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In certain contingencies, traumatic events intervene in breaking the continuity of the life of social communities or whole societies. Such events include natural catastrophes but also wars or revolutions. This article looks in particular at recollections of the Second World War.
The EPDS (Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale) is a scale widely used for postpartum depression screening. Its application has been made usually in face to face situation. Because of problems that may hamper the contact with patients, alternative strategies for its application have been used, such as telephone contact. This study aims to establish the cutoff point of EPDS which provides the best sensitivity and specificity rates for telephone use.
It is a cross-sectional study, using data collected from a cohort of women followed in the third trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. EPDS was applied by telephone on 176 women, of whom 147 were interviewed face to face. The SCID (Strutured Clinical Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV) data were correlated with the EPDS data, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated using ROC-curve.
The diagnosis of major depressive episode was confirmed by the SCID in 77 participants. For EPDS values ≥ 10 the sensitivity rate was of 70.1%, specificity of 74.3%, positive predictive value of 75.0% and negative predictive value of 69.3%. With a EPDS cutoff point ≥ 12, sensitivity was 55.8%, specificity was 84.3% and positive predictive value was 79.6%.
The cutoff point of 10 was more appropriate than the cutoff point of 12 when using EPDS by telephone, as a measure of population screening for postpartum depression.
By the 1990s, India’s appellate courts had become closely involved in the regulation of street vending in several metropolitan cities. However, despite the frequent use of legal mechanisms by street vendor collectives, there has been little progress towards “formalization” of the street vending economy. To understand the limited impacts of legal intervention, it is necessary to examine the timing and the circumstances under which street vendor collectives first turned to judicial forums for protecting their livelihoods. Based on a historical examination of street vendor politics in Bombay and Madras, I show that legal mobilization in both instances was a response to serious threats faced by the political regimes that had previously shielded street vendors from dispossession and exploitation, rather than being a direct result of new legal opportunities (such as the emergence of public interest litigation). Since organized street vendors had a strong preference for maintaining the status quo, litigation was used as an effective method for buying time in the face of a hostile or uncertain political environment, even when the ultimate verdict was not likely to favor street vendors.
Canine parvovirosis is a very contagious, severe and often lethal infectious disease of dogs caused by canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). Parvoviruses are very resistant to several disinfectants while are sensitive to halogens such as sodium hypochlorite which is often used for decontamination of veterinary clinics and animal housing facilities due to its broad spectrum of activity. If compliance with vaccination programmes and with proper disinfection plans is ensured, there should be no continuous, nor frequent, CPV-2 outbreaks in kennels and veterinary clinics. However, a continuous spread of CPV-2 infections is observed, even in kennels where an appropriate vaccination programme is applied, and this imposes a re-evaluation of disinfection protocols using sodium hypochlorite. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of concentration, contact time and presence of organic matter on the virucidal activity of sodium hypochlorite against several CPV-2 strains. A sensitive in vitro assay capable of measuring the infectivity of CPV-2 was employed to determine the efficacy of three different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite. The data indicate that using a 0.75% sodium hypochlorite solution for a short contact time (1 min) can reduce significantly the CPV-2 titres and that even lower concentrations, i.e. 0.37%, can efficiently inactivate the viruses provided that the contact time is extended to 15 min. Results also confirm the importance of cleaning before disinfection since the presence of organic matter totally abrogated the virucidal activity of sodium hypochlorite solutions against the three CPV-2 strains.
Many clinicians are reluctant to use traditional mood-stabilizing agents, especially lithium, in children and adolescents. This review examined the evidence for lithium’s safety and efficacy in this population.
A systematic review was conducted on the use of lithium in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD). Relevant papers published through June 30th 2018 were identified searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library.
30 articles met inclusion criteria, including 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Findings from RCTs demonstrate efficacy for acute mania in up to 50% of patients, and evidence of long-term maintenance efficacy. Lithium was generally safe, at least in the short term, with most common side effects being gastrointestinal, polyuria, or headache. Only a minority of patients experienced hypothyroidism. No cases of acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease were reported.
Though the available literature is mostly short-term, there is evidence that lithium monotherapy is reasonably safe and effective in children and adolescents, specifically for acute mania and for prevention of mood episodes.
To identify ingredients from products and by-products derived from GM crops in packaged food products and to analyse the presence of these ingredients in the foods most commonly consumed by the Brazilian population.
A search of the scientific literature to identify the use of products and by-products derived from GM crops in foods in Brazil and a study of food labels in a supermarket belonging to one of the ten largest supermarket chains in Brazil.
To identify the ingredients present in packaged food products and their nomenclatures, the labels of all packaged food products available for sale in a supermarket were analysed. Subsequently, the presence of potential GM ingredients in the foods most commonly consumed by the Brazilian population was analysed.
A total of twenty-eight GM crops’ by-products with applications in the food industry (from soyabeans, corn, cotton and a yeast) were identified. Such by-products are presented as food ingredients or additives on food labels with 101 distinct nomenclatures. Most of the variety (63·8 %) and the quantity (64·5 %) of the foods most commonly consumed by Brazilians may contain a least one GM ingredient.
The presence of at least one potential GM ingredient was observed in more than half of the variety of foods most commonly consumed by the Brazilian population. Such ingredients were identified with distinct nomenclatures and incomplete descriptions, which may make it difficult to identify potential GM foods and confuse consumers when making food choices.
We present the concept of a novel facility dedicated to massively-multiplexed spectroscopy. The telescope has a very wide field Cassegrain focus optimised for fibre feeding. With a Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 degrees diameter and a 11.4m pupil, it will be the largest etendue telescope. The large focal plane can easily host up to 16.000 fibres. In addition, a gravity invariant focus for the central 10 arc-minutes is available to host a giant integral field unit (IFU). The 3 lenses corrector includes an ADC, and has good performance in the 360-1300 nm wavelength range. The top level science requirements were developed by a dedicated ESO working group, and one of the primary cases is high resolution spectroscopy of GAIA stars and, in general, how our Galaxy formed and evolves. The facility will therefore be equipped with both, high and low resolution spectrographs. We stress the importance of developing the telescope and instrument designs simultaneously. The most relevant R&D aspect is also briefly discussed.
Many fibre sources can help the adaptation of piglets at weaning, improving the growth. In this study, the effects of a dietary crude fibre concentrate (CFC) on piglet’s growth was investigated. From 31 to 51 days of age, 108 weaned piglets (D×(Lw×L)), had access to two isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets, supplemented with 1% of CFC (CFC group) or not (control (CON) group). From days 52 to 64 all piglets received the same starter diet. During the dietary treatment period the CFC group showed higher average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed efficiency (P<0.001) than CON group. At 64 days of age, BW was higher in CFC group compared with CON group (P<0.001). Blood samples were collected at days 31, 38, 45 and 52 of age. From days 31 to 52 significant differences in the somatotropic axis between groups were observed. In particular, growth hormone levels were higher only at the end of the 1st week of dietary treatment (P<0.05) in CFC group animals compared with CON group animals. The IGF-I trend was similar between groups even if the IGF-I levels were higher in the CFC group than CON group 1 week after starting treatment (P<0.01). The IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were higher in the first 2 weeks of dietary treatment and lower in the 3rd week in CON group compared with CFC group (P<0.01). Specifically, the IGFBP-3 profile was consistent with that of IGF-I in CFC group but not in CON group. At the same time, an increase of leptin in CFC compared with CON group was observed (P<0.05). Piglets fed the CFC diet showed a lower diarrhoea incidence (P<0.05) and a lower number of antibiotic interventions (P<0.05) than CON diet from 31 to 51 days of age. Pig-major acute-phase protein plasma level (P<0.01) and interleukin-6 gene expression (P<0.05) were higher in CON group than CFC group at the end of 1st week of dietary treatment. In conclusion, this study showed that CFC diet influences the hormones related to energy balance enhancing the welfare and growth of piglets. Furthermore, the increase in feed intake during 3 weeks of dietary treatment improved the feed efficiency over the entire post-weaning period.
Nutritional stressors may cause negative effects on animal health and growth and lead to significant economic impact. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ producing, mediators and hormones, called adipokines. They play a dynamic role in body homeostasis and in the regulation of energy expenditure, interacting with feeding behavior, hormones and growth factors. This in vitro study aimed to investigate how nutritional conditions and growth hormone (GH) can influence nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression and secretion of three important adipokines, that is leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), by swine adipocytes. In our experimental model, mesenchymal stem cells from omental adipose tissue were induced to adipogenic differentiation. After differentiation, adipocytes were incubated for 24 h (T0) with DMEM/Ham’s F12 (group A) or DMEM/Ham’s F12 salts (group B), a DMEM/Ham’s F12 formulation deprived of nutritional components. Primary adipocyte cells were also co-cultured for 4 h (T+4) or 12 h (T+12) with or without anterior pituitary slices. To stimulate GH secretion by pituitary cells, growth hormone releasing hormone at 10−8 M was added at the start of the incubation times (4 or 12 h). At T0, T+4 and T+12, NO production, leptin, IL-6 and TNF-α expression and secretion were measured. NO increased (P<0.05) up to twofold in restricted culture conditions. Deprived medium and coincubation with anterior pituitary positively influenced leptin secretion and expression. TNF-α was expressed and secreted only in deprived culture condition groups (B, B1 and B2). Nutrients availability and pituitary co-culture did not affect IL-6 expression and secretion. Our study shows an endocrine function for porcine adipocytes. In our model, adipocytes readily responded to nutritional inputs by secretion of molecules affecting energy balance. This secretion capacity was modulated by GH. Improving our knowledge of the role of adipocyte in the endocrine system, may lead to a more complete understanding of regulating energy balance in swine.
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause extra intestinal disease in chickens, turkeys, and other avian species via respiratory tract infection, giving rise to typical signs related to colibacillosis, such as: septicaemia, enteritis, granulomas, omphalitis, sinusitis, airsacculitis, arthritis/synovitis, peritonitis, pericarditis, perihepatitis, cellulitis, and swollen head syndrome. Disease caused by APEC strains results in significant financial losses to the poultry industry worldwide. This review provides essential information on the diagnosis of APEC. The information cited in this review will elucidate the various forms of APEC diagnosis while demonstrating the, lack of a precise diagnosis of this strain. The diagnoses mentioned herein reinforce the necessity to make progress toward a more accurate diagnosis of APEC to contribute to its reduction in poultry flocks.
Five major themes are often addressed in the discourse of mobility in science: the definition and classification of the persons in mind (scholars, academics, researchers, etc); the frequency and the configuration of mobility; the roles mobility and migration play for the individuals; the roles they play for institutions (universities, research institutes, enterprises, etc); and finally the relevance of mobility and migration for the overall international activities within higher education and research in a ‘globalized world’. This article summarizes the concepts and findings presented as regards these themes in all of the articles in this special issue of European Review. The discourse both on concepts and findings suggests that mobility and migration are often viewed in isolation rather than in a wider context of features of internationalization. Moreover, attention often focuses on mobility and migration at the apex of the prestige and quality pyramid, notably in the countries most strongly involved; differences by country, sector and position in the reputational hierarchy would be viewed as more relevant if European policies aimed at a balance between market developments and cohesion across Europe and for keeping inequalities between European countries within limits.
The mechanism of action of leptin in pregnant breeding sows, in which hyperphagia is managed through dietary strategies, is yet to be clarified. The aim of this study was to monitor leptin concentrations and their interactions with lactogenic hormones in Large White×Landrace breeding multiparous sows (n=15). All sows showed a normal body condition (mean body condition score: 2.96). Blood samples were collected the day after weaning the litters, at insemination, every 15 days up to day 45 of pregnancy and every 7 days from day 46 to farrowing. At delivery, the placenta was collected for the analysis of leptin and leptin receptor expressions. Plasma leptin levels increased from the end of mid gestation (day 72) and remained high until farrowing (P<0.05). As expected, plasma prolactin (PRL), low during most of pregnancy, increased during the 2 weeks before farrowing (P<0.05), whereas progesterone levels reached plateau at 30 days of gestation and decreased at farrowing (P<0.05). Cortisol levels peaked close to farrowing (P<0.05). Leptin was expressed in the placenta, where the receptor expression analysis showed the presence of the short form but not of the long form. A positive correlation was found between leptin and PRL concentrations during mid (r=0.430; P<0.001) and late (r=0.687; P<0.001) pregnancy, and with progesterone in early pregnancy (r=0.462; P<0.05). During late gestation, a positive correlation was observed between leptin and cortisol (r=0.585; P<0.001). Our results suggested that, in restrictively fed pregnant sows, the leptin levels increased from the end of mid pregnancy to delivery, confirming the presence of leptin resistance. We showed a correlation between leptin and lactogenic hormones during different stages of pregnancy in sows. Lactogenic hormones show pregnancy-specific changes in their secretion and all may become involved in modulating leptin signal.
Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)-based ceramics represent a valuable alternative to single crystals as active media in laser devices for specific applications. In this connection, the 1.5–1.65 µm emission channel of Er3+-doped YAG is of particular importance for the realization of diode pumped solid state lasers operating in the so-called ‘eye-safe’ region. A well-known drawback of this material is related to its small absorption cross section in correspondence to the diode pumping radiation at 940–980 nm. However, its emission performance can be significantly improved through sensitization with Yb3+ ions that can efficiently absorb the excitation radiation and transfer it to the Er3+ ions. This work deals with the fabrication of polycrystalline YAG co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+ ions from oxide powders via solid state sintering in high vacuum conditions and its microstructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy–energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to determine the dopants distribution and to assess their influence on the sintering process and on the spectroscopic properties. For this purpose, the absorption and emission spectra of the prepared material have been measured and compared with those of a single crystal having the same composition, appositely prepared by the micro-pulling down method. Suitable calculations have been finally carried out to verify the effective perspectives of application of the investigated ceramics as active lasing medium.
This paper discusses the reasons why Italian young people today are not in a position to develop a memory of their own regarding the fascist regime of the recent past. Neither families, nor schools and media, could transmit experiences and provide learning opportunities that enables young men and women to construct an adequate image of that period of their historical heritage. Fascism has become the object of a process of collective removal.
The effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation from 9 days of age until the end of post-weaning on piglets hormonal and immune responses and on growth performance were investigated. During lactation (days 9 to 21) and post-weaning (days 22 to 55) 10 [HBI Fomeva11 × (Large White × Landrace)] litters (n = 108 piglets) had ad libitum access to two standard diets, both supplemented with 0% (T0 group) or 0.1% (T1 group) of yeast extract nucleotides. BW of piglets at days 21 (P < 0.10), 35 and 55 (P < 0.05) was greater in T1 compared with T0. Feed intake was not different between groups (P > 0.05). Cortisol content was lower in T1 than in T0 at days 28 and 35 (P < 0.05), whereas growth hormone was lower at day 35 (P < 0.05). Levels of IGF-1 were similar across groups (P > 0.05). Nucleotide-supplemented diets increased lymphocyte subpopulation CD4−CD8+high at days 21 and 35 (P < 0.05), whereas CD4+CD8− cells were higher in T1 than in T0 at day 21 (P < 0.05). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells cytokine expression was influenced by dietary nucleotide supplementation. At weaning, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β expression was lower (P < 0.05) in T1 compared with T0, whereas the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10 was higher (P < 0.05). At day 28, piglets in T1 showed higher values of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression than T0 and lower values of IL-10 expression (P < 0.05). Dietary nucleotide supplementation had a suppressive effect on IL-6 and IL-10 expression (P < 0.05) at day 35. On the contrary, the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β was enhanced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that starting a dietary nucleotide supplementation before weaning can improve the adaptive capabilities of weaned piglets to the stressors, enhancing the growth performance.
Airway compromise due to paediatric intubation injuries is well documented; however, intubation injuries may also cause severe voice disorders. We report our experience and review the world literature on the voice effects of traumatic paediatric intubation.
We report five cases of children referred to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children who suffered traumatic avulsion of the vocal fold at the time of, or secondary to, endotracheal intubation. All children had significant dysphonia and underwent specialist voice therapy.
The mechanisms of injury, risk factors and management of the condition are discussed. Children suffering traumatic intubation require follow up throughout childhood and beyond puberty as their vocal needs and abilities change. At the time of writing, none of the reported patients had yet undergone reconstructive or medialisation surgery. However, regular specialist voice therapy evaluation is recommended for such patients, with consideration of phonosurgical techniques including injection laryngoplasty or thyroplasty.