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This essay traces the history of Shakespearean actors of color in the UK from the early modern period to the present day. Looking at archival traces such as advertisements and reviews as well as at archival lacunae, this chapter considers the methodologies of and challenges to excavating the performance histories of actors of color. Addressing the socio-historical contexts for the racialized genealogy of Shakespearean performance, including the British and American histories of slavery, British imperialism, Windrush, and Brexit, this chapter explores the range of roles available to actors of color over the years; critical discussions of embodiment, enactment, and staging; and the development of an "unofficial black canon" in British theatre and film alongside more recent attempts to expand this repertoire with renewed attention to dramatic genre, casting practice, and performative setting.
Aggressive behaviour is a highly prevalent and devastating condition in autism spectrum disorder resulting in impoverished quality of life. Gold-standard therapies are ineffective in about 30% of patients leading to greater suffering. We investigated cortical thickness in individuals with autism spectrum disorder with pharmacological-treatment-refractory aggressive behaviour compared with those with non-refractory aggressive behaviour and observed a brain-wide pattern of local increased thickness in key areas related to emotional control and overall decreased cortical thickness in those with refractory aggressive behaviour, suggesting refractoriness could be related to specific morphological patterns. Elucidating the neurobiology of refractory aggressive behaviour is crucial to provide insights and potential avenues for new interventions.
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and REM sleep without atonia (RWA) have assumed much clinical importance with long-term data showing progression into neurodegenerative conditions among older adults. However, much less is known about RBD and RWA in younger populations. This study aims at comparing clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of young patients presenting with RBD, young patients with other neurological conditions, and normal age-matched subjects.
A retrospective chart review was carried out for consecutive young patients (<25 years) presenting with clinical features of RBD; and data were compared to data from patients with epilepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism, as well as normal subjects who underwent PSG during a 2-year-period.
Twelve patients fulfilling RBD diagnostic criteria, 22 autism patients, 10 with ADHD, 30 with epilepsy, and 14 normal subjects were included. Eight patients with autism (30%), three with ADHD (30%), one with epilepsy (3.3%), and six patients who had presented with RBD like symptoms (50%) had abnormal movements and behaviors during REM sleep. Excessive transient muscle activity and/or sustained muscle activity during REM epochs was found in all patients who had presented with RBD, in 16/22 (72%) autistic patients, 6/10 (60%) ADHD patients compared to only 6/30 (20%) patients with epilepsy and in none of the normal subjects.
We observed that a large percentage of young patients with autism and ADHD and some with epilepsy demonstrate loss of REM-associated atonia and some RBD-like behaviors on polysomnography similar to young patients presenting with RBD.
To study 2D and 3D dosimetric values for bladder and rectum, and the influence of bladder volume on bladder dose in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The large patient data incorporated in this study would better represent the inherent variations in many parameters affecting dosimetry in HDR-ICBT.
Material and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 103 consecutive cervical cancer patients (over 310 HDR fractions) undergoing CT-based HDR-ICBT at our centre. Correlation among bladder and rectum maximum volume doses and corresponding International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses were estimated and analysed. Impact of bladder volume on bladder maximum dose was assessed.
The ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum varied from the volumetric doses to these organs. Further, bladder volume poorly correlated with bladder maximum dose for volume variations encountered in the clinical practice at our centre.
ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum are less likely to correlate with long-term toxicities to these organs. Further, in clinical practice where inter-fraction bladder volume does not vary widely there is no correlation between bladder volume and bladder dose.
While previous studies have identified relationships between hippocampal volumes and memory performance in schizophrenia, these relationships are not apparent in healthy individuals. Further, few studies have examined the role of hippocampal subfields in illness-related memory deficits, and no study has examined potential differences across varying illness stages. The current study aimed to investigate whether individuals with early and established psychosis exhibited differential relationships between visuospatial associative memory and hippocampal subfield volumes.
Measurements of visuospatial associative memory performance and grey matter volume were obtained from 52 individuals with a chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 28 youth with recent-onset psychosis, 52 older healthy controls, and 28 younger healthy controls.
Both chronic and recent-onset patients had impaired visuospatial associative memory performance, however, only chronic patients showed hippocampal subfield volume loss. Both chronic and recent-onset patients demonstrated relationships between visuospatial associative memory performance and hippocampal subfield volumes in the CA4/dentate gyrus and the stratum that were not observed in older healthy controls. There were no group by volume interactions when chronic and recent-onset patients were compared.
The current study extends the findings of previous studies by identifying particular hippocampal subfields, including the hippocampal stratum layers and the dentate gyrus, that appear to be related to visuospatial associative memory ability in individuals with both chronic and first-episode psychosis.
Current neuroscience literature has related treatment with aripiprazole to improved memory performance and subcellular changes in the hippocampus.
To explore the volumetric changes in hippocampal grey matter in people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) treated with second-generation antipsychotics.
Baseline and 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance images were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were estimated by using FreeSurfer and MAGeT-Brain. Subgroups included: aripiprazole (n=13), olanzapine (n=12), risperidone/paliperidone (n=24), refused-antipsychotics (n=13) and controls (n=44).
Aripiprazole subgroup displayed significant increases in bilateral hippocampal volume compared with all other subgroups (FreeSurfer: all P's<0.012; MAGeT-Brain: all P's<0.040).
Aripiprazole is a first-line, second-generation treatment option that may provide an added benefit of pro-hippocampal growth. The biological underpinnings of these changes should be the focus of future investigations and may be key towards achieving a better clinical outcome for more individuals.
Tracheoesophageal puncture represents the ‘gold standard’ for voice restoration following laryngectomy. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be undertaken primarily during laryngectomy or in a separate secondary procedure. There is no current consensus on which approach is superior. The current evidence comparing primary and secondary tracheoesophageal puncture was assessed.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of articles comparing outcomes for primary and secondary tracheoesophageal puncture after laryngectomy were conducted. Outcome measures were: voice success, overall complication rate and pharyngocutaneous fistula rate.
Eleven case series met the inclusion criteria, two prospective and nine retrospective. Meta-analysis did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in overall complication rate or voice outcomes, though it suggested a significantly increased risk of pharyngocutaneous fistula in primary compared to secondary tracheoesophageal puncture.
Primary tracheoesophageal puncture is a safe and efficient approach for voice rehabilitation. However, secondary tracheoesophageal puncture should be preferred where there is a higher risk of pharyngocutaneous fistula.
This study aimed to evaluate post-adenoidectomy quality of life in children with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.
A prospective interventional study of children aged 4–12 years with chronic refractory rhinosinusitis was conducted. A total of 60 children completed follow up. Nasal endoscopy and non-contrast computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses were performed, and both symptoms and their effects on patient quality of life pre- and post-adenoidectomy were evaluated.
The most frequent symptoms were nasal obstruction, cough, fever and fatigue, which were experienced by 100 per cent, 90 per cent, 85 per cent and 81.7 per cent of children, respectively. Nasal endoscopy showed oedema and discharge were present in all children. A statistically significant post-operative improvement in sinus and nasal quality of life was seen in 53 children (88.3 per cent).
Adenoidectomy is a simple, first-line surgical procedure for managing paediatric chronic rhinosinusitis refractory to maximal medical therapy and leads to an improved quality of life.
In this paper, we experimentally study the unique surface sensing property and enhanced sensitivity in subwavelength grating (SWG) based microring resonator biosensors versus conventional ring resonator biosensors. In contrast to a conventional ring, the effective sensing region in the SWG microring resonator includes not only the top and side of the waveguide, but also the space between the silicon pillars on the propagation path of the optical mode. It leads to an unique property of thickness-independent surface sensitivity versus common evanescent wave sensors; in other words, the surface sensitivity remains constantly high with progressive attachment of biomolecules to the sensor surface. To increase the robustness of performance of ring shaped circular SWG biosensors, we experimentally demonstrate silicon SWG racetrack resonators. A quality factor of 9800 and bulk sensitivity (S) is ∼429.7 nm/RIU (refractive index per unit) results in an intrinsic detection limit (iDL) 3.71×10-4 RIU in racetrack SWG biosensors while still retaining the accumulated surface thickness properties of circular rings.
When children have marked problems with motor coordination, they often have problems with attention and impulse control. Here, we map the neuroanatomic substrate of motor coordination in childhood and ask whether this substrate differs in the presence of concurrent symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Participants were 226 children. All completed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5)-based assessment of ADHD symptoms and standardized tests of motor coordination skills assessing aiming/catching, manual dexterity and balance. Symptoms of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were determined using parental questionnaires. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance data, four latent neuroanatomic variables (for the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and thalamus) were extracted and mapped onto each motor coordination skill using partial least squares pathway modeling.
The motor coordination skill of aiming/catching was significantly linked to latent variables for both the cerebral cortex (t = 4.31, p < 0.0001) and the cerebellum (t = 2.31, p = 0.02). This effect was driven by the premotor/motor cortical regions and the superior cerebellar lobules. These links were not moderated by the severity of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. In categorical analyses, the DCD group showed atypical reduction in the volumes of these regions. However, the group with DCD alone did not differ significantly from those with DCD and co-morbid ADHD.
The superior cerebellar lobules and the premotor/motor cortex emerged as pivotal neural substrates of motor coordination in children. The dimensions of these motor coordination regions did not differ significantly between those who had DCD, with or without co-morbid ADHD.
We report a longitudinal comprehension study of (long) passive constructions in two native-Spanish child groups differing by age of initial exposure to L2 English (young group: 3;0–4;0; older group: 6;0–7;0), where amount of input, L2 exposure environment, and socioeconomic status are controlled. Data from a forced-choice task show that both groups comprehend active sentences, not passives, initially (after 3·6 years of exposure). One year later, both groups improve, but only the older group reaches ceiling on both actives and passives. Two years from initial testing, the younger group catches up. Input alone cannot explain why the younger group takes five years to accomplish what the older group does in four. We claim that some properties take longer to acquire at certain ages because language development is partially constrained by general cognitive and linguistic development (e.g. de Villiers, 2007; Long & Rothman, 2014; Paradis, 2008, 2010, 2011; Tsimpli, 2014).