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The Neoproterozoic Sevattur complex is composed essentially of calcite and dolomite carbonatites together with pyroxenites and diverse syenites. This work reports the compositions and paragenesis of different pyrochlore generations hosted by albitite veins in this complex. The pyrochlore are distinctive, being exceptionally rich in uranium (26 to 36 wt.% UO2). Five types of pyrochlore (Pcl-I to Pcl-V) are recognised on the basis of composition and texture. With the exception of Pcl-V, the majority of the pyrochlore (Pcl-II to Pcl-IV) are surrounded by a thick orbicular mantle of Ba-rich potassium feldspar. This mantle around Pcl-V is partially-broken. Pcl-I is restricted to the cores of crystals, and associated with Pcl-II and -III and is relatively rich in Nb (0.53–0.62 apfu) together with more A-site vacancies (0.37–0.71 apfu) compared to Pcl-II to Pcl-IV. Other pyrochlore (Pcl-II to Pcl-IV) are characterised by elevated Ca and Ti compared to Pcl-I, which are related to the (3Nb5+ + Na+ → 3Ti4+ + U4+) and (2Nb5+ → 2Ti4+ + Ca2+) substitutions, respectively. These substitutions represent replacement of Pcl-II to Pcl-IV. Alteration and Ba-enrichment in all the pyrochlore are marked by interaction with an externally-derived Ba-rich hydrothermal fluid following the (2Nb5+ → 2Ti4+ + Ba2+) substitution. This substitution, coupled with extensive metamictisation leads to the formation of Ba-rich (15.9–16.3 wt.% BaO) patchy-zoned Pcl-V. The orbicular mantles around Pcl-I to Pcl-IV have prevented extensive metamictisation and extensive secondary alteration compared to Pcl-V, where mantling is partially disrupted. The compositional and textural variation suggests that Pcl-II to Pcl-IV form by nucleation on Pcl-I, and are transported subsequently as antecrysts in the host albitite.
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major global threat to patient safety. Systematic surveillance is crucial for understanding HAI rates and antimicrobial resistance trends and to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) activities based on local epidemiology. In India, no standardized national HAI surveillance system was in place before 2017. Methods: Public and private hospitals from across 21 states in India were recruited to participate in an HAI surveillance network. Baseline assessments followed by trainings ensured that basic microbiology and IPC implementation capacity existed at all sites. Standardized surveillance protocols for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) were modified from the NHSN for the Indian context. IPC nurses were trained to implement surveillance protocols. Data were reported through a locally developed web portal. Standardized external data quality checks were performed to assure data quality. Results: Between May 2017 and April 2019, 109 ICUs from 37 hospitals (29 public and 8 private) enrolled in the network, of which 33 were teaching hospitals with >500 beds. The network recorded 679,109 patient days, 212,081 central-line days, and 387,092 urinary catheter days. Overall, 4,301 bloodstream infection (BSI) events and 1,402 urinary tract infection (UTI) events were reported. The network CLABSI rate was 9.4 per 1,000 central-line days and the CAUTI rate was 3.4 per 1,000 catheter days. The central-line utilization ratio was 0.31 and the urinary catheter utilization ratio was 0.57. Moreover, 3,542 (73%) of 4,742 pathogens reported from BSIs and 868 (53%) of 1,644 pathogens reported from UTIs were gram negative. Also, 1,680 (26.3%) of all 6,386 pathogens reported were Enterobacteriaceae. Of 1,486 Enterobacteriaceae with complete antibiotic susceptibility testing data reported, 832 (57%) were carbapenem resistant. Of 951 Enterobacteriaceae subjected to colistin broth microdilution testing, 62 (7%) were colistin resistant. The surveillance platform identified 2 separate hospital-level HAI outbreaks; one caused by colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae and another due to Burkholderia cepacia. Phased expansion of surveillance to additional hospitals continues. Conclusions: HAI surveillance was successfully implemented across a national network of diverse hospitals using modified NHSN protocols. Surveillance data are being used to understand HAI burden and trends at the facility and national levels, to inform public policy, and to direct efforts to implement effective hospital IPC activities. This network approach to HAI surveillance may provide lessons to other countries or contexts with limited surveillance capacity.
Background: The multidrug-resistant fungus Candida auris is emerging as a major cause of healthcare-associated infection globally. Understanding the epidemiology of these infections in vulnerable groups such as cancer patients is important for hospital infection control and their effective management. In this report we present diagnostic, clinical, antifungal resistance and outcome data of 11 cases of C. auris infection from an oncology center in India. Methods:C. auris strains were identified by Sanger-based DNA sequencing of the internal transcriber spacer (ITS) gene. Antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) was performed using the broth dilution method. Identification and AFST were checked by the WHO Collaborating Center for Reference & Research on Fungi of Medical Importance. Patients had both empirical as well as directed therapy with antifungal agents based on AFST results and clinical assessment. Results: Between November 2018 and March 2019, 11 cases of C. auris (8 from patients with solid-organ tumors and 3 from hematological malignancy) were detected. Two distinct genetic clusters were identified by ITS gene sequencing; one of these clusters showed 100% homology with a previously unknown C. auris isolate (GenBank accession no. MK881076) and the other cluster had a 100% identity score with isolates from Japan and South Korea (GenBank accession nos. MH071441, KY657027, and EU884189). All 11 strains were resistant to fluconazole. With voriconazole, 1 isolate was susceptible, 3 were resistant, and 7 showed dose-dependent susceptibility. Two isolates were resistant to amphotericin B. Resistance to caspofungin or anidulafungin was noted in 1 of 11 isolates (9%); most showed intermediate susceptibility (63% to caspofungin). Among all of the patients, 72% were from the intensive care unit (ICU) or the high-dependency unit. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 5 of 11 (45%) in the C. auris group and 4 of 11 (36%) the control group (ie, infections with other Candida spp during same period). Duration of ICU stay in the C. auris group was 12 days and in the control group it was 6 days. The median cost (in terms of hospital bill at the time of discharge or death) for management of Candida auris infection and the primary medical condition was US$10,121 for the C. auris groups and US$8,608 for the control group. Most cases (10 of 11) were detected in wards without isolation rooms, and 8 of the 11 C. auris cases (73%) were detected in patients in the intensive care unit. Conclusions: Morbidity, mortality, ICU stay, and healthcare costs are significant in C. auris infection.
A middle-aged gentleman presenting with dyspnoea was presumptively assumed to be a novel coronavirus suspect.
Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were reported negative, and clinico-radiological workup revealed a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the lung with metastases to the contralateral lung and the lumbar vertebrae.
ACC is a rare malignancy of exocrine glands. Most commonly found in the minor salivary glands, they may rarely occur in other sites. Primary ACC of the lung is a rare histologic subtype that is encountered infrequently in clinical practice for which standard guidelines do not exist.
In the present investigation, the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of small cardamom (SC) and yellow mustard (YM) seeds have been investigated for their efficacies in combating type 2 diabetes in streptozotocin-induced Wistar albino rats. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in the rats were monitored on days 8, 15 and 21. On day 15, FBG level reduced appreciably by 31·49 % in rats treated with SC seed extract and by 32·28 % in rats treated with YM seed extract, comparable to metformin (30·70 %) and BGR-34 (a commercial polyherbal drug) (31·81 %) administered rats. Either extract exhibited desirable effects on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and catalase activities in controlling diabetes. A molecular docking exercise was conducted to identify specific compounds in the extracts which possessed augmenting effect on G6PD. The results revealed that all the bioactive compounds in the extracts have binding affinities with the enzyme and contributed to the antidiabetic efficacies of the extracts as G6PD augmenters. The effects of the extracts on insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake were investigated using non-invasive modelling by iHOMA2 software. This in vitro approach indicated that extract administration resulted in increased both insulin sensitivity of the liver and glucose uptake in the gut. The findings of the present study attest these SC-CO2 extracts of the spices as safe alternatives of metformin and BGR-34 in combating type 2 diabetes and could be safely subjected to clinical studies. These extracts could also be employed in designing proactive food supplements in mitigating the metabolic disorder.
Over the past few years antipsychotic medication are increasingly being used for non psychotic illnesses in young people. These have severe side effects and the long term consequences are unknown.
Identify the non psychotic conditions where an antipsychotic medication had been prescribed.
A survey was carried out in a community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service to find the non psychotic conditions where an antipsychotic medication was prescribed and the reason and choice of the medication.
38 young people were identified from the electronic system that did not meet the criteria for a psychotic illness but had at least one DSM IV TR diagnosis of a non psychotic illness where an antipsychotic medication had been prescribed over the previous 6 months. the case notes of these patients were referred to identify;
▪ The reason for prescribing an antipsychotic.
▪ The antipsychotic that has been prescribed.
• Most common non psychotic condition where an antipsychotic was used was Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (25). Other conditions were Autism Spectrum disorder (2), Tourette's Disorder (2), Anxiety Disorder (1) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (1).
• It was mostly used to manage behavioural problems (22).
• Most common medication used was Risperidone (20) followed by Aripiprazole (7) and Haloperidol (3).
Antipsychotic medications are primarily being used to treat behaviour problems in young people who do not have psychotic illness. Further studies required to see if any other non pharmacological intervention may limit its use.
Science and imperialism emerged as dynamic and significant fields of inquiry within the history of science, the history of imperialism, and postcolonial studies in the 1970s. There is now a clear understanding that the work of scientists in and for European colonies was not a marginal aspect of modern Western science but was integral to its development overall, and especially so in the biological and environmental sciences. At the same time, the impact of science in colonial territories has become a key theme in histories of imperialism, the histories of different colonies, histories of the Third World countries, and postcolonial studies, which is a diverse field of cultural analysis that explores new perspectives on the previously dominant historical narratives.
In today's aggressive global market, innovation is key for success and design solutions require not only to achieve competitive edge, but also to address the growing environmental, social, and economic needs of the community at large. Consideration of these three pillars of sustainability makes a design inclusive, and life cycle thinking is found to be a promising approach across the literature. However, most supports for design address certain facets or aid singular tasks, and the use of design methods and tools, which have the potential to significantly improve the design process, is low due to inappropriate use and selection of these methods. InDeaTe (Innovation Design database and Template) is a holistic, knowledge-driven, computer-based tool for design of sustainable systems, such as products, manufacturing systems andservice systems and has been developed to address and integrate the aspects of sustainability on a singular design platform. It comprises of the generic design process Template that imbibes life cycle thinking into the process by incorporating consideration of every life cycle phase in each design stage, where design activities are performed iteratively. It further supports the design process by aiding the use and selection of appropriate design methods and tools in concurrence with the primary motivation of improving sustainability of the system with the aid of the InDeaTe Design Database. This paper discusses the ontological underpinnings behind the conceptualization of the InDeaTe methodology and the development of the supporting tool. The paper further reports empirical findings from six different case studies conducted for evaluating the effectiveness of InDeaTe tool in supporting design for sustainability (DfS). The results show that InDeaTe tool has potential in supporting DfS.
Design is a decision-making process for which knowledge is a prerequisite. Most decisions are taken at the conceptual stage and have pronounced influence on the final design. The literature, therefore, recommends the incorporation of sustainability criteria, such as environment, at this stage. Difficulty in performing life cycle assessment (LCA) due to low availability of information at the conceptual stage for evaluation and highly abstract nature of solutions, inadequate incorporation of DfE (Design for Environment) guidelines and LCA reports into the design process, and a lack of effective communication of the same to the designers for prompt decision-making are major motivations for the development of a support. This paper discusses a “conceptual Tool for environmentally benign design” – concepTe – that supports designers in decision-making during the conceptual design stage, by offering environmental impact (EI) estimates of abstract solutions with associated uncertainty, for evaluation and selection of the most environmentally benign solution as concept. The EI estimates are calculated by a module in the tool based on a proposed EI estimation method, which requires the support of a knowledge base to fetch appropriate LCA information corresponding to the design element being conceptualized. This knowledge base is grounded in the domain-agnostic SAPPhIRE model ontology, allows semantic operability of the knowledge, and offers the results to the designers in a familiar domain language to aid decision-making. A “proof of concept” of the tool is developed for application in design of building in the AEC (Architectural design, Engineering, and Construction) domain. Further, empirical studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the “proof of concept” to support decision-making and results are found favorable. The paper also discusses the future scope for further development of the tool into a holistic design decision-making platform.
Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) was used to diffuse boron into tantalum using plasma initiated from a feedgas mixture containing hydrogen and diborane. The role of substrate temperature and substrate bias in influencing surface chemical structure and hardness was investigated. X-ray diffraction shows that increased temperature results in increased TaB2 formation (relative to TaB) along with increased strain in the tantalum body-centered cubic lattice. Once the strained tantalum becomes locally supersaturated with boron, TaB and TaB2 precipitate. Additional boron remains in a solid solution within the tantalum. The combination of precipitation and solid solution hardening along with boron-induced lattice strain may help explain the 40 GPa average hardness measured by nanoindentation. Application of negative substrate bias did not further increase the hardness, possibly due to etching from increased ion bombardment. These results show that MPCVD is a viable method for synthesis of superhard borides based on plasma-assisted diffusion.
Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous, suppurative and progressive inflammatory disease that usually involves the subcutaneous tissue and bones after traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. In India, actinomycotic mycetoma is prevalent in south India, south-east Rajasthan and Chandigarh, while eumycetoma, which constitutes one third of the total cases, is mainly reported from north India and central Rajasthan. The objective was to determine the epidemiological profile and spectrum of eumycetoma from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, North India. Thirty cases of eumycetoma were diagnosed by conventional methods of direct microscopy, culture and species-specific sequencing as per standard protocol. The spectrum of fungal pathogens included Exophiala jeanselmei, Madurella mycetomatis, Fusarium solani, Sarocladium kiliense, Acremonium blochii, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium incarnatum, Scedosporium apiospermum complex, Curvularia lunata and Medicopsis romeroi. Eumycetoma can be treated with antifungal therapy and needs to be combined with surgery. It has good prognosis if it is timely diagnosed and the correct species identified by culture for targeted therapy of these patients. Black moulds required prolonged therapy. Its low reporting and lack of familiarity may predispose patients to misdiagnosis and consequently delayed treatment. Hence health education and awareness campaign on the national and international level in the mycetoma belt is crucial.
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) display cognitive deficits in acutely depressed and remitted states. Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive dysfunction in adults, but its impact on cognition and treatment related cognitive outcomes in adult MDD has received little consideration. We investigate whether, compared to patients without maltreatment and healthy participants, adult MDD patients with childhood maltreatment display greater cognitive deficits in acute depression, lower treatment-associated cognitive improvements, and lower cognitive performance in remission.
Healthy and acutely depressed MDD participants were enrolled in a multi-center MDD predictive marker discovery trial. MDD participants received 16 weeks of standardized antidepressant treatment. Maltreatment and cognition were assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview and the CNS Vital Signs battery, respectively. Cognitive scores and change from baseline to week 16 were compared amongst MDD participants with (DM+, n = 93) and without maltreatment (DM−, n = 90), and healthy participants with (HM+, n = 22) and without maltreatment (HM−, n = 80). Separate analyses in MDD participants who remitted were conducted.
DM+ had lower baseline global cognition, processing speed, and memory v. HM−, with no significant baseline differences amongst DM−, HM+, and HM− groups. There were no significant between-group differences in cognitive change over 16 weeks. Post-treatment remitted DM+, but not remitted DM−, scored significantly lower than HM− in working memory and processing speed.
Childhood maltreatment was associated with cognitive deficits in depressed and remitted adults with MDD. Maltreatment may be a risk factor for more severe and persistent cognitive deficits in adult MDD.
Melatonin-rich and 1,8-cineole-rich extracts have been successfully obtained from yellow mustard (YM) and small cardamom (SC) seeds, respectively, employing green technology of supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction. Chemical profiling confirmed the presence of melatonin and 1,8-cineole and co-extractants in the respective extracts. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy attested strong antioxidant activities of the extracts foregoing pan-assay interference compounds involved in spectroscopic analysis. These extracts also exhibited synergistic efficacies greater than unity confirming antioxidant synergy among the co-extracted bioactives therein. To ascertain hypocholesterolaemic efficacies, these extracts were co-administered orally with Triton X (at the pre-optimised dose of 175 mg/kg body weight (BW)) to Wistar albino rats at doses of 550, 175 and 55 mg/kg BW. Serum total cholesterol levels in the rats were monitored on days 3, 7, 15 and 21. On day 21, total cholesterol level reduced appreciably by 49·44 % in rats treated with YM seed extract and by 48·95 % in rats treated with SC seed extract, comparable with atorvastatin-administered rats (51·09 %). Either extract demonstrated inhibitory effects on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. A molecular docking exercise identified specific compounds in the extracts which possessed binding affinities comparable with therapeutically used HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. In silico and in vivo studies concertedly concluded that the consortium of bioactive components in the extracts cannot be considered as invalid metabolic panaceas and therefore these ‘green’ extracts could be safely subjected to clinical studies as preventive biotherapeutics for hypercholesterolaemia. These extracts could be consumed per se as hypocholesterolaemic supplements or could be ingredients of new spice-based therapeutic foods.
To assess whether disparities in energy consumption and insufficient energy intake in India have changed over time across socio-economic status (SES).
This cross-sectional, population-based survey study examines the relationship between several SES indicators (i.e. wealth, education, caste, occupation) and energy consumption in India at two time points almost 20 years apart. Household food intake in the last 30 d was assessed in 1993–94 and in 2011–12. Average dietary energy intake per person in the household (e.g. kilocalories) and whether the household consumed less than 80 % of the recommended energy intake (i.e. insufficient energy intake) were calculated. Linear and relative risk regression models were used to estimate the relationship between SES and average energy consumed per day per person and the relative risk of consuming an insufficient amount of energy.
Rural and urban areas across India.
A nationally representative sample of households.
Among rural households, there was a positive association between SES and energy intake across all four SES indicators during both survey years. Similar results were seen for energy insufficiency vis-à-vis recommended energy intake levels. Among urban households, wealth was associated with energy intake and insufficiency at both time points, but there was no educational patterning of energy insufficiency in 2011–12.
Results suggest little overall change in the SES patterning of energy consumption and percentage of households with insufficient energy intake from 1993–94 to 2011–12 in India. Policies in India need to improve energy intake among low-SES households, particularly in rural areas.
In today's highly competitive market, product success is determined by two critical factors - innovation and sustainability. While innovation looks to rampantly satisfy the consumers' ever growing requirements with creative solutions, sustainability attempts to rationalise the precarious demands of desired requirements on economy, society and environment.
InDeaTe - Innovation Design database and Template, a web-based, design process guidance tool, supports design of sustainable systems by incorporating sustainability requirements into the design process. This paper investigates the potential of the tool to improve the usefulness of a design, one of the indicators of the creativity of the solutions, apart from its novelty. Comparative studies are conducted to assess the improvement of ‘requirement-satisfaction’,a proxy measure for usefulness. Upon introduction of the tool into the design process, significant improvements are reported, thereby reflecting the ability of InDeaTe to increase the usefulness of solutions and foster creativity in design.
Endoperoxides kill malaria parasites via cleavage of their endoperoxide bridge by haem or iron, leading to generation of cytotoxic oxygen-centred radicals. In view of the Leishmania parasites having a relatively compromised anti-oxidant defense and high iron content, this study aims to establish the underlying mechanism(s) accounting for the apoptotic-like death of Leishmania promastigotes by artemisinin, an endoperoxide. The formation of reactive oxygen species was confirmed by flow cytometry and was accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial complexes I–III and II–III. However, this did not translate into a generation of mitochondrial superoxide or decrease in oxygen consumption, indicating minimal impairment of the electron transport chain. Artemisinin caused depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane along with a substantial depletion of adenosine triphosphatase (ATP), but it was not accompanied by enhancement of ATP hydrolysis. Collectively, the endoperoxide-mediated radical formation by artemisinin in Leishmania promastigotes was the key step for triggering its antileishmanial activity, leading secondarily to mitochondrial dysfunction indicating that endoperoxides represent a promising therapeutic strategy against Leishmania worthy of pharmacological consideration.