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Fast rotation in massive stars is predicted to induce mixing in their interior, but a population of fast-rotating stars with normal nitrogen abundances at their surface has recently been revealed (Hunter et al.2009; Brott et al.2011, but see Maeder et al.2014). However, as the binary fraction of these stars is unknown, no definitive statements about the ability of single-star evolutionary models including rotation to reproduce these observations can be made. Our work combines for the first time a detailed surface abundance analysis with a radial-velocity monitoring for a sample of bright, fast-rotating Galactic OB stars to put strong constraints on stellar evolutionary and interior models.
Networks of protected areas are one of the main strategies used to address the biodiversity crisis. These should encompass as many species and ecosystems as possible, particularly in territories with high biological diversity, such as the Spanish arid zones. We produce a priority ranking of the arid zones of south-east Spain according to the rarity and richness of their characteristic flora and the level of endangerment. The resulting hierarchy shows that optimal zones for the preservation of the flora are located outside the network of protected areas. In particular, it is important to extend the network and encourage the creation of microreserves in the depression of the River Guadiana Menor (Granada), where there is least protection. This river valley is a particularly important arid site because of its unique flora and fauna, and palaeontological and archaeological findings.
Cyg OB2 #5, #8A, and #9 are binary or multiple massive stars in the Cyg OB2 association displaying several peculiarities, such as bright X-ray emission and non-thermal radio emission. Our X-ray monitoring of these stars reveals the details of their behaviours at high energies, which can be directly linked to wind-wind collisions (WWCs). In addition, the X-ray emission of Cyg OB2 #12, an evolved massive star, shows a long-term decrease, which could hint at the presence of a companion (with associated colliding winds) or indicate the return to quiescence of the star following a recent eruption.
Some biological parameters of Jenyns' sprat Ramnogaster arcuata in Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina, were evaluated during a survey conducted on a monthly basis between September 2005 and August 2006. Jenyns' sprat specimens were observed in the estuary all through the year. Total length (TL; N = 721) ranged from 33 to 131 mm. No significant differences between the length–weight relationships of males and females were detected (P > 0.10). Positive allometric growth was observed in juveniles, males, females and sexes combined. Whole otolith analysis revealed four age groups (0–3), 1-year age being the most abundant. Gompertz growth parameters were L∞: 102.75 mm, k = 0.46 and t0 = 0.98 for males (r = 0.80), and L∞: 125.45 mm, k = 0.33 and t0 = 0.68 for females (r = 0.76). Males and females reached 50% sexual maturity (TL50) at 76 and 77 mm TL (age 1 year), respectively, and all individuals were sexually mature at a 110 mm-length at the age of 3 years. Macroscopic gonad inspection, gonadosomatic index and the high percentage of fish of the smallest size-class captured during spring and summer samplings indicate that the spawning season began in spring. Taken together, our results indicate that the biology of R. arcuata is fairly consistent with the biology of other temperate clupeoids.
To compare the effectiveness for prevention of central venous and arterial catheter colonization of 3 skin antisepsis with 1 of 3 antiseptic solutions: 10% aqueous povidone iodine (aqueous PI), 2% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate (aqueous CG), and 0.5% alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate (alcoholic CG).
Prospective, randomized controlled trial.
Intensive care unit in a teaching hospital.
Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 skin antisepsis groups. The distal tips of catheters were semiquantitatively cultured when the catheters were no longer necessary or if there was a suspicion of catheter-related infection. Rates of catheter colonization, catheter-related sepsis, and catheter-related bacteremia were compared among the 3 groups.
A total of 631 catheters were included in the study (194 from the aqueous PI group, 211 from the aqueous CG group, and 226 from the alcoholic CG group). The incidence of catheter colonization was significantly lower in the alcoholic CG than in the aqueous PI group (14.2% vs 24.7%; relative risk, 0.5 [95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.8; P < .01]); it was also significantly lower in the aqueous CG group than in the aqueous PI group (16.1 % vs 24.7%; relative risk, 0.6 [95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.9; P = .03]). There were no significant differences between the aqueous CG and the alcoholic CG groups. Incidences of catheter-related bacteremia were similar for all 3 groups. The aqueous and alcoholic CG solutions were superior to the aqueous PI solution in preventing catheter colonization due to gram-positive bacteria.
The aqueous and alcoholic CG solutions for cutaneous antisepsis were similarly effective in preventing colonization of central venous catheters and arterial catheters. Both had significantly lower incidences of colonization than did the aqueous PI solution; this effect seems to be related to the CG solutions' more efficacious prevention of colonization with gram-positive bacteria.
Ontogenetic and seasonal diet changes of the juveniles of the marine fish Micropogonias furnieri, a species inhabiting Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina), were investigated. Two size-related dietary shifts, at 4·00 cm and 7·00 cm total length (LT), respectively, were found. Small juveniles (1·00–3·99 cm LT) ate mostly chaetognaths (Sagitta friderici); medium-sized juveniles (4·00–6·99 cm LT) fed intensively on mysid shrimps (mainly Neomysis americana) and polychaetes, whereas large juveniles (7·00–15·99 cm LT) fed almost exclusively on epibenthic crustaceans (primarily Peisos petrunkevitchi). Increased mouth gape was related to increased size spectrum and mean size of the most important prey items consumed by M. furnieri. Juveniles <510 cm LT ate prey items almost as large as their mouth opening, whereas juveniles >410 cm LT were capable of consuming larger prey items than those found in their stomachs, indicating that the maximum size of prey eaten was not constrained by mouth gape. Seasonal and selectivity dietary analyses showed that M. furnieri can be a highly opportunistic selective feeder. Juveniles relied on S. friderici and P. petrunkevitchi throughout the year, except in summer, when mysids abundance increased in the estuary. Electivity values also showed that prey size and prey relative abundance are important factors in prey selection mechanisms.
White matter alterations in chromosomal disorders have been reported mainly in 18q–syndrome. Our aim was to evaluate white matter alterations in patients with chromosomal abnormalities detected through conventional cytogenetic techniques. Forty-four patients with chromosomal abnormalities, excluding trisomy 21, were diagnosed in our hospital between May 1999 and December 2002 (24 males, 20 females; mean age 6 years 4 months [SD 3 years 2 months], range 0 to 18 years). Of the 44 patients, 14 had brain magnetic resonance imaging (12 males, 2 females; mean age 4 years 2 months [SD 4 years 4 months]; five with sex chromosomal disorders [SCD] and nine with autosomal chromosomal disorders [ACD]). Of these 14 patients, eight (four with SCD and four with ACD) had abnormal white matter findings of similar patterns. These patients had pseudonodular, subcortical, and periventricular white matter high signal intensity images in T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences that were isolated or confluent. The images did not correlate with the neurological clinical state. Given that eight of the 14 patients showed these lesions, their prevalence in different chromosomal abnormalities appears to be high, even though they have not been well reported in the literature. To our knowledge, these alterations have never been described in SCD. We concluded that unknown factors related to the myelination processes may be localized in different chromosomes.
We evaluated the possibilities of exploitation of several mycoparasitic fungi in the biocontrol of cucurbit powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fusca) in melon greenhouses. To simplify the screening, an in vitro biological control test on detached leaves of melon has been used and a detailed microscopic analysis of the interactions between mycoparasites and S. fusca conducted. In this context, the effect of mycoparasitic fungi on the formation of infection structures of S. fusca such as haustoria, conidia and conidiospores has been quantified. On the basis of the microscopic data, effect of mycoparasites on severity and incidence of cucurbit powdery mildew has been discussed. Our results show that, under controlled environmental conditions, Acremonium alternatum, Ampelomyces quisqualis and especially Lecanicillium lecanii, when applied in early stages of infection, were able to significantly reduce cucurbit powdery mildew symptoms and S. fusca development on melon leaves. These results indicate that these mycoparasites are promising candidates for the biocontrol of cucurbit powdery mildew in melon greenhouses.
We studied the effects of an external acute 10 min application of cytoskeletal interfering agents on cardiac L-type calcium current (ICa,L). We found that colchicine, taxol and cytochalasin D had no direct effect on the L-type calcium channel as indicated by the absence of effect on voltage-dependent parameters. Phalloidin induced a shift in the I-V curve which renders it difficult to use in excitation-contraction coupling studies. Microfilaments of actin did not seem to regulate cardiac ICa,L as indicated by the lack of effect of cytochalasin D on ICa,L amplitude and inactivation kinetics. On the contrary, microtubules seem to be involved in the calcium-dependent inactivation of ICa,L. This involvement might be direct, i.e. a physical link between the microtubules and some part of the channel protein, or it could be indirect, i.e. the calcium chelating properties and physical obstacle of microtubules in the space between the sarcolemma and the SR.
Several psychiatric diseases are considered to be neuro-developmental disorders. Amongst these are schizophrenia and autism, in which genetic and environmental components have been indicated. In these disorders intrinsic molecular mechanisms of brain development may be deranged due to genetic predispositions, or modified by external influences. Brain development is a delicate process of well-tuned cellular proliferation and differentiation of multipotent neural progenitor cells driven by spatiotemporal cues. One of the fundamental mechanisms is the interaction between external signals, e.g. growth factors, and internal regulators, e.g. transcription factors. An important transmitter system involved in behavioural and affective functions relevant for psychiatric disorders is the mesencephalic dopamine (DA) system. The mesencephalic DA system is organized in two anatomically and functionally different systems. DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area project to the mesolimbic system and are mostly related to control of behaviour. It has been implicated in drug addiction and affective disorders like dipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The dopamine system of the substantia nigra (nigro-striatal pathway) is implicated in movement control. Degeneration of this system, as in Parkinson's disease, or altered function in tardive dyskinesia have highlighted its importance in human disease. Recent findings in molecular neurobiology have provided the first clues to molecular mechanisms involved in developing and mature DA neurons. These may have clinical implications in novel therapeutic strategies.
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