetpotato transplanting (DAP). At Clinton, oryzalin applied immediately after transplanting resulted in ≤1% leaf distortion 4 and 6 wk after transplanting (WAP) regardless of application rate. However, when oryzalin was applied 14 DAP, greater sweetpotato leaf distortion was observed from 2.2, 3.4, and 4.5 kg ha–1 (≤8%) than 0.6 and 1.1 kg ha–1 (≤4%). At Pontotoc, oryzalin applied immediately after transplanting resulted in ≤6% leaf distortion 4 WAP regardless of application rate. However, when oryzalin was applied at 14 DAP, greater leaf distortion was reported from 3.4 and 4.5 kg ha–1 (11 to 13%) than 0.6, 1.1, and 2.2 kg ha–1 (4 to 6%). Oryzalin application rate and timing did not affect yield of no.1, jumbo, or marketable sweetpotato. Based on these results, oryzalin herbicide has potential for registration in sweetpotato.
Studies were conducted to determine the tolerance of sweetpotato and Palmer amaranth control to a premix of flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone pretransplant (PREtr) followed by (fb) irrigation. Greenhouse studies were conducted in a factorial arrangement of four herbicide rates (flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone PREtr at 105/133 and 57/72 g ai ha–1, S-metolachlor PREtr 803 g ai ha–1, nontreated) by three irrigation timings [2, 5, and 14 d after transplanting (DAP)]. Field studies were conducted in a factorial arrangement of seven herbicide treatments (flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone PREtr at 40/51, 57/72, 63/80, and 105/133 g ha–1, 107 g ha–1 flumioxazin PREtr fb 803 g ha–1S-metolachlor 7 to 10 DAP, and season-long weedy and weed-free checks) by three 1.9-cm irrigation timings (0 to 2, 3 to 5, or 14 DAP). In greenhouse studies, flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone reduced sweetpotato vine length and shoot and storage root fresh biomass compared to the nontreated check and S-metolachlor. Irrigation timing had no influence on vine length and root fresh biomass. In field studies, Palmer amaranth control was≥91% season-long regardless of flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone rate or irrigation timing. At 38 DAP, sweetpotato injury was≤37 and≤9% at locations 1 and 2, respectively. Visual estimates of sweetpotato injury from flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone were greater when irrigation timing was delayed 3 to 5 or 14 DAP (22 and 20%, respectively) compared to 0 to 2 DAP (7%) at location 1 but similar at location 2. Irrigation timing did not influence no.1, jumbo, or marketable yields or root length-to-width ratio. With the exception of 105/133 g ha–1, all rates of flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone resulted in marketable sweetpotato yield and root length-to-width ratio similar to flumioxazin fb S-metolachlor or the weed-free checks. In conclusion, flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone PREtr at 40/51, 57/72, and 63/80 g ha–1 has potential for use in sweetpotato for Palmer amaranth control without causing significant crop injury and yield reduction.
Field studies were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in North Carolina to determine the response of ‘Covington’ and ‘Murasaki-29’ sweetpotato cultivars to four rates of linuron (420, 560, 840, and 1,120 g ai ha–1) alone or with S-metolachlor (803 g ai ha–1) applied 7 or 14 d after transplanting (DAP). Injury (chlorosis/necrosis and stunting) to both cultivars was greater when linuron was applied with S-metolachlor as compared to linuron applied alone. Herbicide application at 14 DAP caused greater injury (chlorosis/necrosis and stunting) to both cultivars than when applied at 7 DAP. At 4 wk after treatment (WAT), stunting of Covington and Murasaki-29 (hereafter Murasaki) from linuron at 420 to 1,120 g ha–1 increased from 27% to 50% and 25% to 53%, respectively. At 7 or 8 WAT, crop stunting of 8% or less and 0% was observed in Covington and Murasaki, respectively, regardless of application rate and timing. Murasaki root yields were similar in the linuron alone or with S-metolachlor treatments, and were lower than the nontreated check. In 2016, no. 1 and marketable sweetpotato yields of Covington were similar for the nontreated check, linuron alone, or linuron plus S-metolachlor treatments, but not in 2015. Decreases in no. 1 and marketable root yields were observed when herbicides were applied 14 DAP compared to 7 DAP for Covington in 2015 and for Murasaki in both years. No. 1 and marketable yields of Covington were similar for 420 to 1,120 g ha–1 linuron and nontreated check except marketable root yields in 2015. No. 1 and marketable sweetpotato yields of Murasaki decreased as application rates increased.
A compact low-pass filter (LPF) with wide rejection band based on T-type circuit of an enhanced dual composite right-/left-handed (D-CRLH) resonator is presented in this paper. The resonator has only one cell with series and parallel tank circuit. The parallel LC tank circuit has been realized by an interdigital capacitor and one shorted finger, whereas its series LC tank circuit is realized by an air gap capacitance and a short circuit stub. The filter has wide rejection band bandwidth with three transmission zeros (TZs). The filter bandwidth and TZs frequencies are controlled by the D-CRLH element values. The results of the proposed filter demonstrate minimum insertion loss in passband, high roll-off rate, and good figure of merit. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated results. The detailed filter design is discussed in terms of circuit modeling, dispersion analysis, and full-wave simulation. Finally, the filter size is compact (0.10 λg × 0.15 λg) at cut-off frequency.
Field studies were conducted in North Carolina to determine the critical period for Palmer amaranth control (CPPAC) in pickling cucumber. In removal treatments (REM), emerged Palmer amaranth were allowed to compete with cucumber for 14, 21, 28, or 35 d after sowing (DAS) in 2014 and 14, 21, 35, or 42 DAS in 2015, and cucumber was kept weed-free for the remainder of the season. In the establishment treatments (EST), cucumber was maintained free of Palmer amaranth by hand removal until 14, 21, 28, or 35 DAS in 2014 and until 14, 21, 35, or 42 DAS in 2015; after this, Palmer amaranth was allowed to establish and compete with the cucumber for the remainder of the season. The beginning and end of the CPPAC, based on 5% loss of marketable yield, was determined by fitting log-logistic and Gompertz equations to the relative yield data representing REM and EST, respectively. Season-long competition by Palmer amaranth reduced pickling cucumber yield by 45% to 98% and 88% to 98% during 2014 and 2015, respectively. When cucumber was planted on April 25, 2015, the CPPAC ranged from 570 to 1,002 heat units (HU), which corresponded to 32 to 49 DAS. However, when cucumber planting was delayed 2 to 4 wk (May 7 and May 21, 2014 and May 4, 2015), the CPPAC lasted from 100 to 918 HU (7 to 44 DAS). This research suggested that planting pickling cucumber as early as possible during the season may help to reduce competition by Palmer amaranth and delay the beginning of the CPPAC.
A novel low profile dual band patch antenna is presented. It consists of a composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH TL) unit cell gap coupled with the radiating edge of a rectangular patch antenna. The dual band behavior is achieved by coupling the zeroth order resonance mode of CRLH TL and TM10 mode of the patch antenna. It is shown that frequency ratio can be changed by varying the gap between the patch and CRLH TL unit cell. The proposed configuration enables frequency reconfigurability by changing the CRLH TL unit cell using a switch. A prototype of the antenna having frequency ratio f2/f1 = 1.08 is designed and fabricated. The proposed antenna shows measured S11 ≤ −10 dB bandwidth of 100 and 50 MHz at resonance frequencies of f1 = 4.84 and f2 = 5.22 GHz, respectively. A 2 × 2 dual band CRLH TL coupled patch array is also presented, showing more than 12.7 dBi gain at both resonance frequencies.
Background: Lisdexamfetamine has not heretofore been reported to cause pathological gambling. Such a case is presented. Methods: A middle-aged woman, without past interest in gambling, gaming, or risk taking behavior, with childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presented with difficulty focusing and concentrating. Lisdexamfetamine was started at 20 mg daily and gradually escalated due to lack of efficacy. At 70 mg daily, she began binging on sweets and gambling all day, every day at nearby riverboats, which she had never frequented previously. Upon reduction to 60 mg daily, the gambling resolved. Ritalin 20 mg every morning and 50 mg every afternoon was used without gambling reoccurrence. Results: Mental Status Examination: Alert, cooperative and oriented x 3 with good eye contact. Euthymic, without mania, thoughts logical and goal directed. Conclusions: Enhanced dopamine in the nucleus accumbens may induce hedonic activities including gambling, binging on sweets, or sexual activity (Moore et al. 2014). Lisdexamfetamine has been described to induce mania, and pathological gambling may have been an isolated manifestation of early mania. In those who have recently begun lisdexamfetamine, query should be made regarding change in gambling behavior and in those who are pathologically gambling, investigation should be entertained as to whether they are taking lisdexamfetamine.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Interleukin-23 (IL-23) promotes differentiation of naïve T-cells into Th17 cells, which drive the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory conditions such as psoriasis. IL-23-neutralizing antibody therapies are now in use for treatment of psoriasis, with promising results. Studies in mice have shown that IL-23 plays a role in inhibiting the growth, progression, and metastasis of melanomas. Thus, therapeutic neutralization of IL-23 in patients may inadvertently increase their susceptibility to development of melanoma. In this study, we aim to characterize expression of IL-23 receptors (IL-23R) in human melanocytes and melanoma cells and tissue and to study the effect of IL-23 on growth, proliferation, and tumorigenicity of these cells. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: IL-23R expression was characterized using immunofluorescence staining, Western blot, and flow cytometric analysis. Response of melanoma and melanocytes to recombinant IL-23 treatment will be studied through similar methods in addition to assays of cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry results indicate that both human melanoma and primary melanocytes express IL-23 receptors. Western blot analysis showed that melanoma cell line A375 expressed nearly twice the amount of IL-23R versus normal melanocytes (p<0.05). Based on previous studies, we anticipate that addition of recombinant IL-23 to cultures of melanoma will reduce proliferative potential, and we expect similar addition to normal melanocytes will increase DNA repair mechanisms. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In showing that human melanocytes and melanoma cells express IL-23 receptors, and potentially showing the inhibitory effect of IL-23 in the development of melanocytic neoplasms, our findings imply that using IL-23 neutralizing therapies may increase risk of developing melanoma, especially in patients who are already susceptible. As such, these therapies must be used with great care in these patients.
In this paper, a compact metamaterial inspired ultra-thin polarization independent quad-band microwave absorber for electromagnetic interference (EMI)/ electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applications have been discussed. The proposed absorber structure offers four different absorption peaks having absorptivity of 97.02, 94.07, 91.72, and 98.20% at 3.40, 8.23, 9.89, and 11.80 GHz, respectively. Due to the four-fold symmetry of the designed unit cell, the proposed absorber structure shows polarization independent behavior. In addition to above, the absorption curve for the designed structure has been also analyzed under different angles of incidence for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization states. In order to confirm the metamaterial behavior of the proposed absorber unit cell, dispersion plot has been studied. Further, input impedance plot, electric field, and surface current distribution plot have been discussed to explain the absorption mechanism of the proposed absorber structure. The designed absorber unit cell shows compactness of 0.136 λ0 × 0.136 λ0 with the ultra-thin thickness of 0.0113 λ0, where λ0 (free space wavelength) corresponds to the lowest absorption peak of 3.40 GHz. In order to calculate the measured value of absorptivity, the designed absorber structure has been fabricated. Further, it has been observed that simulated and measured results perfectly match with each other. The ultra-thin and compact nature of the proposed absorber structure suggests its potential use in the field of various EMI/EMC applications.
A recent study on ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) demonstrates that males perform post-copulatory mate guarding in the form of prolonged mating durations. We investigated whether food resource fluctuation affects pre- and post-copulatory behaviour of M. sexmaculatus. It has not been studied before in ladybirds. For this, adults were subjected to prey resource fluctuations sequentially at three levels: post-emergence (Poe; 10 days), pre-mating (Prm; 24 h) and post-mating (Pom; 5 days; only female). The food resource conditions at each level could be any one of scarce, optimal or abundant. Pre-copulatory and post-copulatory behaviour, and reproductive output were assessed. Post-emergence and pre-mating nutrient conditions significantly influenced the pre-copulatory behaviour. Males reared on scarce post-emergence conditions were found to require significantly higher number of mating attempts to establish mating unlike males in the other two food conditions. Under scarce post-emergence and pre-mating conditions, time to commencement of mating and latent period were high but opposite result was obtained for mate-guarding duration. Fecundity and per cent egg viability were more influenced by post-mating conditions, with scarce conditions stopping oviposition regardless of pre-mating and post-emergence conditions. Present results indicate that pre- and post-copulatory behaviour of ladybird is plastic in nature in response to food resource fluctuations.