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Crystallization is an extremely important process with extensive industrial applications including, but not limited to, the manufacture of electronics, explosives, fine chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. As such, controlling both crystal shape and crystal structure is vital for the production of high-quality products with desirable properties. However, the processes that govern crystallization, crystal growth, and crystal nucleation are not well understood at present. This is due in part to the limitations of experimental techniques in studying such processes because of the small number of molecules, often tens or hundreds, involved. Furthermore, experimental strategies for identifying and analyzing crystal structures (which may have serious implications in terms of intellectual property rights) and controlling crystal shape are not always successful in yielding the optimal product and often can be costly and time consuming.
Background: There is an emerging evidence base that mindfulness for psychosis is a safe and effective intervention. However, empirical data on the within-session effects of mindfulness meditation was hitherto lacking. Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of taking part in a mindfulness for psychosis group, using a within-session self-report measure of general stress, and symptom-related distress. Method: Users of a secondary mental health service (n = 34), who experienced enduring psychotic symptoms, took part in an 8-week mindfulness for psychosis group in a community setting. Mindfulness meditations were limited to 10 minutes and included explicit reference to psychotic experience arising during the practice. Participants self-rated general stress, and symptom-related distress, before and after each group session using a visual analogue scale. Results: Average ratings of general stress and symptom-related distress decreased from pre- to post-session for all eight sessions, although not all differences were statistically significant. There was no increase in general stress, or symptom-related distress across any session. Conclusions: There was evidence of positive effects and no evidence of any harmful effects arising from people with psychotic symptoms taking part in a mindfulness for psychosis session.
Previous work (Blanchard et al, 1995) has suggested that the feeding of a high energy/low protein diet to finishing pigs produces pork of a superior eating quality compared to animals fed conventional energy and protein diets. It has been demonstrated in recent studies (Blanchard et al, 1995) that pork eating quality, particularly tenderness, can be influenced by a change of diet imposed at two weeks prior to slaughter. It has also been suggested (Warkup and Kempster, 1991) that both growth rate and fatness are positively correlated to pork eating quality and that proteolytic enzymes are involved in determining eating quality (Blanchard 1994). The objective of this study was therefore to test these various hypothesis.
Two diets were evaluated: CEP diet (DE 14.0 MJ/kg, Protein 200 g/kg, Lysine 10.0 g/kg) and HELP diet (DE 15.0 MJ/kg, Protein 160 g/kg, Lysine 7.0 g/kg). Treatment 1 animals (n=26) received CEP fed ad libitum 45 kg to 90 kg Iwt. Treatment 2 animals (n=23) received HELP fed ad libitum 45 kg to 90 kg lwt. Treatment 3 animals (n=23) received CEP diet until 14 days prior to slaughter following which they received HELP diet fed ad libitum. A range of carcass and meat quality characteristics were recorded. Grilled loin steaks from each animal were evaluated for eating quality characteristics by trained sensory panel and rated on a scale of 1-8 (increasing with intensity). Activity levels of calpain and calpastatin were measured in samples of LD muscle remove from each carcass 45 minutes after slaughter.
People with psychotic disorders account for most acute admissions to psychiatric wards. Psychological therapies are a treatment adjunct to standard medication and nursing care, but the evidence base for such therapies within in-patient settings is unclear.
To conduct a systematic scoping review of the current evidence base for psychological therapies for psychosis delivered within acute in-patient settings (PROSPERO: CRD42015025623).
All study designs, and therapy models, were eligible for inclusion in the review. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, EThOS, ProQuest, conference abstracts and trial registries.
We found 65 studies that met criteria for inclusion in the review, 21 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The majority of studies evaluated cognitive–behavioural interventions. Quality was variable across all study types. The RCTs were mostly small (n<25 in the treatment arm), and many had methodological limitations including poorly described randomisation methods, inadequate allocation concealment and non-masked outcome assessments. We found studies used a wide range of different outcome measures, and relatively few studies reported affective symptoms or recovery-based outcomes. Many studies described adaptations to treatment delivery within in-patient settings, including increased frequency of sessions, briefer interventions and use of single-session formats.
Based on these findings, there is a clear need to improve methodological rigour within in-patient research. Interpretation of the current evidence base is challenging given the wide range of different therapies, outcome measures and models of delivery described in the literature.