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A small aspect of football culture has an enmeshed history with alcohol and can create an environment where harmful alcohol consumption is promoted. As a result, both current and former professional footballers are at risk. Alcohol-related psychiatric assessments need to serially assess severity, risk, social function and manage any co-morbid physical or mental health conditions. Following these assessments, a personalised biopsychosocial care plan should be agreed. A sports psychiatrist must understand how alcohol misuse presents within the elite football environment and how patient motivation towards behaviour change is central to recovery.
In the present investigation, the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of small cardamom (SC) and yellow mustard (YM) seeds have been investigated for their efficacies in combating type 2 diabetes in streptozotocin-induced Wistar albino rats. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in the rats were monitored on days 8, 15 and 21. On day 15, FBG level reduced appreciably by 31·49 % in rats treated with SC seed extract and by 32·28 % in rats treated with YM seed extract, comparable to metformin (30·70 %) and BGR-34 (a commercial polyherbal drug) (31·81 %) administered rats. Either extract exhibited desirable effects on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and catalase activities in controlling diabetes. A molecular docking exercise was conducted to identify specific compounds in the extracts which possessed augmenting effect on G6PD. The results revealed that all the bioactive compounds in the extracts have binding affinities with the enzyme and contributed to the antidiabetic efficacies of the extracts as G6PD augmenters. The effects of the extracts on insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake were investigated using non-invasive modelling by iHOMA2 software. This in vitro approach indicated that extract administration resulted in increased both insulin sensitivity of the liver and glucose uptake in the gut. The findings of the present study attest these SC-CO2 extracts of the spices as safe alternatives of metformin and BGR-34 in combating type 2 diabetes and could be safely subjected to clinical studies. These extracts could also be employed in designing proactive food supplements in mitigating the metabolic disorder.
We investigate whether first-principles calculations with an improved description of electronic correlations can explain the large magnetic moments and the strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the ferromagnetic compound UGa2. The correlations are treated within a static mean-field approximation DFT+U combining the density functional theory (DFT) with an onsite Hubbard interaction U. We find that DFT+U improves the agreement of the magnetic moments with the experiment compared to DFT but worsens the theoretical description of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.
An integrated approach involving Sr–Nd isotope, trace and rare earth element analyses tracks multiple sources of the Mesozoic sediments of the Kutch Basin at the western continental margin of India. High (87Sr/86Sr)t (ratio at time of deposition), negative εNd and high concentrations of large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) indicate the upper continental source. Ratios of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf suggest sedimentary and felsic igneous sources of sediments. The moderate to high concentration of La, Th and Sc, light rare earth elements (LREE-) enrichment, weak negative Eu anomalies and the relationship between εNd(0) and Th/Sc indicate the dominantly felsic composition of source rocks. However, low contents of Th, low values of (87Sr/86Sr)t and depleted mantle model age TDM < 1600 Ma indicate input from a younger mafic source. Increasing concentrations of Zr, Hf and Nd isotopes and a gradual increase in mean TDM from the older to the younger formations indicate erosional unroofing at the source terrain. The increasing (87Sr/86Sr)t through time relates to increased weathering of the source rock. The overwhelmingly southwesterly palaeocurrent direction of current-generated sedimentary structures, and the mean TDM ages trace suggest source areas of the Kutch Basin to Precambrian rocks in the north and NE of this basin. The TDM ages highlight the dominance of late Palaeoproterozoic source rocks. Nd isotope composition indicates that Proterozoic rocks of Marwar Supergroup and Erinpura Granite, in particular, served as main sediment contributors for the Mesozoic sediments in Kutch. We therefore conclude that the Mesozoic sediments in the Kutch Basin are predominantly of late Palaeoproterozoic age with lesser inputs from rocks of early Mesoproterozoic and early Palaeoproterozoic age.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Many museums and art spaces conduct programming intended to improve health outcomes, but arts professionals’ perceptions of these programs are not well known. This study describes arts professionals’ experiences with museum and art-space interventions intended to improve health. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A 14-item digital Qualtrics survey was administered to museums and arts organizations selected using snowball sampling. The survey was sent to a range of arts and cultural organizations and professional membership bodies in the US and UK. Survey questions assessed the range of audiences involved in health programs, what types of activities museums and arts organizations are offering to support health outcomes, and how programs are evaluated. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: From 10/30/19-11/19/19, 151 surveys were completed; 66 respondents (44%) have a museum/arts in health program. Common target populations include individuals with mental health concerns (33, 22%) and older adults (26, 17%). Improving wellbeing (56, 37%) and social isolation (50, 33%) were the most common intended outcomes. Respondents reported using a variety of program evaluation methods including formal (23, 15%), informal (31, 21%), and anecdotal (37, 25%). Interviews are planned with a purposive sample of respondents conducting, or interested in conducting, a program for individuals with chronic pain and those formally evaluating their programs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Interim survey responses indicate many cultural organizations engage in programming intended to improve health outcomes. Understanding the cultural sector’s current efforts to improve health represents an initial step in translating these efforts into effective intersectoral research partnerships.
India is a de facto continent in the garb of a country. COVID-19 is an unprecedented global pandemic spanning continents. Being the second most populous country in the world, experts regard how India deals with the outbreak will have enormous impact on the world’s ability to deal with it. The country has been in lockdown since 25th March 2020 until the current time of early May 2020, and despite several challenges there has been early success. The major conflict now is the health benefits weighed up against the deleterious social and economic consequences of prolonged lockdown i.e. life versus livelihood. This unprecedented calamity could potentially cause or exacerbate various psychiatric disorders. It is recognised that lifestyle changes and limited screen time may help reduce mental health difficulties. Considering the physical barriers to consultation, development of telemedicine services is needed. This pandemic, like other previous pandemics, will pass and until this happens we must remain extremely vigilant.
This introduction outlines the scope of the book titled “Challenges in Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance: Economic and Policy Responses”, and then summarises the main messages of each chapter which focus on the following big questions around AMR policy. What is the evidence on the rise of AMR and its health and economic impact? How can it be most effectively addressed in the community and in hospitals? What role is played by antimicrobial use in the food and livestock sector and what can be done about it? How can the discovery of new antibiotics be reinvigorated to replace those rendered ineffective by resistance? What needs to be done to develop new diagnostic tests so that infections can be speedily identified or ruled out and unnecessary antibiotic use avoided? Can more use be made of vaccines to tackle AMR? How have civil society movements contributed to policy development in the fight against AMR? What does the international community need to do in terms of global collective action to tackle AMR?
Intellectual disability (ID) is defined as significantly subaverage intellectual functioning with deficits in adaptive behavior. For ∼40% of individuals, cause for disability remains unknown and these are categorized as idiopathic ID (IID). Various behavioral problems co-occur with ID and thus serotonergic neurotransmission, known to control emotion, mood and drive, has received immense attention. Synaptic serotonin (5-HT) level is primarily maintained by metabolizing enzyme MAOA and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) which helps in reuptake of the neurotransmitter. Since functional genetic polymorphisms have a potency to affect activities of these proteins, in the present investigation polymorphisms in these genes (MAOA-u VNTR, rs6323, 5-HTTLPR and STIN2) have been analyzed in IID individuals associated with various behavioral problems.
Families (N=189) with IID probands were recruited following DSM-IV. After obtaining informed written consent for participation, peripheral blood was collected for isolation of genomic DNA used for PCR-based genotyping of target sites followed by family-based statistical analyses of data.
Significant association of MAOA rs6323 “T” allele with female IID (P=0.016) and a trend towards association with female IID patients exhibiting behavioral problems (P=0.046) was noticed. Non significant over transmission of the 5-HTTLPR “L” allele was also observed in female IID probands with behavioral problems (P=0.076). Synergistic epistatic interaction, with a sex-bias, was noticed between MAOA and 5-HTT (P< 0.05).
From the data obtained it could be summarized that serotonergic system may have some role in the etiology of behavioral problems of female IID individuals.
Varenicline is an α4β2 partial nicotinic agonist approved for smoking cessation. There have been spontaneous postmarketing reports of neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs) in smokers without a history of psychiatric illness quitting with varenicline.
110 smokers without history of psychiatric illness (screened by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM) were randomized to 12 weeks of varenicline (n=55) (1mg bid) or placebo. Adverse events were solicited systematically. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, aggression and irritability were measured at baseline and weekly using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression-rating scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Anxiety scale (HAM-A), and the Overt Aggression scale-modified (OAS-m). The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered daily. Mixed Model analysis of repeated measures was conducted to compare mean changes in scores between groups across the study period.
Smokers had a mean age of 33; smoked on average 22 cigarettes/day with mean Fagerstrom score for Nicotine Dependence >7 at baseline. Reported NPAEs were similar between groups. No suicidal events were reported. There were no significant differences between groups for the MADRS (treatment difference vs. placebo [TD] = 0.03, 95% CI: -0.68, 0.73; NS), HAM-A (TD = 0.14, 95% CI: -0.62, 0.90; NS), OAS-m irritability subscale (TD = 0.08, 95% CI: -0.17, 0.34; NS), OAS-m aggression subscale (TD = 0.5, 95% CI: -1.18, 2.18, NS) and the POMS total scores (TD = 0.5, 95% CI: -0.52, 1.53; NS).
There were no significant differences between groups on measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety and aggression/hostility. Systematically solicited NPAEs were similar between varenicline and placebo.