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Phase change materials (PCMs) are getting increasing interest due to their capacity to absorb, store and release heat energy. Their effectiveness is characterized by quantities of absorbed/released heat energy, expressed as enthalpy. Specifically, the larger is the enthalpy, the more efficient thermoregulation effect is achieved. With this in mind, PCMs can be used in the manufacture of thermally regulated clothing in order to minimize heat strain and simultaneously improve thermal comfort. Moreover, such materials also modify their infrared radiation emission during phase transition, thus they can be envisioned to exploit thermal shielding applications. The aim of the present research was to investigate the infrared emissivity of textiles composed by cotton yarns with dispersed PCMs. The organic microcapsules of phase change materials, having different binding to the fibre mechanisms, were padded onto the fabric surface by pad-dry-cure method. The thermal properties and stabilities were measured using differential scanning calorimetry, while infrared emissivity was characterized using infrared thermographic technique. The obtained experimental results show a dynamic tuning of IR emissivity during heating/cooling process which can be correlated to the type and properties (enthalpy of fusion) of the corresponding PCM.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
The nearby radio galaxy M87 offers a unique opportunity for exploring the connection between γ-ray production and jet formation at an unprecedented linear resolution. However, the origin and location of the γ-rays in this source is still elusive. Based on previous radio/TeV correlation events, the unresolved jet base (radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1 at >120 pc from the nucleus are proposed as candidate site(s) of γ-ray production. Here we report our intensive, high-resolution radio monitoring observations of the M87 jet with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at TeV with VERITAS. We detected a remarkable flux increase in the radio core with VERA at 22/43 GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, HST-1 remained quiescent in terms of its flux density and structure at radio. These results strongly suggest that the TeV γ-ray activity in 2012 originates in the jet base within 0.03 pc (projected) from the central supermassive black hole.
This article analyzes a rich Swedish data set with information on the electoral turnout of a large sample of adoptees, their siblings, their adoptive parents, and their biological parents. We use a simple regression framework to decompose the parent-child resemblance in voting into pre-birth factors, measured by biological parents’ voting, and post-birth factors, measured by adoptive parents’ voting. Adoptees are more likely to vote if their biological parents were voters and if they were assigned to families in which the adoptive parents vote. We find evidence of interactions between the pre- and post-birth factors: the effect of the post-birth environment on turnout is greater amongst adoptees whose biological mothers are nonvoters. We also show that the relationships between parental characteristics, such as education, and child turnout, persist even in the absence of a genetic link between parent and child. The regression-based framework we utilize provides a basis for the integration of behavior-genetic research into mainstream political science.
One of the most intriguing open questions of today's astrophysics is the jet physical properties and the location and the mechanisms for the production of MeV, GeV, and TeV gamma-rays in AGN jets. M87 is a privileged laboratory for a detailed study of the properties of jets, owing to its proximity, its massive black hole, and its conspicuous emission at radio wavelengths and above. We started on November 2009 a monitoring program with the e-EVN at 5 GHz. We present here results of these multi-epoch observations and discuss the two episodes of activity at energy E>100 GeV that occured in this period. One of these observations was obtained at the same day of the first high energy flare. We added to our results literature data obtained with the VLBI and VLA. A clear change in the proper motion velocity of HST-1 is present at the epoch ~2005.5. In the time range 1998 – 2005.5 the apparent velocity is subluminal, and superluminal (~2.7c) after 2005.5.
La portion bleue (400–500 nm) du rayonnement visible stimule spécifiquement certains cônes et bâtonnets de la rétine. L’énergie véhiculée par ces longueurs d’onde est transférée par absorption aux pigments spécifiques. Cette énergie est suffisante pour produire des radicaux libres et de l’oxygène singulet. Des sources intenses riches en rayonnement bleu peuvent induire au niveau de la rétine des lésions soit limitées et passagères phototoxiques, soit pour de plus fortes énergies, des lésions thermiques plus ou moins définitives. Les lésions phototoxiques, par leur répétition pourraient faire le lit de la dégénérescence maculaire liée à l’âge (DMLA). Dès lors, il convient d’attirer l’attention sur les risques potentiellement liés aux éclairages modernes tels que lampes dites « lumière du jour », les lampes compactes fluorescentes économisant l’énergie (CFLs) et les diodes émettrices de lumière (LEDs) pour lesquelles une vigilance spécifique s’impose.
Le rayonnement ultraviolet est responsable d’un large impact sur les structures biologiques. C’est un carcinogène bien documenté. Alors qu’un certain nombre d’effets positifs peut être associé à ce rayonnement, les surexpositions induisent des effets aigus et chroniques sur la peau, les yeux et le système immunitaire. Les effets négatifs associés aux expositions peuvent être largement évités. Réduire les expositions au rayonnement UV par des modifications du comportement et de l’environnement constitue le but principal des mesures préventives. Longtemps considéré comme « innocent », le rayonnement UVA possède des propriétés mutagènes et carcinogènes qui sont aujourd'hui bien documentées et leurs mécanismes de production semblent aujourd'hui élucidés et en particulier la photochimie des UVA solaires dans la peau. Aujourd'hui, les mécanismes de la photocarcinogenèse induite par les UVA ou par les UVB paraissent identiques, leur importance étant égale dans le rayonnement solaire. Les efforts de prévention doivent s’adresser en priorité aux enfants mais également dans le cadre du travail, en particulier en extérieur. Des guides pratiques sont fournis par l’OMS pour aider les autorités sanitaires dans la mise en application d’une politique de prévention afin de réduire les risques associés au rayonnement ultraviolet.
Environment-friendly farming techniques seek to increase invertebrate biodiversity in part with the intention of encouraging greater numbers of predators that will help to control crop pests. However, in theory, this effect may be negated if the availability of a greater abundance and diversity of alternative prey diverts predators away from feeding on pests. The hypothesis that access to alternative prey can lead to reduced pest suppression under semi-field conditions was tested. Alternative prey type and diversity were manipulated in 70 mesocosms over 7+ weeks in the presence of the carabid Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), a known predator of slugs, and reproducing populations of the slug Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Significantly fewer slugs survived where no alternative prey were provided. Maximum slug numbers and biomass were found in treatments containing either carabids plus a high diversity of alternative prey (many species of earthworm and three of Diptera larvae) or a single additional prey (blowfly larvae, Calliphora vomitoria Linnaeus). In these treatments slug numbers and biomass were as high as in plots lacking predators. The effects of alternative prey were taxon-specific. Alternative prey strongly affected carabid fitness in terms of biomass and egg load. The fittest predators (those with access to high alternative prey diversity or C. vomitoria larvae) reduced slug numbers the least. The mean individual slug weights were greater in treatments with alternative prey than where no alternative prey were provided to the carabids. These results suggest that pests may survive and reproduce more rapidly in patches where predators have access to alternative prey.
Human rights are the focus of research and teaching in multiple fields including law, philosophy, political science, sociology, anthropology, economics, psychology, history, literature and public health. Human rights are also the focus of advocacy and on-the-ground investigation by activists affiliated with nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), labour unions and social movements. Scholars interested in rights-based issues thus often face a dual challenge: that of crossing disciplinary boundaries in order to explore human rights questions, and that of bridging the academic-practitioner divide.
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